PDF superior RWR: the reading-writing-research tasks for thesis writing development

RWR: the reading-writing-research tasks for thesis writing development

RWR: the reading-writing-research tasks for thesis writing development

53 Supervision has been documented to be led by an expert in the field who can orient the thesis writer throughout the whole process. Nevertheless, as Difabio De Anglat emphasizes, supervisors do not simply carry out all previous tasks in a void. All these activities are aimed to promote the thesis writer’s access to the culture of research into a very specific community of practice –a research community. Being able to interact with other academics and research students in the field in ways that are community-specific appropriate cannot easily be achieved by the thesis writer unless his/her and other supervisors create opportunities for thesis writers to benefit from interaction with other thesis writers, supervisors and experts in the field (2011, 944). These interactions usually occur in the shape of meetings with committees before whom thesis writers present their research project progress (Difabio De Anglat, 2011, 945). Therefore, gatekeeping the quality of the work produced by the thesis writer, Difabio De Anglat points out, is one of the two ends of a very delicate balance between support (as described in all instances where the supervisor assists and orients the thesis writer) and configuration (actions that place current academic standards on top of interest) at a postgraduate level of supervision (2011, 951). These studies seem to suggest that thesis writers do not have to wait until the end of their BA program to be involved in learning, doing and reporting about research, and that the earlier they start, the better.
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24 Lee mas

Estrategias metodológicas en inglés y sus influencias en las destrezas de Escritura y Lectura // English methodological strategies and their influences on Reading and Writing skills

Estrategias metodológicas en inglés y sus influencias en las destrezas de Escritura y Lectura // English methodological strategies and their influences on Reading and Writing skills

To promote learning strategies for reading and writing in the English language and the skills that are included in the development of this process during the modules that are taught at the State University of Milagro, a descriptive research work directly focused on students of Engineering Systems was conducted. Through this, it was identified the aspects that affect negatively the learning process as well as the difficulty that students have in their study surroundings. It was found that students demand motivation from teachers as well as the use of appropriate techniques and strategies to transfer their knowledge to students. It is recommended that teachers use motivational teaching techniques, so that students can feel stimulated when learning this language since it is necessary to develop skills in oral and written communication with a permanent sense of exchange and cooperation which will provide grea- ter security to students when reading and writing English. A descriptive method and surveys were used. The surveys were applied to 103 students. The results showed that 71% of students’ level is low, 45% of them said they have a lack of understanding in reading and 67% do not present affinity for reading. This research proposes the incorporation of active methodological strategies that foster the development of understanding and analysis skills, which are based on grammar and text patterns that allow the proper use of reading and writing in English when using vocabulary and grammatical structures in a correct way. Therefore, students will drop the fear and the difficulty they have in learning English. They will also generate confidence in their cognitive part to build and deve- lop written texts according to their level of knowledge and this way, they will be able to reach meaningful learning.
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9 Lee mas

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism not frequently approached. Written materials in a language, whether in children’s literature or mass media, can extend input even in the absence of many language speakers (Pearson, 2007). Reading is an important consolidator of older children’s language skills and contributes to both greater proficiency and retention of a language. Cobo-Lewis, Eilers, Pearson and Umbel (2002) reported a group of bilingual children who learned to read in both English and Spanish. After conducting a correlational analysis of their linguistic abilities in both languages, results demonstrated very good performance on all tasks administered for their study. Essentially, learning both languages simultaneously did not inhibit performance in one language or the other. According to Pearson (2007), there are certain bilingual programs that hesitate to introduce reading in two languages for fear of confusing the child, but research has shown otherwise in which reading skills transfer from one language to another. Research in general has demonstrated that simultaneously learning two languages at school usually results in an apparent delay in language development, but such as delay is no longer observed after some few years of school (Hoff & Shatz, 2009; Oller & Eilers, 2002).
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14 Lee mas

Improving the writing skill of MEIF students at the open system through semi-controlled writing tasks for homework at a basic level

Improving the writing skill of MEIF students at the open system through semi-controlled writing tasks for homework at a basic level

affect the spelling of words. Harmer (2004: 47) states that reading longer texts could help students with their English spelling. With regards to the layout and punctuation, conventions slightly differ from one language to another in gender and formality. Therefore, these two issues might cause some problems to foreign language students as they try to write something in a language that is not their mother tongue (Harmer, 2002). However, students could overcome some of these problems if they are provided with exercises which help them develop their writing ability. Coping and parallel sentence are two teaching techniques that could be a starting point for a later more creative writing (Harmer: 2009, 44). Copying involves writing simple or combined letters, words from a list or classifying words in columns. The idea is that students can firstly learn letter and word formation by doing it with a model (Harmer, 2009, 52). Once students are able to learn that, they can use words to construct sentences and then paragraphs and texts (Harmer, 2009, 55). In the case of parallel sentence writing, students “…rewrite the sentences [from model sentences from the board or a written text provided by the teacher], making it true from themselves, using the model sentences to get the grammar right (Baker, 2005: 73-74)”. Thus, students could have a better idea of how to write their own paragraphs and increase the development of the writing skill.
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47 Lee mas

Promoting confidence in writing in a course of english for specific purposes for library information science students

Promoting confidence in writing in a course of english for specific purposes for library information science students

language, and the way in which they struggle to reach proficiency. When writing, students tend to think in their L1, and write in their L1 first, to then use resources to translate what they have written. These actions are reflected in written works that include L1 expressions or transfer not expected at their English level. Even though, some learners socialize their work with the teacher or peers, it is perceived that what hinders their further development are the actions they undertake at the beginning of their writing process. Despite the fact that learners rely on learning resources (such as dictionaries, online writing checkers, or translators), most of them are unsure about their writing outcomes and struggle to make sense of what they have written. Therefore, given this uncertainty, most learners experience low confidence in their use of English in writing tasks, which derives mostly on translation methods. The major inference that can be drawn is that learners’ low proficiency beliefs and lack of confidence in their linguistic abilities hinder the entire process of writing. As a result, the first research question raised from the study will consider this issue as the foremost relevant one to be addressed in order to design an intervention with a strategy that helps learners gain confidence in their own skills.
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101 Lee mas

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism not frequently approached. Written materials in a language, whether in children’s literature or mass media, can extend input even in the absence of many language speakers (Pearson, 2007). Reading is an important consolidator of older children’s language skills and contributes to both greater proficiency and retention of a language. Cobo-Lewis, Eilers, Pearson and Umbel (2002) reported a group of bilingual children who learned to read in both English and Spanish. After conducting a correlational analysis of their linguistic abilities in both languages, results demonstrated very good performance on all tasks administered for their study. Essentially, learning both languages simultaneously did not inhibit performance in one language or the other. According to Pearson (2007), there are certain bilingual programs that hesitate to introduce reading in two languages for fear of confusing the child, but research has shown otherwise in which reading skills transfer from one language to another. Research in general has demonstrated that simultaneously learning two languages at school usually results in an apparent delay in language development, but such as delay is no longer observed after some few years of school (Hoff & Shatz, 2009; Oller & Eilers, 2002).
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14 Lee mas

El papel de la traducción en el proceso de aprendizaje de una segunda lengua

El papel de la traducción en el proceso de aprendizaje de una segunda lengua

La competencia lectora ha sido la elegida por los maestros como la destreza en la que se utiliza con mayor frecuencia la traducción. Sin embargo, cuando les preguntamos si en los ejercicios de lectura se suele llevar a cabo la traducción del texto, el 75% responde que no, mientras que el 25% que han respondido que sí apuntan a que se realiza por contexto, y no palabra por palabra y de forma literal. No vamos a entrar en la discusión de qué método de traducción es el más eficaz, ya que cada uno puede comprender una serie de factores positivos y negativos dependiendo del objetivo propuesto. El problema aquí es que el 74% de los alumnos afirman que sí se realiza la traducción de fragmentos de los libros de lectura como parte de las actividades propuestas, y además añaden que suelen realizarlo palabra por palabra dentro del aula, cosa que hemos podido comprobar en nuestra breve estancia en el centro educativo. Con esto, a donde queremos llegar, es que probablemente sea cierto que el reading es una de las actividades más abundantes en la clase de inglés, y además, como indican los resultados de esta encuesta, es una de las destrezas
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63 Lee mas

Animal humanities, or, on reading and writing the nonhuman

Animal humanities, or, on reading and writing the nonhuman

Like “Humanities for the Environment,” this special section of Ecozon@, complemented and enhanced by the images, poems, and texts in the Creative Writing and Art section curated by Serenella Iovino, celebrates the potentials of the humanities to shift the lens on a complex world of social uncertainties and contingencies. Yet our contributors ponder something even broader than the “New Human Condition,” looking at the world with nonhuman, posthuman, and more-than-human conditions in mind. The authors of the Humanities for the Environment manifesto conducted work funded by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and organized themselves into “Observatories” that sought to “observe broadly and reach out to map and work with the many new environmental humanities initiatives developing regionally and around the world” (Holm et al. 978). Many of the essays in this special section recall that, in addition to being “observers,” we humans are also, as John Berger and Jacques Derrida so convincingly articulated, observed by nonhuman others. The Manifesto may well recognize that our world looks different when seen from different cultural perspectives: “The challenges look differently to people in the streets of Beijing, in the townships of Johannesburg, and in the cornfields of Kansas” (Holm et al. 979). Yet examining exclusively human perspectives on or even solutions to planetary problems encounters a limit of its own. As this section conceives the field, Animal Humanities wonders whether the “New Human Condition” might learn something from the “New Posthuman Condition,” or what Braidotti calls the “post-anthropocentric premises and technologically mediated emphasis on Life as a zoe-centred system of species egalitarianism” (Posthuman 146). In a series of three special issues of Angelaki: Journal of the
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9 Lee mas

Promoting reading and writing among ESL/EFL students: a proposal with Choose Your Own Adventure stories

Promoting reading and writing among ESL/EFL students: a proposal with Choose Your Own Adventure stories

Anytime teaching is the central topic, there is always a place for the evaluation. It is important to remember that “students in a critical creative writing classroom do not enact a universal standard of art, since any universal is but a privileging of one perspective” ( Adsit, 2017, p. 102). Therefore, they need to be assessed within a special rubric that covers originality, creativity, attractiveness, a great variety of terms and structures or whether everything is well expressed, rather than just grading the text from 1 (being the lowest mark) to 10 (being the highest mark). Teachers should not focus on the number of grammar mistakes the students have made, but on their capacity to transmit their ideas properly and on the value of the text as a communicative and even teaching tool because “a critical creative writing pedagogy values flexibility, collaboration, and student agency. The goal is to enliven students’ interest in writing in its range of forms and genres, to help them gain a fuller sense of how language works upon us and how we can act through it.” (Adsit, 2017, p. 117)
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59 Lee mas

Reflection: reading and writing processes in the university environment

Reflection: reading and writing processes in the university environment

Higher education in Colombia is regulated by entities that promote equality in access to quality education; among them it is found the National Ministry of Education (MEN), which prepares the SABER PRO exams, in reading and writing as two essential components that aim to create indices for the improvement of Colombian education. Ramírez (2009) argues for “la necesidad de articular el sistema de educación media y superior con una estrategia global de competitividad para aumentar la productividad de Colombia ante el mundo” [the need to articulate the secondary and higher education system with a global strategy of competitiveness in order to increase pro- ductivity in Colombia compared to the rest of the world (own translation)] (p. 3) 1 . Reading
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7 Lee mas

The use of Rassias method : micrologues to improve writing on a basic english course

The use of Rassias method : micrologues to improve writing on a basic english course

This action plan was carried out throughout four weeks of the regular Basic English II course with a total of four-topic lessons based on the content syllabus. Four micrologues were designed and were used once every week at the end of the topic. The time of each activity lasted around forty minutes. In order to fulfill the students’ writing necessities of the formal curriculum, the vocabulary, the content, and the grammar were related in creating each micrologue to help students practice their writing. In addition, a second writing activity was added to the original version with an error correction code to give indirect feedback to the student. In the original procedure, an overhead projector is used; in this action plan, instead of using the overhead projector, a student was asked to write the first writing activity on the a large piece of paper, which was then stuck on the board for correction. The following are the stages implemented in this action plan.
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67 Lee mas

E  actividades de writing y reading para ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje

E actividades de writing y reading para ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje

Se han dispuesto preguntas de comprensión lectora relacionadas con el texto “The Hours That Count In My Life” escrito por Martin Smith (Ver Apéndice B). Después de la lectura se ha considerado una hora para responderlo. El curso ha contado con un banco de veinticinco (25) preguntas para esta prueba en particular, donde diez (10) de ellas se visualizan en el momento de presentar el examen (Ver Apéndice C). Las fechas de apertura y de cierre dependen del periodo académico. En ese lapso de tiempo se ingresa libremente en el horario escogido para realizar el cuestionario. Si alguien ha tenido dificultades eléctricas, excusa médica, situación de emergencia, etc., se realiza una apertura específica en hora y fecha dada por el director.
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63 Lee mas

Warmers and fillers in the development of English speaking skills for students of second basic year at Unidad Educativa Santa Teresita, La Libertad, province of Santa Elena, school year 2014 – 2015.

Warmers and fillers in the development of English speaking skills for students of second basic year at Unidad Educativa Santa Teresita, La Libertad, province of Santa Elena, school year 2014 – 2015.

language immediately. It contributes to the language production in a more natural and spontaneous form, in which learners have fun through lively lessons with lots of movements. It is known that learners apprehend best the knowledge when they are exposed to concrete experiences; in TPR learners are exposed to physical movements while learning, which is memorable for their language acquisition. This strategy can be used in classroom as daily routines, at the beginning learners model actions their teacher says and perform, then pupils move on doing themselves just by listening the commands, and finally learners will be able to say the commands, so that children start producing the second language.
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143 Lee mas

ANALYSIS OF THE WRITING STRATEGIES USED FOR TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN CAMILO GALLEGOS TOLEDO SCHOOL, SEVENTH GRADE OF E G B PARALLEL “A” IN THE CITY OF RIOBAMBA, CHIMBORAZO PROVINCE IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2017 2018

ANALYSIS OF THE WRITING STRATEGIES USED FOR TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN CAMILO GALLEGOS TOLEDO SCHOOL, SEVENTH GRADE OF E G B PARALLEL “A” IN THE CITY OF RIOBAMBA, CHIMBORAZO PROVINCE IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2017 2018

Coherence is important in writing as it relates to expressing consistent and understandable ideas in a text. On the other hand, cohesion has been defined as "joining a text together with reference words (e.g. he, theirs, the former) and conjunctions (e.g. but, then) so that the whole text is clear and readable" (Bailey, 2011, p. 115). In other words, cohesion refers to the logical connections of a text at the sentence level. This term involves grammatical and lexical relationships between the elements of written production (Grabe & Kaplan, 2014). Some examples of cohesion are reference through personal or possessive pronouns, substitution or ellipsis, connectors to link the sentences of a paragraph, synonyms to avoid lexical repetition, and punctuation (Ferris & Hedgcock, 2014). Cohesion plays an important role in academic writing because it affects the interpretation of a writer's discourse. According to Halliday & Hasan (2013), "it is the continuity provided by a cohesion that enables the reader or listener to supply all the missing pieces, all the components of the picture which are not present in the text but are necessary to its interpretation" (p. 299). Therefore, writers should correctly produce cohesive texts to ensure others understand their messages.
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48 Lee mas

The effects of journal writing on EFL pre service teachers' development of writing skills

The effects of journal writing on EFL pre service teachers' development of writing skills

25 required to write reflective journals based on the readings and materials selected, in-class discussion and also on their classmates and their own understanding and opinions on the topics. Even though the main focus of the journals was on the content, students had to write in English, yet they were advised not to get obsessed with the linguistic aspect. As an average, each of the students wrote 12 journals and the teacher gave feedback to each of those entries. As a result, the chance for further discussion presented itself. The study itself took place the following semester. Among the students who attended the course, six were selected as participants. They all had at least an upper- advanced level in English and had experience in EFL teaching, which they considered their main career. In order to collect data, focus group sessions were organized so as to allow participants to discuss on their experience with reflective journal writing, the discussion was directed hoping to find out what were the advantages of reflective journal writing, its challenges and how to address those challenges. Among the benefits of reflective journal writing, participants identified fostering self-awareness, constructing and expanding personal understanding, developing reflection and reasoning skills, and engaging in dialog with the teacher educator. As for the challenges presented, the group could perceive that there is a conflict between transmission-oriented schooling and reflective tasks and that writing reflective journals requires a great amount of preparation. However, they also suggested that clarifying the nature and purposes of writing reflective journals and asking teachers to share their journals might help overcome those challenges.
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82 Lee mas

The use of lateral thinking puzzles to improve opinion paragraph writing  : thinking puzzles to unpuzzle thinking

The use of lateral thinking puzzles to improve opinion paragraph writing : thinking puzzles to unpuzzle thinking

and by presenting an appropriate closing that restated some points of the introduction. Most of the major points were supported with specific detail and adecuated of depth was clearly evident in each of them. Voice was mature, consistent and suitable for the topic, purpose, and audience. In short, S11 addressed the writing task in a more appropriate way than in excerpt # 1 and the structure of the text showed a more academic style regarding the organization of ideas which facilitated a more fluent and coherent writing. S11 demostrated more specifically her point of view about the world’s best destination and seemed to gain thinking skills that allowed her to evaluate and make judgements about a certain topic as well as produce a text in which she stated the otucomes of such evaluation. Indeed, she did not only use descriptive sentences as shown in excert #1 but she also expressed desires and wishes that worked as support for her statements. In the same way, it can be said that excert # 2 showed improvement regarding the student’s level of language as she broadened her vocabulary repertoire, improved her conceptual knowledge concerned with linguistic devices.
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108 Lee mas

The use of real women’s life stories as a situated writing model : empowering students to create their own path

The use of real women’s life stories as a situated writing model : empowering students to create their own path

The last study was titled “Genre-based tasks in foreign language writing: Developing writer’s genre awareness, linguistic knowledge, and writing competence” performed by Yasuda (2011). This was a qualitative and quantitative study developed with 70 students in an English writing course at a private university in Japan. It aimed to examine how novice foreign language writers developed their linguistic knowledge, genre awareness and writing competence by using the pre-and post-emails tasks in order to collect data, surveys and interviews. Yasuda designed a syllabus in which students followed different tasks with a specific purpose for using language. These tasks involved 4 phases: task input, in which students analyzed email samples; pedagogic task, focused on form and function, that is to say, an explicit grammar explanation; target task, in which students wrote the email demonstrating what they learned, and the last one; task follow-up, in which students reflected to perceive strengths and difficulties during their writing process.
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100 Lee mas

Reading Plan Proposals

Reading Plan Proposals

Each pupil has a digital book in their laptops but at the same time the book is projected on the digital board in class. The book is designed in the same way as a traditional book so that the pupils have two options, the first one using the digital book in the laptop or the second one using the traditional book. One important thing about this resource is that it allows listening to the reading of each contents paragraph. The texts are read by two native people who have different accents. Obviously, the children listen to a perfect intonation and key words pronunciation is carefully remarked. So, while pupils are studying Science content they can practice the listening and reading skills (as we referred to before when dealing with CLIL - Content and language integrated learning). This resource is very interesting for teachers because we can improve our skill and practice them. Besides, the teacher always asks pupils to read the texts aloud, so reading content is practice in all Science class.
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56 Lee mas

Shaping Narrative Writing Skills Through Creating Picture Books

Shaping Narrative Writing Skills Through Creating Picture Books

Nikolajeva and Scott (2001) affirm that picture books lean on being plot-oriented instead of being character-oriented; but this does not mean that characters in a story are irrelevant or that they do not display a distinctive personality, on the contrary, picture books permit a different type of characterization where the pictures and the words complement each other or even contradict themselves. The authors also say that the visual description in picture books is somewhat problematic given that some human qualities are difficult to display through illustrations such as bravery or intelligence; the opposite happens when it is necessary to reveal the characters’ emotions and attitudes toward certain situations, which means that physical description depends to a large degree, on the illustrator’s ability, who can, with great precision, convey information about appearance that would take many words to communicate in much reading time. Conversely, physiological descriptions that can be indicated in pictures need the accuracy of words to depict complex emotion and motivation.
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24 Lee mas

Improving English Language Learners’ Academic Writing: A Multi-Strategy Approach to a Multi-Dimensional Challenge

Improving English Language Learners’ Academic Writing: A Multi-Strategy Approach to a Multi-Dimensional Challenge

seen as a rigid skill inseparable from grammar instruction and, as Susser (1994) asserts, its focus was “on controlled composition, correction of the product and correct form over expression of ideas” (p. 36). However, despite the deterministic acknowledgement of some authors of the usefulness of this product-oriented approach to writing (Dykstra, 1973; Paulston & Bruder, 1976), new visions came upon writing as discussions about first-language (L1) composition transferred to the ESL (L2) field. Opposing grammatical proficiency, adherents to the expressionist movement believed that “the primary emphasis should be upon the expressive and creative process of writing” (Zamel, 1976). Since the 1980s, the Process Approach to writing in L2 has evolved, and according to Susser (1994), it also has encountered several opponents in regards to its validity as a pedagogy. Nevertheless, its importance for composition studies is undeniable. Nowadays, the Process Approach keeps shedding light on how writing happens and what actions writers follow when composing texts. As indicated in Graph 1, adapted from Coffin (2003), writing happens as a recursive progression with different stages that range from prewriting to editing and where writers exercise different thinking skills in order to shape their work. This cycle Susser (1994) suggests, “helps make students aware that writing is a process, and that there are different processes for different kinds of writing.” (p. 34). Therefore, L2 writers avoid following strict and narrow schemes and get to suit themselves to the different tasks they are assigned. Current analysis like (Onozawa, 2010) and research studies like (Goldstein & Carr, 1996; Pritchard & Honeycutt, 2006; Akinwamide, 2012; Bayat, 2014) demonstrate the positive impact of the Process Approach as a pedagogy that is both reliable and rewarding.
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19 Lee mas

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