Who harboured this view? In my opinion it’s a fallacy, whose existence is of potential detriment to theUK, and other developed countries. In this article I shall discuss how this term came to be, and the bearing that it may have on the future development, both socially and economically of theUK. Arguably, the times of greatest change in post-war Britain were the Thatcher years. I am not of the opinion that all of Thatcher’s policies were positive, but nonetheless, prior to Thatcher’s ascension the country was in economic dire straits. There were lumbering old dinosaurs of industry, which gobbled up state subsidies, and showed little, if any, appetite for change. After the episodes of wide spread privatisation, which have been well docu- mented elsewhere, theUK fell in to the seeming ignominy of the 90’s where the country quietly rebuilt itself under the auspices of a Labour government. Defining changes intheeconomy took place, where new growth was largely from the emergence of a preeminent financial services sector, which
One limitation of this study is that, given the available evidence it is not possible to make hard evaluations of the relative costs of markets (both financial and in terms of service quality), relative to the previous regime of bureaucratic planning. That said, this analysis does have implications for how we understand the development of markets in social services and perhaps more generally. Firstly, it draws attention to the difficulties of implementation. IntheUK, as we saw, it has not always been easy to align supply with demand for specific services (a fact resulting in structural losses). The initial tendency was also towards a low trust, adversarial and potentially very costly mode of contracting at the local levels. The shift to markets, therefore, has been far from smooth or unproblematic. This in turn raises wider questions about the wider benefits and pay-offs of such change. While the new mixed economy has undoubtedly increased choice –possibly allowing local authorities to achieve a better fit between needs and services for individual clients (Evandrou and Falkingham, 1998)– and may in some areas have improved efficiency, the available evidence suggests that these gains have been attained at a high price.
According to a study carried out by theUK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs indicates that inthe world of fashion exerts a great environmental, ethical and social impact. It occurs through the production of raw materials, transport of the products to any part of the world, (since nowadays there are many online sales) the consumption of resources and energy for the production of synthetic materials, toxic elements used in its production, such as certain dyes for fabrics, packaging and distribution of products and even abusive labor, poor working conditions, lack of security in production processes and child exploitation in many of the countries where the big firms of fashion develop their productive processes in order to reduce their production costs.
As mentioned, these restrictions were believed to negatively influence a number of key labor market outcomes such as employment creation (i.e. to create unemployment), formality and labor productivity. Regarding these, the most noticeable effects of hard firing regulations are relatively well documented inthe literature and are closely linked to the business cycle. Costs of dismissals cause firms to not shed labor during the lower part of the cycle because it is costly, even if necessary due to a lower marginal value of labor. On the other hand, inthe upper part of the cycle, firms may want to hire more workers, but if they take into account the expected cost of each new worker, they will not necessarily hire all the required labor. This is reinforced by the fact that workers with ten or more years of tenure had a strong incentive to sue even if their firing was “fair”, because the expected payoff from this action was always positive. Workers might also avoid looking for (or accepting) more productive jobs due to the loss of accumulated severance payments. The identified results are an inefficient allocation of labor that negatively affects productivity growth and a lower level of “equilibrium” employment, which may be translated into unemployment or a higher informality rate. In addition, they imply lower turnover rates, which discourage training and hinder productivity growth. Thus, it seemed to be a fact that the labor system in place was not compatible with the simultaneous processes of internationalization and technological progress, which constituted the main goals that the new government (headed by President Gaviria) had it mind when entering office in 1990.
It has been argued by some critics of the compensation approach that as soon as exporters receive their foreign currency, the money supply increases, even though banks wipe out their excess reserves, since the currency from abroad will be transformed immediately into deposits in local currency. But such a claim is misleading. The reflux principle applies equally well to foreign and domestic receipts. Exporters, who now get paid for their exports, previously incurred expenditures when producing these export goods, and probably had to borrow to do so. As a result, when they transform their foreign receipts into domestic deposits, these deposits are utilized to pay back their debt vis-à-vis the banks. This was underlined by Le Bourva (1992: 462- 3): “Moreover, notice that an initial compensation occurs inthe accounts of productive
callus induction. For in vitro establishment, dehulled seeds were subjected to a superficial disinfection process using a 3.5% a.i. of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with Tween 20 (one drop per 100 ml volume) for 20 minutes under con- stant stirring, followed by three washes with distilled sterile water in a sterile flow chamber. This step was repeated twice, and seeds were finally washed with sterile distilled water and were innoculated on the culture media.
With the advent of economic liberalization in 1991 in India and the resultant emphasis on privatization and integration with the international economy, there has been a de-unionization of industry. This has occurred through the transfer of production from unionized to informal non-unionized workforces such as temporary, casual and contract labourers and home-based workers. This was already taking place, but increased competition accelerated the process. The Director General of Employment and Training in India estimated that employment inthe unorganized sector has shown consistently higher growth than the organized sector. The share of unorganized sector employment, which was estimated to be around 93 per cent during 1990s, may have gone up, and may increase further over the coming years (Papola and Sharma 2004). Some studies present evidence highlighting the increased flexibility inthe labour market after the introduction of economic reforms in India. Despite the existence of restrictive labour laws, firms were able to retrench a large number of permanent workers, and thousands of workers were rendered unemployed as many units were closed (Papola and Sharma 2004). Technology, liberalization and globalization, Papola and Sharma (2004) argue, have adversely affected the rights of workers and their bargaining capacity with employers. At the same time, managerial rights are on the rise. Therefore, while trade unions have weakened, the militancy of employers is on the rise (Papola and Sharma 2004). Perhaps it can be argued that the very nature of the traditional union movement is responsible for its current state, and liberalization and globalization have only added to the crisis.
It is worth noting that the population aged 65 and over in Latin America and the Caribbean in 1995 accounted for 5% of the total, while the figure for Europe was 15.34%. In those countries with larger shares of older population it is more likely that they can get organized and then influence public decision-making as they represent an attractive pool of voters for politicians. An illustrative case is Uruguay. This country has the highest share of older population, together with Canada and the United States, with levels comparable to the European ones, representing 12.3% in 1995. Here, the process of reform, the implementation of which was planned from 1985, was far from easy, as the pensioners organized various referendums on the government’s proposals, winning such referendums, and it was only in 1995 that the project was passed and after many concessions, including the state participation inthe management of the new funds, and also leaving specific groups outside the new scheme (Mesa-Lago and Müller, 2002).
Inthe development of global digital systems, first of all, the agencies of state and economy, local government agencies with the introduction of the necessary information systems and resources, software and electronic services through the establishment of digital economy, information technology market, including technology parks and coworking centers based on public-private partnerships, creation of favorable conditions for attracting foreign investments, development of modern telecommunication infrastructure, telecommunication technologies and networks, coordination of development of advanced telecommunication services, enhancement of digital economy through introduction of electronic services in public administration and economy, development of e-commerce and software market - developing proposals for technical and economic development, city and region y infrastructure management, in particular, housing and utilities, transport logistics, development of “smart” systems for a safe and “smart city”, improving the training of qualified personnel (Lex.uz online, 2018) are becoming more critical. For this reason, the study of the implementation of digital systems in various sectors of theeconomy of foreign countries, such as South Korea, Japan and Russia, is relevant intheeconomy of Uzbekistan. Studying the method of introduction of digital economic systems of foreign countries gives a chance to solve the following problems intheeconomy of Uzbekistan:
• Economic activity picked up steam in 2013, reaching overall economic growth of +3%, thanks to better results in advanced countries. While the GDP growth inthe USA and Japan has held steady at roughly 2%, the Eurozone is beginning to recover at a more modest pace (+0.5% year on year in Q4) and the growth of the main emerging economies has slowed as a result of increased financial tensions.
Given the complex ways in which we trade privacy for goods, services and security on a daily basis, some believe that the answer to informing individuals of risks to their privacy might be found in a similarly layered, indeed modal, approach to consent. Individuals should be given more information about the range of ways in which their data might be used, rather than a simple ‘opt in’ or ‘opt out’ tick box when they sign up for a store card, a club membership, install software, or apply for a credit card. Individuals might also be given the option of disabling technologies, particularly RFID tags, should their use become as widespread as anticipated.
In Southern Africa in general (and Rhodesia in particular) the elite and subsistence sectors are easily identifiable, as they were segregated along racial lines. And there is little doubt that the white capitalist minority held political power and shaped policies against the native minority. Palmer (1977a) puts it bluntly: in Rhodesian agricultural history, the dominant theme “is surely the triumph of European over African farmers” (p. 221). This triumph includes a history of war and dispossession that followed European colonization, and that highlights the political power of the white minority. Soon after Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Company (BSAC) obtained, in 1889, a Royal Charter to administer the territory as a protectorate, the two main groups of natives (the Ndebele or Matabele, and the Shona) experienced a large-scale dispossession of their land through violent and illegal means, and found themselves under the political domination of the settlers (see Palmer (1977b, p. 27)). The dual rural economy was codified when the Natives were confined in Reserves, some of which were considered “cemeteries, not Homes’” (Palmer, 1977b, p. 33) even by the Colonial Office! And around 1907, when the BSAC Directors convinced themselves that the gold they had been longing for did not exist in Rhodesia, they established the “White Agricultural Policy.” This marked the beginning of a differential support for European farmers via government bureaucracy, banks, and support in research, none of which were available for Africans. Moreover, the political power of white agricultural interests persisted when, in 1922, the era of Company rule came to an end, and political power formally passed to white settlers after a referendum in which the (small and mostly European) electorate rejected joining the Union of South Africa.
Las Bibliotecas de Hampshire se han suscrito a productos de libros electrónicos desde el año 2003, en un momento en el que no muchas Autoridades de Bibliotecas Públicas del Reino Unido eran cons- cientes de la posibilidad de invertir en bases de datos de libros electrónicos o ni siquiera lo considera- ban. Junto con Penny Garrod de la Red de Bibliotecas en Línea del Reino Unido, con sede en la Uni- versidad de Bath, este autor escribió un trabajo publicado en enero de 2005 titulado E Books inUK Public Libraries: where we are now and the way ahead (Libros Electrónicos en Bibliotecas Públicas del Reino Unido: dónde estamos hoy en día y lo que nos queda por adelante), 5 en el que muestra que de
several central years of establishment per stand and the values of precipitation which characterized the different seasons of those years. But, since only in 82.6% of the plots coincided these years with the years of highest frequency of establishment (modal year of establishment), the term precipitation inthe median year of establishment and precipitation inthe year prior to the median year of establishment should be nuanced and be though as precipitation in different seasons of two consecutive central years within an establishment period (between the first and the last event). Total density (TD) and viable density (VD) of seedlings ha -1 were calculated for each plot without considering age groups. Ten categories for evaluating theregeneration development stages were established according to the average density of viable seedlings per plot (none, scarce, desirable and excessive regeneration) and the average seedling height (0- 30 cm; 31-130 cm, and >130 cm) per plot (Tab. 2). The presence or absence of theregeneration stage was codified as a dummy variable (1/0) in each plot per stand. We consider a satisfactory (successful) natural regeneration density to be around 2000 viable seedlings per hectare (Matney and Hodges, 1991). Lower density might be considered insufficient and therefore unsuccessful, while establishment above 5000 seedlings per hectare may result in pre-commercial thinning.
Essentially, the cultural turn has brought about three main shifts. First, urban economic research has shifted away from the question of uneven development, which was central to UPE, and towards analyzing the role of culture in production distribution and consumption processes and the firm (Gregson et al, 2001; Gottdiener, 1997; Zukin, 2003). Second, the cultural turn, coupled with a “spatial turn” in social sciences, has led to a vast literature with contributions to urban debates opening hundreds of new directions and approaches: from studies in gender, to ethnic networks, postcolonialism, sexual, performance, everyday life, virtual spaces… (Mitchell, 2000: 73; see also Low, 1999; Mitchell, 1999; Bridge and Watson, 2002; Eade and Mele, 2002). Third, the interest in culture has opened a Pandora’s’ box concerning the conceptualization of the culture- economy relationship, in particular around which variable is driving the other, in a broader manner than in economic geography (Shields, 1999; Vaiou, 1999).
oChoose Responsibly: Have you elected to support businesses that clearly and actively address the cultural and environmental concerns of the locale you are visiting? oSupport Local Enterprise: Have you made a commitment to contribute to the local economy by using businesses that economically support the community you are visiting, eating in local restaurants and buying locally made artisan crafts as remembrances of your trip?
According to the technique choice framework, new technology might be available to firms but the cost of implementing them might be greater than the benefits. In particular, if new available techniques are capital-intensive, then these techniques are going to be implemented by firms if the relative price of capital compared to other factors of production is low enough to make them profitable to acquire. Otherwise, firms would keep using traditional techniques that are less intensive inthe use of capital and the new ones would not be adopted. Thus, this approach emphasizes the differences between available technology and implemented production techniques. The rate of adoption of production techniques by firms within the envelope of the available technology set would thus be a matter of economic choice and this would depend upon economic incentives and resource constraints that they face.
is that the FSA will be disbanded, with theUK moving away from an integrated regulator to a ‘twin-peaks’ model in which prudential regulation (set up as a subsidiary of the Bank of England) will be separated from conduct of business regulation (to be undertaken by a new Consumer Protection and Markets Authority). A new Financial Policy Committee will effectively replace the tripartite system as well as the Council for Financial Stability: its focus will be on financial stability and macroeconomic regulation and it will granted the formal statutory basis that the Council for Financial Stability lacked. While the new system does bear some resemblance to a ‘twin peaks’ model, some characteristics of theUK system will remain distinctive: regulation will operate on an integrated basis across the banking, securities and insurance sectors; and prudential regulation will be located within the central bank, albeit as a separate legal entity. It remains to be seen how some of the problematic issues, such as the delimitation of prudential and conduct matters, as well as the expansion of the role of the Bank of England will work out in practice. What does seem clear at this stage is that there will be considerable regulatory upheaval both in terms of organisational structure and the relevant rulebooks.
Planning for facilitated access to advice and guidance on diagnosis and management is already on the agenda intheUK, where specialist outreach into primary care inthe community has been tried in various forms. Preliminary evidence indicates that this outreach has at least three benefits: more rapid and more convenient access of people to the advice of specialists (through their primary care physician), education of the primary care physician in facets of disease-oriented care that need to be considered in developing a treatment plan, and education of specialists as to how diseases present in community practice rather than in specialty practice. It is now well recognized intheUK that the greatest challenge is to create incentives to develop seamless services for people with long-term conditions, by providing the organizational basis for greatly enhanced primary care and improved coordination of care between primary care and specialist care . Another innovation arising intheUK is the training and deployment of nurses to provide supplementary care, including prescribing, within specialty (rather than primary care) practices. This strategy alone would greatly increase access to specialty services when they are needed for the care of less common conditions .