It is often forgotten that Keynes and Sraffa were also joint editors ofthe new publication of Hume’s Abstract ofthe Treatise on Human Nature, pub-lished in 1938 by the Cambridge University Press. In their Introduction, the two Cambridge scholars reveal for the first time the true identity ofthe author ofthe pamphlet (originally anonymously published in 1740), namely Hume himself, previously and mistakenly attributed to Adam Smith. The Introduction is significant, since Keynes and Sraffa point out the importance ofthe Humean notions of causality, custom, belief and probability in explaining human behaviour and social institutions; more-over, they are constant themes in both Keynes’s and Sraffa’s thought. Coming to Cambridge, Sraffa, whose education was mainly inthe Contin-ental tradition—closer to Kantian idealism, that is—had had long discus-sions with Keynes on Hume and British Empiricism. These discussions are reflected in about twenty letters Sraffa and Keynes exchanged, from January 1937 to January 1938, dealing with their common task of editing Hume. For Sraffa it was a difficult time, in Italy looking after his father, who was seriously ill. Eventually, on 15 December 1937, Sraffa wrote to Keynes: ‘My father died a few days ago, peacefully and painlessly. I wish I could convey how intensely grateful he was to you to his last for all that you have done for me: his last happiness was to see my name next to yours on the proof ofthe Hume title-page’ (letter 1947, 15 December 1937). In general, we can infer from these letters not only the importance both economists attached (to a fault, even, if fault there may be in such matters) to precise, rigorous historical and philological research, but also to Humean philosophy and analytical method as a possible foundation for a rigorous economic theory (see Fitzgibbons 1988; Ingrao and Ranchetti 1996; Ranchetti 1999).
Los tres siguientes estudios, a cargo de T. Erickson-Gini, “Timna Site 2 Revisited” (pp. 47–83), de S. Shilstein, S. Shalev y Y. Yekutieli, “Appendix: XRF Study of Archaeological and Metallurgical Material from Copper Smelting Sites in Timna” (pp. 85–102) y de U. Avner, “Egyptian Timna- Reconsidered” (pp. 103–162), analizan diversos aspectos de la cultura mate- rial, vale decir, arqueológica del valle de Timna, ubicado al sur del actual Estado de Israel, muy cerca del golfo de Aqaba y lugar de una importante pro- ducción metalúrgica de cobre hacia fines de la Edad del Bronce Tardío (ca. 1550–1200 a.C.), indicios de la cual se remontan no obstante unos cinco mile- nios a.C., además de ser el sitio que Glueck asoció con las minas del bíblico rey Salomón en los años ’30 (conclusión considerablemente disputada en la actualidad) 1 . Erickson-Gini sostiene en su artículo que la interpretación que
In Great Britain, American scholars like Hughes, McCloskey, Harley, Williamson, Lindert, Mokyr, and Landes among others led the diffusion (McCloskey 1987, 77-84). British scholars like Crafts, Floud and Foreman-Peck responded to the stimulus (Floud and McCloskey 1981). The debates went around the Industrial Revolution, the entrepreneurial failure during the late 19 th century, the standard of living during the industrial revolution and the demographic history (Davis and Engerman 1987, 100-101; Crafts 1987a, 37-41). Subjects such as the unemployment in interwar Britain, the nature ofthe economic growth (the Habbakkuk debate), the construction of general equilibrium models and the population‟s evolution had reached quantitative sophistication (Crafts 1987b, Crafts et al. 1991a). Dumke (1992, 11) points out that “the center of cliometric research in Europe is Great Britain”. There cliometricians met regularly at the Quantitative Economic History Workshop, a similar discussion group at the University of London and LSE, and in research workshops at Oxford and Warwick. These communities had not only national publications as the Economic History Review and Oxford Economic Papers but also U.S. reviews like The Journal of Economic History and Explorations in Economic History to communicate their results. For example, Whaples finds that the pages published on British economic historyinthe JEH went from 1.3% in 1971-1975 to 6.5% in 1986-1990 (2001, 525). As was mentioned, British cliometricians had found resistance from competing communities of historians and economics historians whose SRPs are defined by the new social history, pervaded with Marxian influences. As a consequence, exciting debates have evolved around the evolution ofthe standard of living, and wealth and income inequality in capitalist countries (Dumke 1992, 14). Universities like LSE, Oxford, Edinburgh and Glasgow support independent departments of economic and social history which hosted alternative approaches. Other journals like Population Studies and the Journal of Historical Geography have diffused cliometricians‟ findings as well. Coats (1990) analyses the criticism that the quantitative history and cliometrics have undergone in Britain, while Crafts (1991a) provides an updated view ofthe state ofthe art. Crafts highlights how cliometrics has matured and emphasizes the cliometric contributions to British economic history.
Historians continue to conduct economic and social historyofthe nineteenth cen- tury, though not at the pace commensurate with an era whose manifestations continue today. Monographs, usually one or two on a given topic, address such topics as the prac- tices and agents of domestic and international commerce; rural society; the expansion of mines and industrial development; pragmatic protectionist policies; banks and their role inthe marketplace; state-run monopolies and the commercial stock market; busi- nessmen and politicians, merchants, entrepreneurs, and capitalists. These studies also deal with the historical problem ofthe poor; the expressions and organization of popular movements; mechanisms of labor discipline such as whips, wages, and laws; the sour- ces of wealth such as minerals, haciendas, workshops, and factories; the wine industry; the prison system and mechanisms of coercion; the exportation of goods, especially mi- nerals; mechanisms of foreign trade; commercial modernization; tastes and styles of fin de siècle high society; relationships and strategies of reproduction among lower-class families; the links between rural power and social structure; the technology applied to state-owned railroads; elite practices of charity that also reveal the needs ofthe poor; health and healthcare, diseases and plagues; the development ofthe middle class (the study of which has only recently begun and deserves much more attention given the im- portance attributed to it); and studiesof particular regions in relation to such problems as how their geographic and political situation impacts commerce.
English has become increasingly dominant as a world language for communication in higher education. The simultaneous impact of globalization, the spread of English and technological development have transformed the learning and teaching methods of English as a lingua franca in an unprecedented way. (Warschauer, 2004). Consequently, being able to speak English has become crucial inthe current professional world. That is why students, whose mother tongue is not English, often have to develop a high level of competence in this language to pursue their studies. This requirement is especially imperative for students majoring in English, who will have to perform as translators and interpreters in different contexts: tourism, business, commerce, international affairs, academic programs, and scientific communication, among others.
The measurement of technical progress or total factor productivity has three basic variants. Inthe traditional, neoclassical or Hicksian variant, all measurable inputs are treated alike. In particular, no distinction is drawn between inputs which are non- reproducible and those which are reproducible—that is to say, those which are simultaneously inputs and outputs ofthe economic system. Elsewhere 2 I argue that the failure ofthe traditional measures of multifactor productivity to distinguish between non- reproducible and reproducible inputs involves logical contradiction and results in potentially severe understatements ofthe measured rate of technical advance. 3 A second variant of measured technical progress is the neo-Ricardian construct, which rigorously takes into account the reproducibility of all forms of capital inputs. For economies in which throughout this chapter non-reproducible inputs such as land and exhaustible natural resources 4 are ignored, this concept conceives of all non-reproducible inputs as being drawn from one class of primary inputs, human labour or ‘working’. 5 Inthe neo- Ricardian conception, capital vanishes as a class of primary inputs. The third variant ofthe measurement of technical progress is one based on the concept advanced by Harrod. Harrod’s concept of technical progress also rigorously distinguishes between non- reproducible and reproducible inputs, with the former consisting of two classes of primary inputs, ‘working’ and ‘waiting’. 6 Neutral technical progress in Harrod, sometimes incorrectly designated as purely labour augmenting, results in equi- proportional increases inthe efficiency or augmentation of working and waiting. Progress is biased in Harrod’ s sense when it is either relatively working- or waiting-using. The concept of working in Harrod is the familiar one of labour, expressed in natural units. But what is the concept of waiting in Harrodian technical progress? Can it be expressed in natural units? Is the concept operational? These are the questions which this chapter tries to answer. 7 In contrasting Harrod’s concepts and measures of primary inputs and technical progress with the other variants, issues in capital theory are joined.
The ultimate aim ofthe project was to write a new historyof Danish elementary education by problematizing what «school» really meant to different individuals at various points in time and highlighting the «relations between social changes, educational visions and policies, and local interests and disagreements» (de Coninck-Smith, Nørgaard, Appel, n.d.). Inspired by studiesinthehistoryofthe childhood, participants wished to apply a perspective from below and focus on people and everyday practice in various types of schools, rather than writing a historyof educational legislation and ideology. In other words, the intention was to offer an alternative to the national framework within which Danish school history had commonly been situated. Regional perspectives were emphasized and education in Danish colonies and dominions perused. From the published volumes it is clear that the project has fulfilled its objectives, setting a new standard and serving as a source of inspiration for any similar undertaking inthe other Nordic countries. It is noteworthy that the theme ofthe Fifth Nordic Conference in Educational Historyin 2012 clearly reflected the ideals ofthe Danish elementary school project.
Again, ecological economics has taken on board some ofthe insights from the deliberative democracy literature through work on deliberative multi-criteria analysis and deliberative valuation (Zografos & Howarth, 2008). Nevertheless, these attempts focus more on using deliberation to extract more representative group environmental values or preferences in a quasi-experimental environment rather than examining the policy potential and limitations of deliberative processes. Criticism of deliberative valuation suggests that in practice they function as a means for justifying stated preference methods by adding often superficial forms of deliberation or discussion, and that they essentially point out that the economic model they use is unsuitable for understanding particular sets of social values as regards the environment (Spash, 2008). Moreover, the study ofthe deliberative potential of existing participatory decision-making arrangements is less advanced in ecological economics. In one exception, concerns regarding the application and full potential of deliberative processes as regards environmental decision-making have been raised (Kallis et al., 2007). This work points out that the framing ofthe processes is key so much regarding the assumptions that underlie them and the assumptions of those
In recent years there has been a growing literature that uses self-reported (subjective) life satisfaction measures to proxy utility. This literature (the so-called ´´Happiness Research”) documented an increased willingness of economists to use subjective direct utility data (e.g. Layard, 2005; or van Praag et al., 2004). This development has been made possible by the vast number ofstudies documenting the reliability of such subjective utility data. These studies have collected evidence, that 1) people can generally tell how happy or satisfied they are (usually 99% response rates, Layard; 2003), 2) self-reported happiness corresponds to objectively measurable brain activity (Davidson, 2000) 3) different measures of happiness (e.g. self-reported life satisfaction, well-being, depression) correlate well with each other (Fordyce et al., 1988; Luttmer, 2004), 4) happiness reports are comparable over time and across individuals (e.g. Ng, 1997), 5) subjec- tive happiness data predicts future observed behavior (see Clark, Frijters and Shields (2008a) for an overview) and 6) "assuming ordinality or car- dinality of happiness scores makes little difference” Ferrer-i-Carbonell and Frijters, 2004). Inthe present study I first assume cardinality of self- reported expected and realized life satisfaction (which allows me to use all the information ofthe forecast error) and then I test whether results hold if only ordinality is assumed.
The Italian economist Paolo Sylos Labini in his work Elementi di dinámica eco- nomica emphasized the fact that the distinction between logical time, real time and historical time can also be of great interest to display a mode of research in econom- ics which combines relevance and rigor. It tries to give explanations concerning rele- vant economic processes in an analysis which integrates rigorous methods, including, as Schumpeter did, theory, quantification and history. In this work, Becattini, with his studies on the Marshallian Industrial District, brought to contemporary economic analysis, a way of doing economics using Marshallian methodology, which includes a theory about and a knowledge of reality, and a study of economic processes in his- torical time. Thus, he builds a significant part ofthe «economic theory ofthe future» proposed by Schumpeter.
Among more recent publications on the theme of special education for the deaf, worthy of note is Anna Debè’s short and accessible account ofthe life and work of Father Giulio Tarra, director ofthe Institute for Poor Deaf-Mutes from the rural hinterland of Milan. The monograph «Fatti per arte parlanti» [«Made to speak by art»] (2014) has the merit of bringing to light the contribution of this Milanese priest, in a way that does justice to his multi-faceted and charis- matic personality as an educator and scholar without being over-emphatic or unduly celebratory. Cited earlier in this paper as a successful textbook author, he was exceptional in his day in that he produced materials for schoolchildren in general and not exclusively for deaf students. Thus, Debè provides us with a rich and fascinating profile of Fr. Tarra, in which the human side of his story as narrated by those who were close to him is outlined alongside his gradual transi- tion as an educator towards an increasingly firm and well-meditated belief inthe superiority ofthe pure oral method. His ideas were grounded in familiarity with the specialist literature on the topic and visits to other Italian and foreign schools for the deaf, as well as his own practical experience as director ofthe institute and inthe equally challenging role of teacher. It was precisely Fr. Tarra’s quest for the optimum system of deaf education, a constant focus in his studies and day to day teaching activities, which lead to developments in teaching methods that not only prompted significant change in his own institute, but also – thanks to his prolific exchanges with other educators – laid the bases for the general method- ological shift approved by the Milan Congress of 1880; a congress at which Tarra was to play a leading role alongside Frs. Serafino Balestra and Tommaso Pendola. Thus, the work of Anna Debè brings to light aspects that had not been fully explored in earlier research: for example, the fact that some nineteenth century teachers ofthe deaf engaged in ongoing self-training, constructing a «body of experience» and developing networks of relations functional to exchanging infor- mation, enhancing the quality of their teaching and promoting the use and dif- fusion of new practices. This kind of contact among educators took the form of exchanging letters and visits to one another’s institutions but could also involve forms of teaching exchange.
As mentioned earlier, Latin American scholars’ interests cover a wide range of regions including China, Japan, and Korea. They commonly focus their academic research on general Asian Studies with a comparative focus that allows them to relate their findings to their own countries. For Latin American scholars, an integrated historyof China, Japan, and Korea must be easier to understand since no systematic Asian-regional studies exist in Latin America where the influence of European history education obliges professors “to teach about the whole continent [of Europe] whether they specialize in Spain or Latvia” (Lipman, Molony and Robinson 2012, 11) due to their experience of Spanish and Portuguese colonization. Certainly there is a lack of systematic education in efforts for Korean Studies, but why do Korean Studies-related activities stop when grants end? Also, the lack of Koreanists generates unnecessary competition among Latin American universities and scholars due to the struggle to obtain financial resources and the consequent obsession to satisfy the requirements of Korean governmental funding institutions, which produce and distort the reality of establishing the “first department,” or the “first center,” or the “first association.” The Latin American bureaucracy makes it very difficult to establish Korean Studies as an independent area of study and, as mentioned earlier, when dedicated centers or associations are established, they often close due to internal and external problems, along with the difficulty of providing matching funds in response to financial support from Korean governmental institutions. The desire to satisfy internal and external requirements for funding sometimes leads to creative name-building such as “center-program.”
which argued that «For development to be sustainable it must take account of social and ecological factors, as well as economic ones...» (IUCN 1980: 18). This theme was carried further by the 1987 re- port ofthe World Commission on Environment and Development, also known as the Brundtland Commission, which provided perhaps the most widely recognised definition of sustainable development (as outlined in section 2). The United Nations Conference on Envi- ronment and Development, commonly known as the Earth Summit, did much to bring the term into common parlance. Five years later, the Convention on Climate Change was expanded to include the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to achieve its «ultimate objective» of sustainable development. As can be seen in figure 6, the term human development was present inthe literature since the nineteenth century, although its meaning took different forms. Regardless ofthe nature of these dif- ferences, human development was always articulated in terms of a process. The emergence of economic development and its domi- nance during much ofthe twentieth century resulted inthe rela- tively limited use ofthe term until the publication ofthe first Human Development Report in 1990. The rebirth of human development was principally associated with the influential work of Sen, although important contributions were also made by scholars such as Paul Streeten, Sudhir Anand, and Mahbub ul Haq. This work represented a sustained critique ofthe concept of economic development and its prioritisation of accumulation and conceptualised human develop- ment in terms of process and activity. This conception of human development was institutionalised by the UNDP inthe Human De- velopment Report, first published in 1990, and the corresponding Human Development Index. The aegis of this more holistic approach to development was reached at the turn ofthe century. The Millen- nium Summit and the accompanying Millennium Declaration, de- clared development to be a universal right, and the General Assem- bly committed itself to making this right «... a reality for everyone and to freeing the entire human race from want» (United Nations 2000: 4). The general objective was to be achieved by way ofthe realisation ofthe Millennium Development Goals, perhaps the ulti- mate articulation of development as activity. This included eight Goals, divided into 21 «targets», each operationalised by a set of indicators.
registered. Both the cultivated society and the professionals of translation are realizing that there are two types of translation products that correspond to two aspects or utilities of their exercise: one that is fungible and that is con- sumed, more or less ephemeral (= functional) that gets exhausted by using it or that ends up inthe shredding machine; and the perennial one, that once used, immediately acquires the value of a lasting document, a value that is stored inthe file of humanity, say the library. If until recently the systemat- ic-synchronic study ofthe discipline has been predominant, from the recent turn ofthe century, works that valued socially and culturally translation ser- vices to history and to the progress of mankind have emerged. Pioneers were the works by Henri van Hoof (1991) and A. Lefevere (1992), and the scientif- ic meetings around the topic of Translation History at Leon University, dating back to the eighties. When in 1993 Textos clásicos de teoría de la traducción appeared in Madrid, there was only an anthology on the market, that of J. C. Santoyo, referring to Spanish theorists. A few years later, only in Spain, there were two more anthologies. It must be said that in this field Spanish researchers have been pioneers in what is now a trending topic of research. Studies such as those of J. Delisle, a title loaded with meaning, Les traducteurs dans l’histoire (1995), or L. Venuti’s The Translator’s Invisibility (1995), which includes the social destiny ofthe translator, appeared later. Next came Clara Foz’s investigations on the School of Translators of Toledo (1998) or Nora Catelli and Marietta Gargatagli’s (1998) on miscellaneous aspects of historical traductography. Contemporary to these works, the General Historyof Literary Translation by José Francisco Ruiz Casanova (2000) and Francisco Lafarga’s (1999) referred to a very productive period of translation in Spain (1750- 1830), are flagship work that denotes a depuration ofthe historiographical concept of translation. More recently, La Historia de la Traducción en España by Lafarga and Pegenaute (2004) has come to mark a milestone in Spanish bibliography, becoming a founding text ofthe discipline. The respective an- thologies of theoretical texts published by Lafarga, Santoyo and Vega have provided some essential materials when researching thehistoryof translation aesthetics. Besides these, many other monographs will serve inthe future to support integrated enunciations. 7 Even the Spanish-Australian Pym has come
Abstract: Organization Engineering, more commonly referred to as Industrial Engineering inthe English-speaking world, is a wi- despread discipline that covers fields from Economic Analysis to Production Management or Operational Research. Our objecti- ve with this paper is to describe the historical evolution of this discipline, star ting from the strive ofthe Industrial Revolution for efficiently planning and managing the new production means. We discuss the main cornerstones in this evolution, star ting with the works of F.W. Taylor, analyze the influence of World War II, which boosted the demand for increasingly complex models, algorithms and applications, and describe the current scenario for Organization Engineering and its main challenges for the future. The paper then turns to the Spanish context, where the academic development ofthe discipline is also analyzed, including mention ofthe different Engineering Schools where the corresponding fields were incorporated to their curriculum, and ending with the current scenario brought along at the European level by the Bologna agreement. The third and final par t ofthe paper explores the rela- tion between Organization Engineering and Business Organization in Spain. These two areas of knowledge, the first one related to engineering and industrial concepts while the second one is more focused on economics and usually based on Economics Fa- culties, are often perceived as identical due to their similarities, but we comment on their differences, which are also representa- tive ofthe differences between Industrial Engineering and Economics, in terms of contents, methodologies and scope.
However, the possibility of opening new areas of study within the framework of this approach did not end around the construction ofthe citizenship model as we have just explained. The need to unravel more thoroughly the real impact and ways in which these educational transfer processes had been established was noted (Duedahl, 2016). Thus, in recent years, some works have appeared that indicate the importance ofthe Cold War in modifying curricular policies at the international level. John L. Rudolph has pointed out, for example, how science curricula and teaching processes were altered inthe US as a result ofthe impact ofthe Soviet launch of Sputnik. This historical fact produced a deep debate in various educational spheres within the USA that caused a multitude of modifications in science teaching, as well as inthe development of new educational policies in this country (Rudolph, 2002). However, it was not only in relation to the science curriculum. The Cold War brought with it the impulse of a whole debate that also affected the lifestyles and values of western societies. Indeed, it also affected the implementation of new knowledge about social studiesin North American schools (Evans, 2011) and in other countries (Martín García, 2013). The objective was to socialize certain knowledge about the virtues that coexistence models presented in developed societies (Gilman, 2003).
M exico, the Americas, and the World is a research project ofthe Division of International Studies at the Center for Research and Teaching inEconomics, dedicated to studying the social attitudes and political culture of Mexicans with respect to Foreign Policy and International Relations Currently, the project has taken on a regional scope, consisting of a periodic biennial survey using representative samples ofthe national population and, in some countries, a group of leaders It is a rigorous instrument to gather original and reliable information about opinions, attitudes, beliefs, interests, aspirations, feelings, social values and behaviors in regards to international issues This is one of a kind project, not only in Mexico but inthe rest of Latin America as well, given that by focusing on social attitudes towards foreign affairs, it fills an information gap about the relationship between citizens and global governance With a comprehensive approach, the project covers a wide range of topics (cultural, economic, political, social and security-related issues), of social groups (leaders and the general public) and geographic regions (the north, center and south ofthe country) It collects data on general perceptions, not on opinions of conjuncture One ofthe traits that distinguishes Mexico, the Americas, and the World from other academic research on social attitudes is that it allows simultaneous comparisons and cross tabulations at five levels: sub-national, among the different regions ofthe country (North, Center, South); national, between elites and the Mexican public as well as among different economic levels and socio-demographic variables; intra-elite, between government, political, busi- ness, academic, and social leaders; international, between the populations of different countries, and longitudinal, or across different biennial periods
In all four journals, embedded issue statements were the most frequent kind, often relying on nominalisation to encapsulate the main question: “this article discusses the regulation of medicinal products”, or “This article presents a discussion on arbitration in Denmark and analyzes the options which parties have under the new Danish Arbitration Act (AA)”. The trend towards nominalisation in written English, and particularly in specialised registers, has been well documented (Halliday and Martin, 1993; Gotti, 2008). Nominalisation permits greater concision, and makes it possible to introduce concepts or verbal actions in thematic position, thus facilitating the flow of complex information (Gotti, 2008). Moreover, as Halliday pointed out (1990), nominalisation tends to confer a sense of objectivity, presenting processes or actions as a state of affairs, something to be taken for granted. Within the area of law, Bhatia has noted that nominalisation “helps a legal draftsman to make his provisions more compact and yet precise and all-inclusive” (Bhatia, 1994: 142). This holds for legislation and for the drafting of legal documents, but may also affect other areas of legal writing in which the need to sound objective is combined with high information density. On this basis, it may be surmised that inthe abstract, nominalisation serves a dual function: to permit complex ideas to be conveyed concisely; and to present processes or actions as objective “issues”. In using this style, legal academics are both following the norms of legal writing, and using a convention common to many technical and scientific disciplines. The persuasive function of this phenomenon should not be ignored, however. By objectifying actions through nominalisation, the writer is already according them the status of an “issue”, a pressing question or matter which requires attention. Inthe reduced space ofthe abstract, these nominalisations may even serve the function of “key words” (not provided separately in these journals), which can be identified swiftly on a superficial reading. They thus advertise the main issue covered by the article in terms that their readers will quickly assimilate.