the VEC confirm the existence of a cointegration relationship between the variables for both taxes. This is inferred based on analysis ofthe signs ofthe model’s stability parameters. These fulfill the following: The parameter associated with the error correction mechanism ( α 1 ) is negative inthe IVA equation (-0.46) and positive (although not significant at 5%) inthe equation ofthe GDP (0.01). For the ISR, the adjustment coefficient α 2 shows the correct sign inthe ISR equation (-0.56) but the opposite of what is expected inthe GDP equation. However, the latter is not statistically significant at 5%. In both cases, the error correction mechanism only applies (inthe correct direction) inthe tax equation, so it is possible to infer that the disequilibrium adjustment process (with respect to the long-term ratio), both for the IVA and the ISR, administered through the error correction mechanism, falls to the tax variable and not to GDP. In other words, given a short-term disequilibrium inthe relationship between tax and production, the tax is adjusted to correct it, rather than production. This analysis is relevant in that it provides evidence ofthe condition of weak exogeneity ofthe GDP in relation to both taxes (see Engle et al., 1983, and Enders, 2010).
The adoption ofthe recommendations ofthe Louis Chick Commission ensured that most ofthetaxes originating from the respective regions were controlled by them. The same applied to rents on mining rights and licenses for a wide range of items. In addition, revenues accruing from the sale of primary products were retained by the regions of origin. Indeed, the surplus which had been accumulated from such sales which was held by the Central Government had to be shared according to the contributions of various regions following the application ofthe derivation principle. As the principle of derivation was given its widest application from 1954, it was the Western Region that earned by far the largest revenue as cocoa, its principal export commodity, continued to enjoy a boom inthe international market. Columbite and groundnuts which were the principal export commodities from the North also did fairly well inthe international market. The region therefore had enough to meet its financial needs and some surplus. It was the Eastern Region that was badly hit by the application ofthe new revenue formula. The Eastern Region had fallen on evil days as it experienced declining economic fortunes and consequently could not meet its financial obligations 22 . Under the circumstances, the Central Government had to come to its aid from time to time with grants. The reality ofthe application of derivation became evident when the surplus oftherevenue earned was shared in 1954. TheFederal Government got 8.32 million naira and the Western Region got 8.98 million naira. 3.08 million naira went to the North, while the East recorded a deficit of 3.08 million naira went to the North, while the East recorded a deficit of 0.92 million naira 23 . The West, however always got the least amount of grants from the Central Government since it already
tropolitan migrants are related with work, while the rest ofthe changes are due to different reasons. One of these reasons, which can be labeled as “residential”, has the goal of improving the person or family’s housing conditions. These types of migrations are relatively new inthe national landscape and are part ofthe housing policy implemented by thefederal government. Since 1996, members ofthe Instituto Nacional del Fomento a la Vivienda (INFONAVIT) can use their credit to buy property in any part ofthe country, not necessarily the place where they work. This possibility initiated a real estate expansion to areas located next to the MCMA, whe- re real estate agents can find future clients, since the low cost per square meter inthe neighboring areas is attractive to people from the MCMA, where such costs are high. These results are in line with the trend observed in metropolis in other Latin American countries, where residential pro- jects around the cities are themain motivation behind population move- ments—migrants seek the condominium or cluster option offered by the private sector, the options provided by social interest programs, or down- right squatting in a colonization process of what used to be farming land, facilitated by real estate market liberalization policies. “New” internal mi- grations suggest the search for housing as one ofthemain factors behind population movements (Molina, 2009:7). A similar conclusion was drawn by Rodríguez (2008:69) in a study including four MAs in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: there seems to be no labor-related motivation behind intra- metropolitan migration, which allows for the assumption that changes of residence are not intended to live closer to workplaces, but probably to satisfy other well-being dimensions (space, convenience, safety, etc.).
Democratization at thefederal level inMexico was not always followed by democratization at the state level. Many states remain vulnerable to corruption and authoritarian rule by unaccountable governors. The PRI governs more states than any other party (21 out of 32) including some ofthe most politically backward ones. Therefore suspicions that PRI governors misused their states’ resource to bolster Peña Nieto’s campaign are commonplace. One way to test the effect of governors’ intervention is to look at the election results by state. By this measure, it is actually López Obrador who stands out as riding his party’s coattails. Compared to a national average of 32%, his vote was 46% in PRD governed states. His vote jumps even higher to 54% if the municipality has a PRD mayor too. This gap is larger than Vázquez Mota’s gap between PAN and non-PAN states. As it turns out, Peña Nieto does not have any such gap, as his vote was nearly identical between PRI and non-PRI states. So if we are to interpret this crude measure as illegal and abusive intervention by local bosses, we would conclude that the PRD was themain offender, followed by the PAN and lastly the PRI.
Sánchez & Pachón (2013) examine de effect of local taxation efforts and political competition on public school enrollment and water coverage in Colombian municipalities using data over the period 1994-2009. In contrast with the above-mentioned scholars, who mainly draw upon political science literature, these authors are influenced by the literature on decentralization and governance. As a result, they are interested in assessing the economic impact and efficiency of certain decentralization policies. They underscore the role of fiscal capacity sustaining that stronger local fiscal efforts are associated with higher political competition inthe local level which leads to a better provision of local public goods. Fiscal capacity here means the fiscal revenue locally raised (i.e. tax on property), distinguished from national transfers and royalties. Political competition is traditionally measured by the effective number of parties and an index of intra-party competition based on mayor elections. Themain econometric estimations are OLS and 2SLS where the source of endogeneity is the local fiscal revenue instead of political competition. The instrumental variable is the cadastral undervaluation calculated through a logit model using municipal records on cadastral update and additional indicators of political competition. In short, they find that local tax revenue is positively and significantly related to the provision of education and water coverage, while local political competition has no significant effect.
The Barcelona Zoo (www.zoobarcelona.com), with a surface area of approximately 13 hectares and located inthe Parc de la Ciutadella, has a collection of animals made up of 7,500 animals belonging to 400 different species. Two ofthe zoo’s main objectives are to offer the public a recreational and, at the same time, educational experience, and helping to preserve wildlife through research and development projects. In this respect it is important to note the different educational programs offered by the zoo in 2006 that were attended by approximately 58,000 children from all over Catalonia and, on the other hand, the accreditation it received as a R+D (research and development) Center from the Agència d’Acreditació en Investigació, Desenvolupament i Innovació Tecnològica (Research, Development and Technological Innovation Accreditation Agency); the first given to a zoo. One ofthe benefits that comes with this accreditation is an improvement in financial aid for the different research programs that have been being carried out here for years on the conditions of life and reproduction of species in captivity.
Since 2000 Mexico is experiencing two novel political conditions: the defeat ofthe PRI in a competitive presidential election and a new presidency without majority in either chamber of a bicameral congress. In what is likely to be a new era of divided government, several constitutional reforms have been proposed to promote good governance under a separation-of-powers system. While some reforms attempt to decrease the likelihood of minority presidents, others aim strengthening the constitutional powers ofthe president. I will argue that a viable and desirable strategy of constitutional change should avoid these two extremes and aim, instead, at creating incentives for inter-branch cooperation when the presidency and the congress fall under the control of different parties. Along these lines, I discuss the benefits of a partial reform consisting of electoral rules that promote correspondence between the preferences of citizens and those of policy makers and of constitutional powers that encourage coordination between the president and the congress inthe process of policy making and cabinet formation.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the burden of disease due to suicide inMexico using years of life lost (YLL) between 2000 and 2012 by sex, age group (for those under 85 years of age) and jurisdiction. Vital statistics on mortality and population estimates were used to calculate standardized mortality rates and years of life lost due to suicide. Between 2000 and 2012 a sustained increase inthe suicide mortality rate was observed inMexico. The age group with the highest rate was 85 years of age or older for men, and 15-19 years of age for women. The highest impact in life expectancy due to suicide occurred at 20 to 24 years of age in men and 15 to 19 years of age in women. The states with the highest mortality due to suicide were located inthe Yucatan Peninsula (Yucatan, Quintana Roo and Campeche). Mortality due to suicide inMexico has increased continually. As suicides are preventable, the implementation of health public policies through timely identification, integral prevention strategies and the de- tailed study of associated risk factors is imperative.
There are different models that can be used for panel data. We select the best of these models by testing the behavior ofthe variables used. According to the results, the best panel model to be used is the fixed and temporal effects model because they deal with the problems of group autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity. To achieve robust and reliable results, we use a Prais- Winsten regression with Panel Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE). This model allows us to correct for autocorrelation, heteroskedasticity, and temporal effects, but not for fixed effects. However, given that the tests show that the fixed effects are relevant inthe panel of municipal data, we can construct variables that contain such effects. This is done by calculating the average for each individual during the period under analysis, for each variable. Formally, the new variables for the PCSE model are calculated inthe following manner:
However, the information disclosure issue is strongly based on the relation between principal and agent, as drivers of agency theory social agreement. Broadly, this theory has been incorporated in multiple scientific fields, particularly in account- ing (Demski, 1980), in economics (Spence and Zeckhouser, 1971), in marketing (Basu et al., 1985), in political science (Mitnick, 1992), in finance (Fama, 1980; Fontrodona and Sison, 2006), in behaviour and organizational culture (Eisenhardt, 1985; Kosnik, 1987; Kulik, 2005) and in sociology (White, 1985; Shapiro, 2005). The controversy over its usefulness, applicability and validity, remains valid even today. It was developed during the 60’s and the early 70’s ofthe twentieth century, by several economists, including Arrow (1971) and Wilson (1968). It translates the problem of attitude to risk either by individuals and/or by groups (Ross, 1973). The differentiation of objectives inherent to those parties that leads their attitude is also different. Those are relations between the principal and agent, metaphorically supported by a contract-oriented behaviour of parties who take different attitudes towards risk (Jensen and Meckling, 1976).
Clearly, our findings offer more practical implications for hotel managers. The findings suggest that during the June-July period ofthe FIFA WC, the hotel sector inthe nine Brazilian cities experience different dynamics on performance indices including RevPAR, ADR, Occupancy, demand, revenue and supply during the sporting event. Moreover, for most of hosting cities, a growth in total room revenue was exhibited during the month of June with a negative growth during the last week ofthe event in July. There are some reasons to describe this positive impact ofthe WC on revenues ofthe hotel sector. One explanation is the continuous growth in sport tourism (Kim et al., 2015a, 2015b). Mega-sporting events take place in different international destinations (e.g. South Africa, Brazil, Canada and Australia). These destinations offered sport fans with numerous alternatives for tourism and experiences. These sport enthusiasts possess high discretionary budgets that allow them to visit and travel to international destinations. Consequently, the hotel sector might take advantage of extra income prospects. These fans are willing and able to pay higher prices during the mega-event, depending on the nature ofthe specific destination. In our study, São Paulo experienced the strongest demand of tourist visitors during the event. Therefore, it is advisable for hoteliers with unique demand for their tourist products to conduct segmentation analysis at the destination and property level to establish the visitors profile and the projected impact of mega-sporting events on their operations. This analysis may consider the demographic, lifestyle profile of future tourists and a calculation ofelasticityof demand for the event and destination (Taylor and Young, 2005). If hoteliers understand what triggers sport fans during sporting events, they will be able to propose pricing strategies that might maximize hotel profitability.
The Brazilian higher education system is entirely new. By the middle of last century, Brazil had only a few universities. TheFederal University of Paraná (UFPr) was created in 1912. The University of São Paulo and University of Brazil, now Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), were formed in 1922 and 1934, respectively, including then-existing schools of medicine, engineering, law and others. In fact, the University of São Paulo (USP) was the first that included regularly the concept of research into the academic activities. Several other public universities were formed or created much later. The great majority ofthe post-graduate courses are within the public universities. Many, but not all of them, are recognized as having high educational standards in Brazil. Public universities are supported by either thefederal or state governments, and hold most ofthe post-graduate courses: 80% and 90% of Masters and Ph.D. courses, respectively. Some exceptions among the private institutions do exist, especially within Catholic and other communitarian universities.
From the conventional economic perspective 2 , opening borders to foreign trade policies through the elimination of tariff and non-tariff practices, enlisting the country into trade agreements, whether these are unilateral, bilateral and/or multilateral, constitutes a requirement for economic growth. These policies have been promoted by themain international organizations, such as the Inter-american Development Bank (IADB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), among others:
To analyze the seasonal effect of SST on the growth parameters of massive corals (Porites and Pavona), 6-month growth rates were obtained. We performed a sclerochrono- logical analysis using the density profile generated by optical densitometry (Carricart-Ganivet and Barnes 2007) for the annual calcification rate estimation, as well as the dates of collection (October and November 2013) and alizarin stain- ing (September and November 2010). The bands behind the staining line were considered to be prior to 2010. Consider- ing that a pair of different density (high, low) growth bands represents one year of growth (Barnes and Lough 1993), each band was read individually (instead ofin pairs, as for the annual estimation) to obtain the 6-month growth values (Fig. 2). The 6-month skeletal extension was calculated as the linear distance occupied by each high- or low-density band. Average 6-month density was estimated as the average density between the minimum and maximum density of each individual band. The 6-month calcification rate was calcu- lated as the product between 6-month average density and linear extension rate.
Ruiz and San Blas, and inthe subtropical zone Tepic and Xalisco (SIAP, 2012). The nance fruit is considered a minor "harvesting" fruit plant because ofthe low technification of its cultivation, as the producers manage their orchards empirically; however, they have selected the best ecotypes based on size, flavor and color, which are themain fruit quality indices. The harvest season occurs from late July to September inthe tropical zone and from August to November inthe subtropical one (Medina-Torres et al., 2004), which coincides with the rainy or stormy season, in which most phytosanitary problems appear, particularly on the fruit, reducing its quality and yield. Commonly, producers wash the fruits after harvest and exclude those damaged by pathogens and insects
The educational television project “Los caminos de la vida” (The ways of life), for HIV/AIDS prevention among ru- ral adolescents inMexico, was undertaken between 1998 and 2000 by the civil society organization AFLUENTES. The ob- jective was to train educators and health service providers from rural areas on sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention. The project hoped to generate experience with which to launch a campaign directed to tele-secundarias (secondary schools in poor re- gions, which rely on televised instruction) throughout the country and to develop an educational manual on sexuality and STDs directed to rural educators. For that purpose, ethno- graphic studies were undertaken with youth in rural commu- nities, educators, and community promoters. The studies con- sidered elements such as migration and transformations in lo- cal world visions on sexuality as a result of contact with other cities inthe country and abroad and included focus groups with local community members. Elements and concepts related to solidarity, responsibility, tolerance, love, acceptance, equity, and justice were also explored. The elaboration and production ofthe educational videotape “Los caminos de la vida” was un- dertaken in 2002 and 2003 following the previously mentioned focus groups, but its impact evaluation is not yet available. The goal is that the educational videotape be disseminated in rural communities in 17 states in collaboration with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) OPORTUNIDADES pro- gram.
Whereas the disappearance of aquatic species was perhaps expected at the outset of this analysis, the second component—exotic species—was less anticipated. Fully 10 nineteenth-century species either were noted as exotics that had escaped from captivity (e.g., Serinus canarius) or are most likely escapes (e.g., Myadestes unicolor, which is still a popular cage bird because of its fantastic song). This early introduction pressure inMexico suggests that a considerable number of introductions have failed, perhaps because several were of tropical species (e.g., Cyanerpes cyaneus) not likely to survive inthe Valley of Mexico’s montane climate. The few introductions that have succeeded (e.g., Eurasian species, Aratinga canicularis, Amazona oratrix) have been of species that have some north-temperate or montane component to their native distributional areas.