the push for open science frequently places more emphasis on research data management. There are, however, whole areas around the open communication of research outputs which can still benefit from significant improvement. One of the most obvious is a better codification of the fundinginformation in the bibliographic records for publications in repositories. While the emphasis has traditionally been to collect as many full-text records as possible about institutional and subject-based repositories, the typical way the fundinginformation for publications is being coded into metadata records remains very poor, or is absent altogether. This paper argues that this is a key area for research impact assessment and improvement. It’s also argued that such an improvement needs solid housekeeping on the research funders’ side, possibly based on new and evolving standards. A few different approaches to capture and display the fundinginformation in metadata records in an optimal fashion are discussed.
REP2009, p.95: “Repsol YPF continues to drive conciliation measures, since it is a company that assesses, promotes and facilitates a balance between the personal and professional life of its employees. In 2009 this approach was reinforced, incorporating the promotion of conciliation into the company’s management style and encouraging the role of department heads as drivers of change, serving as an example for their teams. The company has broadened and improved its conciliation measures in different countries, adapting them to the legislative and social environment, with the objective of making available to employees a range of options that favor conciliation in the day to day and in special situations, with the desired flexibility. After the good results of the pilot test carried out in 2008, the Telework Program, which was developed in 2009 in various stages, included at the end of the financial year 362 employees in Spain, 140 in Argentina and 14 in Portugal. ... 48% of them were aged between 35 and 44, and the modalities most used were those of one or two days a week”.
Abstract: We present an evaluation of a spoken language dialogue system with a module for the management of user- related information, stored as user preferences and privileges. The flexibility of our dialogue management approach, based on Bayesian Networks (BN), together with a contextual information module, which performs different strategies for handling such information, allows us to include user information as a new level into the Context Manager hierarchy. We propose a set of objective and subjective metrics to measure the relevanceof the different contextual information sources. The analysis of our evaluation scenarios shows that the relevanceof the short-term information (i.e. the system status) remains pretty stable throughout the dialogue, whereas the dialogue history and the user profile (i.e. the middle-term and the long-term information, respectively) play a complementary role, evolving their usefulness as the dialogue evolves.
For each practical session, a group of children (from 8 to 12) was escorted from its classroom to the computer lab. Sometimes a teachers aid would come along to provide assistance. These groups only included children belonging to the same testing group, to prevent confusion among them (“why is my classmate playing a different game than me?”). Ideally, children from one testing group should not interchange information with children from another, so their opinions remain independent and unbiased from one another. But only so much can be done to minimize this risk in a school environment and through a two-week testing period.
It may not be possible for one single biomarker to provide the necessary prognosis information about the patient to base treatment options on. For this reason, panels of biomarkers are advisable to accurately predict the stage of the disease and how it will progress. Previous studies have indicated that tumor prognosis is closely associated with immune escape by tumor cells. A dynamic relationship between the host immune system and cancer is emerging . Present prog- nosis scoring system, based on serum cytokines, has been developed to identify patients at the highest risk of cancer progression and death. Due to the emerging role of tumour microenvironment on cancer progression and aggressive- ness, cytokines could represent successfully predictors of cancer outcomes as they can be considered as a reflection of the complex tumour immunosuppressive network underly- ing PDAC. The worsened prognosis associated with tumors harboring this cytokine panel could be associated to a deregu- lation of growth factor-mediated paracrine loops, particularly in relation to proliferation and angiogenesis. Given the interplay between B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1- beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF and poor prognosis, these cytokines could be considered as novel molecular targets that may lead to more successful therapeutic modalities for PDAC patients.
Here we review the most relevant user studies related to agreement on ranking and relevance judgements. According to the information retrieval model of Bates (1989) during the iterative process of search the user relevance judgments of the results are influenced by the results of previous search. Later, Spink and Dee (2007) defined a web search model as comprising multiple tasks and cognitive shifts between tasks (e.g. shifts between topic, result evaluation, document, information problem, search strategy). Cognitive shift was defined as a human ability to handle the demands of complex and often multiple tasks resulting from changes due to external forces. Du and Spink (2011) found that evaluation is one of the three most experienced states during multi- tasking search process. Also shifts from one evaluation to another were quite frequent among other shift types. Saracevic (2007) mentions additional studies where relevance assessments at different points in the information seeking task of more than two participants were investigated (Smithson, 1994; Bruce, 1994; Wang and White, 1995; Bateman, 1998; Vakkari and Hakala, 2000; Vakkari, 2001; Tang and Solomon, 2001). However, the setting of the above mentioned studies is different from the current setting in that in the previous studies the users’ information need changed as the task evolved, while in our experiments users’ tasks remain constant over time.
Belief revision is the process by which an agent changes his previous set of beliefs making a transition from one epistemic state to another. When such an agent learns new information he can realize that this information clashes with his old beliefs. In this case the agent has to revise his belief set and decide which old beliefs need to be eliminated in favor of the new information. The aim of this work is to characterize the different kinds of relations that may exist be- tween new acquired information and old maintained beliefs. We identify four primitive kinds of relations between a new piece ofinformation α and an old piece ofinformation β:
Further, it facilitated the transfer of scientific and technological knowledge to businesses, contributing some 70% of the royalties for intellectual property rights awarded to the researchers who developed commercial applications. The aim is to provide incentives to the scientist so that they may become an entrepreneur. In January, 2012, the Public-Private Partnership Law (LAPP) was announced (DOF, 16 January 2012). This legalized the Services Delivery Projects and included support to applied research or technological innovation projects. The LAPP conceived of knowledge generation as a competitive activity, linked to private business. Additionally, it increased the tendency of scientific and technological production to be tied to the market, making any reversal of that approach increasingly difficult, since the contracts that it governs are of medium- and long-term (25 to 40 years), and their funding has priority over any other expense that may arise (Laurell, 2011). This vision –utilitarian and mechanical– subordinates the role of S&T advances to the interests of the private sector, while curtailing activities in the social sciences and humanities. This is reflected, for example, in the publicly-financed programs under National Science and Technology Council (CONACYT). In 2010, of its 40 programs promoting ST&I, 33 were explicitly directed toward the business sector and only 7 to the social sciences and humanities (FCCyT, 2010, p.17).
Finally, Blasco et al. (2014) proposed a method to identify alternative tourism areas based on consumption. This method combined geographic information sys- tems with hierarchical clustering techniques, based on space-time distance in the Pyrenees. With the proposed method, larger areas were divided into small local tour- ism destinations, which might otherwise be difficult to detect. It is argued that these smaller areas have a range of distances within a destination, which, in the context of the development of tourism in mountain regions, are better adapted to the mobility pattern of the hub-and-spoke. The authors used hierarchical cluster analysis to iden- tify tourism areas within a region, following mobility patterns and distances to attrac- tions. This cluster analysis grouped the attractions of the region into zones where the attractions within an area were maximally close to each other and minimally close to the attraction of other areas. In addition, when dealing with spatial data, it is essential to take into account geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Within GIS, there are multiple ways to perform cluster analysis of spatial data. These applications have certain limitations for the purposes of investigation. Therefore, it was decided to carry out a geographical cluster analysis with a statistical package. The results of this analysis were introduced into a GIS to generate a graphic representation of the re- sulting tourism zones. As a result, the region was restructured into nine new tourism zones. These areas were more uniform and with a higher correlation index between the attractiveness and intensity of the accommodation. They also have different levels of cross-boundary intensity and are very similar to the existing historical regions. The more they differ from the original destinations, the greater their attractiveness, which supported the effectiveness of the new zoning technique.
Lenormand and Touchais (2008) asked question about the role of IFRS adoption in improving the informational content of intangible assets. After reviewing previous studies, they concluded that IFRS adoption does indeed improve the informational content of accounting measures. Nevertheless, the data analysis showed significant disparity between the reported amounts of goodwill and intangible assets under different standards. It arises that intangible assets are only partially more value relevant under IFRS. Boulerne and Sahut (2009) tested the information content of intangible assets under IFRS when compared with local GAAP for French listed companies. They showed that the transition to IFRS did not affect the overall amounts of intangibles, even though it operated substitution effects in favor of goodwill. However, the total amounts of intangible assets and goodwill together was value relevant under IFRS. They implied that financial markets can better integrate such contributions into share prices and returns, especially for companies with high intensity of intangible assets.
The paper is structured as follows. Section II extends the Streb and Torrens (2015) meaningful-talk model. An equilibrium concept for imperfect information language games is defined in which linguistic signs themselves are the source ofinformation. An equilibrium refinement is proposed which selects the sender’s (weakly) preferred equilibrium. Section III illustrates the impact of verbal communication in several classic games. The application of the equilibrium refinement to select among equilibria links this semiotic-inferential approach to the notion of optimal relevance in Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson (1995). This might also be expressed in terms of different degrees of precision of the sender’s messages (Sobel 2011). Section IV shows that this approach can be interpreted as a formal pragmatics where the equilibrium meaning depends on the specific strategic setup. Section V contains the closing remarks.
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field ofinformation technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.
Cavusoglu, H., Mishra, B., & S. Raghunathan. (2004). The effect of internet security breach announcements on market value: Capital market reactions for breached ﬁrms and Internet security developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 9(1), 69-104. Doms, M., Jarmin, R., & S. Klimeck. (2004). IT investment and ﬁrm performance in US retail
This problem arises whenever some people do not spend resources on collecting information but can take advantage of others agents who had invested in such information; that is to say, they get a FREE - RIDE on somebody else’s effort. For example, investors who buy or sell only after knowing what well-known dealers or investors are doing eventually. If some investors acquire information that tells them which securities are undervalued (overvalued) and they buy (sell) these securities, other investors who have not paid for this information may be able to buy (sell) right along with the well- informed investors, who don’t reap all the profits they could have done otherwise (Grossman and Hart, 1980).
Direct budget support or sector budget support to MOH’s budget, offer increased opportunity to align aid to national priorities. They can also contribute to policy alignment, rational allocation of resources and improved government ownership. However, budget support is not a first choice for many donors in post- conflict settings due to loss of control over funds and accountability, risk of fungibility and misappropriation, and explicit state avoidance due to donor government political choices. In the medium to long term, donors recognise the need to shift to sector budget support that assists in legitimising a nascent government. However, they are reluctant to commit funds where the financial and administration systems are weak, thus there are few examples where direct budget support has been deployed in the context of post-conflict health sector recovery. Global health initiatives, such as the GFATM, have recently scaled up in fragile contexts, and have invested significant resources, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Increasingly there is recognition of the need to strengthen health systems in order for vertical programs to scale up. However, limited funds are expended on health systems strengthening e.g. for GFATM advise that up to 15% of the total budget can be expended on health system strengthening while in practice, current figures report that only 1% has been allocated to health systems strengthening. 55 Global funds have the potential to create separate mechanisms for funding and delivery, complexity of applications and implementing procedures with and labour intensive monitoring processes.