± 0,08mmol/L, DRS: 7,85 ± 0,15mmol/L (p<0,05). Por otra parte, los niveles plasmáticos de insulina obteni- dos en estas condiciones fueron similares a los obser- vados al final del período de oscuridad (datos no mostrados). La velocidad de infusión de glucosa (VIG) que cuantifica la acción de la insulina in vivo fue significativamente menor (p<0,05) en los anima- les alimentados con DRS comparados a los del grupo que recibió la DC, lo que demuestra un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina en estos animales (Figura 1). No se observaron cambios en los niveles de he- matocrito desde el inicio y durante el clamp en nin- guno de los grupos dietarios (datos no mostrados).
Introduction: In recent years there has been increasing evidence about the relationshipbetween bone and energy metabolism. Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous bone matrix protein synthesized by osteoblasts that locally modulates bone mineralization and is traditionally used as a bone formation marker. Osteocalcin has been shown to have hormonal actions both inin vitro models andinexperimental animals. This hormone has the property of regulating insulin secretion andinsulin sensitivity as well as beta pancreatic cell proliferation. Aim: To evaluate the existence of correlation between serum osteocalcin levels, insulinresistanceandinsulin sensitivity markers inan elderly population with metabolic syndrome.
Our study design also allowed us to investigate the relationshipbetween FASN mRNA expression and serum concentrations of adipocytokines (leptin and adi- ponectin). We found a correlation between FASN and serum concentrations of adiponectin. These adipocyto- kines are also BMI dependent in obesity while leptin increases, adiponectin decreases. According to sex we can also see that both are present in higher concentra- tions in women than in men. Leptin could directly sup- press FASN mRNA expression in adipose tissue, since experimentally increased plasma leptin concentrations in rats resulted in a decrease of FASN mRNA levels in fat . There are data supporting a suppressive action of leptin on FAS transcription . Adiponectin is an exclusively adipocyte-derived hormone  with a key role in glucose andlipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and the liver, acting as aninsulin sensitizer . It is the only adipocytokine known to be down-regulated in obesity  andinsulinresistance by decreasing TG content in muscle and liver . Hypoadiponectinemia has been more closely related to the degree ofinsulinresistanceand hyperinsulinemia than the degree of adip- osity .
wastage at the front of the specimens, clearly minimizing the previous effects. Taking the angular distribution of wear as a reference, it is very difficult to determine which form of wear may dominate, since a FB environment includes a dilute phase erosive condition and also a dense (continuous) phase abrasive condition. Disagreement between researchers is not uncommon; for instance, in one study, it was suggested that abrasion is responsible for the wear at the bottom of tubes (Stringer & Wright, 1987); however, at the same location another report concluded that wastage is by erosion only (Wheeldon, 1990). On the basis of purely morphological features, the present results suggest that the main form of wear is one ofan erosive nature. This agrees well with the results obtained in a FB rig facility, where erosion was the main form of wastage, but with a small amount of three-body abrasion contributing to the damage (Wang et al., 1993)
Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics of the variables for the subsample used for estimation. Our regressions only apply to those individuals who are working and exclude unemployed individuals. The sample used for estimation in the case of Spain contains data for 2343 individuals, 3236 in the case of France, 2857 individuals in the Netherlands and 3106 in Norway. The sample selection limits the generality of our results. Education could affect the probability ofan individual finding a job. Additional years of education raises the expected earnings ofan individual because by raising the probability of finding a job and by raising the expected wage. Our estimates, do not contain information on the effects of education on the probability of being employed. Therefore, our estimates are downward biased and represent a lower limit of the true returns to education. In spite of this, our estimates still remain informative if we limit our attention to the effect of education on the wages of employed workers.
The cut off point for values found in the present study were: 12 mU/l for insulin, 2.6 for HOMA and 0.33 for QUICKI. To define IR, the 95 percentile for insulinand HOMA, and the 10 percentile for QUICKI were used, given the very strict criterion for the selection of the control group, (table 1). Sixty-six percent of the patients with MS presented IR, and no differences were observed when evaluating IR either for HOMA, or for QUICKI (figures III and IV). When correlating each of the parameters of the MS with the IR, HOMA and QUICKI inde- xes, significant correlations were found only with a waist (p=0.01), glycemia (p=0.01) and triglycerides (p=0.04).
39. Adinolfi LE, Gambardella M, Andreana A, Tripodi MF, Utili R, Ruggiero G. Steatosis accelerates the progression of liver damage of chronic hepatitis C patients and correlates with specific HCV genotype and visceral obesity. Hepatology 2001; 33: 1358-1364. 40. Poynard T, Ratziu V, McHutchison J, Manns M, Goodman Z, Zeuzem S, Younossi Z, Albrecht J. Effect of treatment with peginterferon or interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on steatosis in patients infected with hepatitis C. Hepatology 2003; 38: 75-85. 41. Fiore G, Fera G, Napoli N, Vella F, Schiraldi O. Liver steatosis and chronic hepatitis C: a spurious association? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1996; 8: 125-129.
the entire sample. A simple graphical inspection of the structure of the network reveals some interesting facts. First, there is a clear picture of how there is a central grouping of videos, and a set of peripheral communi- ties, linked together by ads with high rates of influence. These groups will be subject to a more detailed inspec- tion later, to try to infer what are the characteristics or attributes that have caused them to be organized this way. On the other hand, it is easy to distinguish between ads with a higher preference ratio, such as Red Bull’s announcement, the Darth Vader campaign of Volkswagen, or the Calvo tuna “Ellas lo saben.” At the opposite end, in addition to the aforementioned Loewe announcement, are the announcement of Seat Leon SC, or the Advertising Academy campaign, “RAE’s 300 years”. From the metric point of view, the analysis of the properties of the network is summarized in table 4.
Second, the BNDES and M&E grew together after the Brazilian Miracle until the end of the 1970s (see Figure 2). However, the growth rate reversed right after the Brazilian Miracle. The growth rate average was 7.1 percent from 1974 to 1980, which is high according to current levels of growth but low compared to the 11.2 percent achieved during the years of the Brazilian Miracle (1968-1973). According to Studart (1995), the Brazilian slowdown was the result of the economy reaching full capacity; other scholars have highlighted the rise in the price of oil (Saia 2014), and others have considered as a better explanation the world crisis of 1973 and the decline of the rate of profit in Brazil (Marquetti et al. 2010; Marquetti and Soares Porse, 2014; see below). Because of the slowdown in the economy at the beginning of the 1970s, Brazil initiated a number of policies intended to stimulate economic growth, above all the II Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento (IIPND) carried out from 1974 to 1978. According to Curralero (1998), this plan, and the previously mentioned Plano de Metas, have been the only plans in Brazilian history to feature an industrial policy. The BNDES channeled resources in areas such as basic industries and capital goods, mostly to the private sector.
several studies which show that reduce fat intake in diet results in a decrease in HDL (149, 216). In our study, the women of E group decreased significantly a 10.5±9.14 the fat percentage intake (data not shown). In agreement with Pelkman et al. (2004), this may be one of the causes to change ApoB/ApoA1 ratio in women of E group (227). However, the men of E group achieved a significant decrease within other groups. Dengel et al. (72) and Watkins et al. (314) reported that 6-month aerobic exercise and dietary restriction intervention had a favourable lipoprotein-lipid response. Also, Sillanpää et al. 43 found a better response for E group when comparing the effects of different exercise modes on lipid profile. These results may be related to concomitant aerobic training and changes in body composition. Several studies proposed the following mechanism for the lipoprotein changes with aerobic exercise: Lipoprotein lipase activities are increased in the muscle and adipose tissues of aerobic practitioners (215, 321). A depletion of adipocyte triglyceride stores with exercise-induced weight loss could, therefore, induce increased adipocyte lipoprotein lipase activity, which could in turn affect lipoprotein levels (215, 321).
SKERMAN (1985) and SKERMAN and MOORHOUSE (1987) reported the development of a bloodline with increased resistance to footrot, in each of the Romney Marsh and Corriedale breeds. Both bloodlines evolved through direct selection under natural outbreaks of footrot and extensive use of sires whose progeny showed increased resistance over their contemporaries. Both studs claim now that footrot is an insignificant problem in their flocks (SKERMAN and MOORHOUSE, 1987; WARREN et al., 1990). Although reports of this nature highlight the potential for genetic control of this disease, formal genetic comparisons such as those described by SKERMAN and MOORHOUSE (1987) are needed, but are usually lacking, in on- property experiments. The follow-on benefit of increased usage of breeding stock from more resistant bloodlines in the Merino industry still awaits evaluation, but has already prompted certain stud breeders to place heavy selection pressure on resistance (PATTERSON and PATTERSON, 1989, 1991).
Only a few convergence studies of European regions use the geographically weighted regression (GWR). Bivand and Brunstad (2005) estimate an absolute con- vergence model with different regression coefficients for every region. The parame- ters vary extensively, and they have changing signs. So some regions have a positive and others a negative convergence speed. The diverging regions with a negative con- vergence rate are located mostly in the middle of Europe (Germany, Austria, Switzer- land et al.). Almost all French regions have a high convergence rate above 2%. If the model is augmented with control variables (subsidiaries of the agriculture sector for example), the results are mainly the same. Eckey, Döring and Türck (2006) estimate an absolute convergence model using GWR, Member States of the enlarged Euro- pean Union and the period over 1995-2003. They also find a changing sign of the slope. Whereas most regions are converging, some areas of Ireland, Belgium, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany and Poland seem to be moving away from their steady state value. However, the changing sign of the slope can be a methodolo- gical artefact, because the inclusion of control variables leads to the fact that all re- gions are converging in the GWR model (Eckey/Dreger/Türck 2006).
En los años sesenta del siglo pasado, el doctor Nieper comenzó a utilizar, en Alemania occidental, una sal de calcio, potasio y magnesio de fosfoetanolamina (PEA) en el tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes y, de un modo particular, en el tratamiento de la EM. Las publicaciones respecto a la eficacia de esta sal son anecdóticas (Nieper y Moller, 1962; Nieper, 1967; Nieper, 1968; Nieper, 1994). Una búsqueda bibliográfica extensa no muestra ningún estudio clínico y experimental controlado. Sin embargo, recientemente se han publicado algunos trabajos sobre aspectos básicos de la colamina, etanolamina y sus derivados in vitro que sugieren que una sal de PEA podría ser eficaz en la EM y en la EAE. Así, se ha descubierto que los plasmalógenos de etanolamina son poderosos antioxidantes que previenen la oxidación de las membranas celulares, impidiendo la oxidación del colesterol y la peroxidación de lípidos (Maeba y col., 2002; Maeba y Ueta, 2003a; Maeba y Ueta, 2003b; Bisaglia y col., 2004; Maeba y Ueta, 2004). Recientemente, se ha demostrado que la molécula de dipalmitoil-fosfatidiletanolamina (DPPE) bloquea la activación de células T específicas de antígeno (Legler y col., 2001). Algunos autores sugieren que hay una sinergia entre las células T y B en la inducción de la EAE (Willenborg y col., 1983; Myers y col., 1992).
Methodology. A cross‐sectional study was performed in the population aged ≥18 years using cluster sampling and then random sampling. A sample of 1000 subjects was calculated and divided into three sequential phases with a specific methodology for each one. Phase I: selection of subjects from the general population and collection of informed consent documents; Phase II: collection of data from the digital clinical history to select subjects with dyslipidemia according to study criteria; Phase III: personal interview, blood analysis, family tree, and definitive diagnosis ofdyslipidemia. Prevalence of different diseases and active medication was analysed. Corrected prevalence (to the reference population) of different risk factors and ASCVD was estimated.
The main limitations of the present study are the lack of FFA levels in our populations and the absence of functional studies of the gene variants. Other limitation was related to the low genotyping call rate observed in many of the samples (around 19% in Hortega and 35% in Segovia). We decided to exclude those samples inan attempt to not compromise the results. We believe that the problems with those subjects with very low call rate were due to DNA problems although the amount of DNA and the ratio 260/280 were within the optimal range. After the exclusion of these problematic samples the genotyping call rate was very high as it has to be because of the high accuracy of the SNPlex platform . The major strength is that we were able to replicate the results inan independent Spanish population. Since the two populations belong to the same geographical region and that region has a low immigration rate, we do not expect bias in
The proportion of females was low, with ripe females, <25% of the total sample. The two peak periods of spawning occurred during the open catch season in the reservoir, which is regulated by the federal government (DOF, 2007). In our survey, there was no significant correlation between water temperature and percentage of ripe females, but this may be masked by the low proportion of females at this stage. In the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Peña-Messina et al. (2010) report a significant correlation between temperature and reproductive event of tilapia O. aureus, finding the peak of reproductive activity when temperatures were 25-28.3 °C; however, the impact of temperature on reproductive condition in C. beani was not clear. Apparently, this environmental variable does not determine reproduction this species in the study zone, but the high percentages of individuals in Stages IV and V collected from November through June coincided with periods of higher average Fig. 4. Relationshipbetween standard length and total weight
Experimental manipulation of zonulin and endotoxemia in animal models of aging and AMI, and human intervention studies are required before definite conclusions can be drawn as reverse causality cannot be firmly excluded in our study giving its observational nature. Another limitation is the lack of data on subjects’ diet and microbiota composition, since these are suspected environmental triggers of endotoxemia and zonulin expression. While we cannot yet translate our findings into clinical practice, we hope that they may inspire future studies to establish a causal link between intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and CHD.
Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, no hay duda de que la resistencia a la in- sulina está unida a la hipertensión. La denominada hipótesis de la insulina en la hiperten- sión propone que la hiperinsulinemia compensatoria que acompaña a la resistencia a la insulina aumenta la reabsorción de sodio y la actividad simpática, y ambos producen pre- sión arterial elevada. Varias líneas de evidencia apoyan esta hipótesis. Primero, la correla- ción entre la resistencia a la insulina y presión arterial elevada que está enfatizada por el hecho de que incluso los individuos delgados con hipertensión esencial muestran resis- tencia a la insulina e hiperinsulinemia. Hay autores que van aún más lejos afirmando que la hipertensión esencial es per se un estado de resistencia a la insulina (Ferrannini E. y cols ., 1987). Segundo, la insulina tiene múltiples acciones en el sistema nervioso simpáti- co (SNS), el riñón y la vasculatura que puede derivar en hipertensión. Tercero, la obser- vación de que algunos antidiabéticos orales, a la vez de mejorar la resistencia a la insulina y la insulinemia, son antihipertensivos. Por ejemplo, Landin y cols. demostraron que la administración oral de metformina a hombres con resistencia a la insulina e hipertensos, aumenta la sensibilidad a la insulina y disminuye significativamente su presión arterial (Landin K. y cols ., 1991). Otro ejemplo notable es el caso de los sensibilizadores a la insulina, las glitazonas, y sus conocidos efectos anthipertensivos. Cuarto, y último, la ob- servación de que algunos antihipertensivos, como los inhibidores del enzima conversor de la angiotensina II o los antagonistas del receptor de angiotensina II, aumentan la tam- bién la sensibilidad a la insulina. A pesar del gran número de evidencias a favor de la hipótesis de la insulina en la hipertensión, también hay evidencias importantes en contra. Por ejemplo, Hall y sus colaboradores nunca han encontrado ninguna correlación entre la resistencia a la insulina y la hipertensión en un modelo bien controlado en perros (Hall J.E. y cols ., 1994).
In this work IGF-I therapy increased testosterone and re- duced brain oxidative damage. IGF-I expression in the brain can be dissociated from plasma IGF-I levels. However, it has been reported that the decrease in some hormones with ag- ing, such as estradiol and IGF-I, may have a negative impact on brain function because the signaling of estradiol and IGF-I interact to promote neuroprotection (44). IGF-I has antiapop- totic and neuroprotective effects, and promotes projection neuron growth, dendritic arborization, and synaptogenesis. All these data are consistent with a causal link between the age-related decline in GH and IGF-I levels and cognitive deficits in older people (23, 26). It has been reported that IGF-I acts in the central nervous system, where it affects many different cell populations (neuronal and nonneuronal cells) (23).
48. Lima MM, Nuccio JC, Villalobos M, Torres C, Balladares N. Sistema renina angiotensina y riesgo cardiometabólico. Rev Venez Endocrinol Metab. 2010;8:3-10. 49. Ilercil A, Devereux RB, Roman MJ, Paranicas M, O'Grady MJ, Lee ET, et al. Associations ofinsulin levels with left ventricular structure and function in American Indians: the strong heart study. Diabetes. 2002;51:1543-7.