Also we can see in this paragraph written by Christiansen, that it was difficult for them to pay for the raids. The price of raiding was so elevated, but during the first years ofTheViking Age, they did not have any problems because they took everything they found inthe invaded territories, such as gold and silver from churches; weapons from the defeated warriors; but foremost, slaves and women for selling. However, when Christianity started to grow in their culture, selling slaves that were Christians was forbidden as Christiansen 1998 also said inthe previous paragraph. The amount of money they gained decreased and the cost of raids increased so the decadence begun little by little. The same happened with the Roman Empire and all the big empires that tried to conquered the world. The cost of wars and battles was so high that they could not afford to pay all the soldiers and the damages, so finally the tragic end always waited around the corner.
In spite ofthe apparent distance in time, culture, and geography, key elements ofthe Graeco-Roman motif of post-mortem ascent are significantly foreshadowed inthe earlier Egyptian funerary texts such as the Pyramid Texts and the later Book of Coming Forth By Day. In this sense, as the earliest texts of this nature known, the ancient Egyp- tian conceptions may be seen as either the archetypes of Graeco-Roman notions of ascent, or at least as being closer to those archetypes. These findings appear to give some degree of weight to Herodotus’ opinion about the Egyptian source ofthe gods and reli- gious observances ofthe Greeks. However, these conclusions must be considered being only theoretical in nature, since the historical distance between the primary sources will not bear greater firmer assertions.
The context concept is ambiguous and multifunctional, therefore, it is possible to replace it with a significant number of various special terms, which often happens in scientific texts. In particular, Kasavin (2008) proposed a line for the development of contextualism as a methodological program of research in philosophy. A number of Western scholars developed this philosophical approach in their works: Dewey, Lewis, Cohen, Morris, Unger, Pepper et al. They considered the context as a situation or process that determine understanding and interpretation one or another phenomenon. Kasavin (2008) considered the context in its broad meaning, as a set of conditions for interpreting various cultural phenomena and solving cognitive problems on this basis, i.e. as a methodological term. To achieve the goal, it is necessary to conduct a comparative study, analyzing the origin or formation of vocational education systems, the functioning and development of vocational education systems, the effectiveness ofthe vocational education system. Therefore, in order to conduct a comparison of vocational education systems formation in Germany and Turkey, the main context elements were used, i.e. the formation of vocational education history; the influence of religion on human attitudes to work; the role of national traditions inthe work culture formation; the state role in educational and social policies formation, in economics and the labor market.
As the full title ofthe novel indicates – Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus –, the novel uses the classical mythology, in this case to depict the main theme: “the aspiration of modern masculinist scientist to be technically creative divinities” (Hindle 28). Golinski states that “Shelley, who was acquainted with Davy’s reputation and writings, portrayed the hazards of a Promethean attempt to control the forces of nature” (536). Although Prometheus is a mythologic character with a special standing inthe society, his character and aspirations determine his fate (Goetsch 36). Prometheus is a titanic figure coming from the Greek mythology who brings culture and knowledge to the humankind. Considered as the greatest ofthe mythical heroes, Prometheus was interested inthe secret of fire from Gods, fire which supposed the complete knowledge ofthe world. However, this would be only one ofthe two versions ofthe Promethean myth. The other version, the Roman one, is an “elaboration ofthe Promethean legend rendered by Ovid (whose Metamorphoses Shelley had been reading in 1815)” that puts Prometheus as figure who “creates” and “manipulates” men into life, rather than a saviour ofthe humankind (Hindle 28).
Inthe quotation above the use of metaphors, a part ofthe language of daily life, compares the wedding and the bride’s mental state with the battlefield and the feeling of every soldier after every bomb that drops. As shown above, the Indian woman becomes the victim of manipulative behaviour due to the demands of tradition and the receiver of a message to submit that does not match her aspirations as an individual with her own voice and needs. Being fully aware ofthe existence of two clearly defined periods of life marked by marriage, she knows it is a process that, like many other Indian women, she has to go through and that is distant from her choices, a period in which her family, friends, job and virginity come to play a secondary role while her new family comes to the fore, and with this, a code of behaviour aimed at silence, supression of her voice and a regulated sexuality that reinforces the submission to the husband, to the detriment of trust, freedom of action and expression, and a sexism that polarizes gender relationships and that denies the women a life of their own. All these characteristics would respond to the model ofthe desirable woman, or even more, the good Indian wife, as regards Indian culture, whose silence will guarantee the continuation ofthe correct Indian way, contrary to the role played by the other British-Asian female characters inthe primary bibliography that, as we will see, points more towards a negotiation of tradition.
as an alternative paradigm. Citizen cultural practices are legitimised and/or promoted. Attention is given to decentralisation, from the centre (ofthe state or city) to the peripheries. (3) From the mid 70's and the 80's. The economy reaches the world ofculture, which must prove its usefulness and its contribution to the creation of added value and employment. Increase of cultural management. (4) Since the 90's. Urban regeneration. Need for a city to renew its image, new facilities, interest inthe contribution ofculture to civic pride. Increase of cultural tourism. Large, spectacular events. Interest for cultural and creative industries. (5) Since the end ofthe 90's. Complexity. Strategic planning inculture. City of knowledge, creative city. Growing interest inthe processes of cultural production: interculturality and coexistence.
• To exercise the vocabulary and the contents ofthe chapter What time is it? the game Scientists & Engineers is presented. The objective of this game is that the participants build an engineering work, for which several options are offered according to the profession chosen; for example, inthe case ofthe architects, the Sydney Opera House or the Big Ben Tower. For this game, cards are used with questions and puzzles with each challenge. Every time a player answers a question correctly, he is granted a piece to complete his challenge. The player or team that finishes their challenge first, will be the winner. As inthe previous games, the teacher can help a team or a certain player with extra questions to balance the game. Extra points can also be obtained according to the difficulty of each question, in a range of 1 to 3. The possibility of extra points is specified in each card.
legal regulation and a central regulatory agency with strong power and influence. Large European Union investment funds are distributed centrally, and the service provider is then responsible for developing investment plans in its service area. Accountability relations between service providers and local governments are quite weak and indirect, because municipalities’ water sector associations stand between them. This system has advantages of economies of scale and efficient use of development funds, but it is also characterized by a lower level of transparency and accountability. Armenia also has a very centralized water management system, with several regulatory agencies (sometimes with overlapping functions), central price regulation (well below full cost recovery) and ad-hoc central grants for operation and maintenance. The central government promotes central service provision (or private provision, as in case of Yerevan) and neglects municipal service providers. Small villages, which are not part ofthe central system, end up seeking individual solutions without any central support or oversight, characterized by low service quality and high costs. In Hungary, in contrast, central legal regulation is weak and hardly enforced. Local governments are the owners, strategy makers (they decide about new developments and investments), and main regulators. Accountability relations between service providers and local governments are strong, certainly stronger than inthe other countries examined in this case study, though they differ somewhat depending on the size ofthe utility and the service area (whether covering one single municipality, or several). There is also more transparency. However, when, after transition, most ofthe water companies were transferred to the municipalities, these entities were under strong financial pressure. As political incentives were against raising tariffs, financial pressures were often alleviated by sacrificing quality.
humanity's most precious achievement: freedom. I do not deny that people who speak the same language, were born and live inthe same territory, face the same problems, and practice the same religions and customs have common characteristics. But that collective denominator can never fully define each one of them, and it only abolishes or relegates to a disdainful secondary plane the sum of unique attributes and traits that differentiates one member ofthe group from the others. The concept of identity, when not employed on an exclusively individual scale, is inherently reductionist and dehumanizing, a collectivist and ideological abstraction of all that is original and creative inthe human being, of all that has not been imposed by inheritance, geography, or social pressure. Rather, true identity springs from the capacity of human beings to resist these influences and counter them with free acts of their own invention.
From a cognitive perspective, native speakers of a language have proceduralised (i.e. internalised and consolidated in their neural system) the temporal or cause-effect sequence of events or steps that a situation in a certain context is made up of. Such a cognitive sequence is called a script. Scripts were proposed by Shank and Abelson (1977) as the event version of schemata, which are abstract mental structures representative ofthe knowledge ofthe world we have in our minds or memory (Rumelhart and Ortony, 1976). Scripts are therefore standard or prototypical sequences of events or actions referred to certain situations and conveniently stored in our memory. Shank and Abelson (1977) illustrate the notion of a script with the sample situation of ‘going to a restaurant’. This script involves the following ordered sequence of actions: Entering, ordering, eating and exiting. According to Anderson (2005: 165), scripts and schemata “can serve as valuable bases for predicting missing information and for correcting errors inthe information”. In this way they become very important tools for the comprehension ofthe outer world. They encode our background knowledge, which is formed out of our own experience or derives from what we have observed in other people’s behaviour. It should be noticed that scripts tend to be socio-culturally driven (Macaro, 2003). For example, Russian table manners are different from Spain, where the following Russian procedure is not followed: toasting is very frequent and for each drinking of a toast, the fellow diners have to take a sip of vodka. From this perspective, scripts can also be extrapolated to the sequence of events or steps that constitute complex cultural units relevant to a specific community, which has proceduralised such cognitive sequences inthe same way as those mentally stored for more simple situations.
To discuss cultural citizenship inthe European context is to suggest that minorities are marginalized and stigmatized, and that their separate identities are insufficiently recognized. There has been much discussion of late about the alleged failure of multiculturalism in Europe, but closer study reveals that this failure is discussed more in terms ofthe failures of multiracialism and of tolerance for Islam. In regard to culture as such, Europe has long been multicultural and while there has been integration taking place at the macro level, the rights of national and cultural minorities have been increasingly recognized to the point where a process of disintegration (or, at least, the assertion of rights) has set in at the micro level. At the same time, however, Europeans share much in regard to the collective norms, values and attitudes that govern the expectations of society about politics and government; in regard, that is, to political culture, if this term is understood along the lines proposed first by Durkheim, and then developed by Almond and Verba. 12 In other words, there are common themes inthe way
Questioning ofthe Turkish Revolution in this way has well-founded reasoning since socio- political, socio-cultural and even economic vision ofthe order that was established in 1920- 30s is still efficient together with the figure of Mustafa Kemal [Atatürk] whose “images and ideals adorn the landscape of social life; multiple portraits and posters of him hang in nearly every public meeting place; his epigrams appear on frontal pieces of school buildings and state offices from postal services to the army barracks throughout the country” 11 . Inthe political cultureof contemporary Turkey, reforms ofthe early Republican era and figure of Mustafa Kemal have been considered as the foundational stones ofthe Turkish state that a challenge, threat or claim to change these is usually perceived by the establishment as attempt to overthrow the regime, to partite the country or to destroy the secular and democratic national order. This order took its name from its founder and it is widely known as Kemalism which, in some studies, have been treated as a peculiar ideology and a third way between socialist and liberal ideologies 12 . Peculiarity ofthe Kemalist thought or ideology is debatable, but it is not exaggeration to say that it has dominated political landscape of contemporary Turkey as it has been consolidated and reproduced through all periods since the establishment ofthe Turkish Republic. This essay will simply describe the principles of Kemalism and attempt to uncover the vision of state and society laying in these principles.
African centred ideological symbolisms sug- gest a need to belong, a sense of connectedness. A prevalent resistance strategy in slavery was running away (Chevannes, 1994), and as Quinn in Halfacree (2010: 257) notes, ‘People’s desire to escape is strongly tempered by an attempt both to reconnect with experiences from their past and to strive for a continuity that will strengthen into their futures’. Similar notions of connectedness and wellbeing are bound up with the African philoso- phical tradition of Ubuntu, which places emphasis of ‘belonging’ to the human community (Venter, 2004: 151). Sharing overtones of Buddhism, the idea of human community encompasses a ‘vast, ever -expanding net of spiritual, psychological, biological and emotional relations’ (Venter, 2004: 151). Even though Venter (2004: 150 -156) points out the critics’ line that Ubuntu is often hijacked as a ‘mechanical’ problem -solving tool, it is main- tained that its underlying principles are built on a ‘concrete manifestation ofthe interconnectedness of human beings’. Furthermore, Ubuntu’s exis- tentialist underpinnings recognise the need to consider the wellbeing of others and that sharing was an essential feature of interactions between people as opposed to the discreteness at the heart of western culture.
The category of visual culture is considered in two main meanings. On the one hand, based on a broad understanding ofculture as a holistic environment, as a unity of phenomena perceived through vision. On the other hand, on the understanding ofcultureinthe narrow sense as a set of practices, skills of “looking”, formed in a particular cultural environment . The category of visual culture allows you to ask questions about the levels of visual literacy / illiteracy, education and training inthe field of visual experience.
SUMMARY: In this work we use two comparative culture medium of tetante toxin production One oftheculture medium is a classic broth upon the base of digested pig stomach whit meat broth and the other is synthetic tripsic hydrolyzed caseine and soys pepton. The synthetic medium yield a toxoid in which the activity is similar to that obtained by the classical medium and is 42 percent less expensive considering the value of raw material in which the nitrogen value is 2,7 gammas by Lf obtained from the classic medium. The author consider the employ of synthetic medium useful because it will permit the low cost of toxoid production and give a high purify product. Studies will be continued to determine the variabilities that they will be do to the standard productions of toxine and the power efficiency of obtained antigens. Analecta Veterinaria 2 (1,2,3): 93-97, 1970
He is Director ofthe McLuhan Program inCulture & Technology and Professor inthe Department of French at the University of Toronto. He received his Ph.D. in French Language and Literature from the University of Toronto in 1975 and a Doctorat du 3e cycle in Sociology of Art from the University of Tours (France) in 1979. Derrick de Kerckhove has offered connected intelligence workshops worldwide, and now offers this innovative approach to business, government and academe to help small groups to think together in a disciplined and effective way while using digital technologies. Inthe same line, he has contributed to the architecture of Hy- persession, a collaborative software now being developed by Emitting Media and used for various educational situations. As a consultant in media, cultural interests and related policies, Derrick de Kerckhove has participated inthe preparation and brainstorming sessions for the plans for: the Ontario Pavilion at Expo ‘92 in Seville, the Canada in Space exhibit, and the Toronto Broadcast Centre for the CBC.
At 24 h of incubation there were no significant differences inthe three culture media used, as eva- luated by the occurrence ofthe first cleavage divi- sion (P>0.05) (Figure 1A, Table 1). Development at the sixth day ofculture showed that control culture medium development was lower as compared to the other two media used (Table 1). Preimplantational development in control medium was blocked at the two-cell stage (Figure 1A), and only 1.7 % reached the blastocyst stage. Supplementation ofculture me- dium with insulin, transferrin and sodium selenite allowed a higher percentage of embryos (20.3%, P < 0.05) to reach the early blastocyst stage (Figure 1B), when compared to the development reached when using control medium supplemented with BOEC (12.3%).
Organization is every- thing especially if you are one of those guys who doesn´t keep a work diary and always forget his mother´s birthday (no, I´ve never forgotten my wedding an- niversary so don´t even ask). As we will see later, in breaking- news coverage you never have time for much thinking, but in special projects these steps should be considered: write, sketch and storyboard. Orga- nize, in one simple word. Inthe Einstein project, or- ganization was crucial. To get started, we needed an introduc- tion to cover some interesting historical facts about the genius´ life, an entire novel itself. This scene was the shortest and easi- est to put together, as we could just create a two minutes and a
When teaching English as a second language, textbooks can be useful as they can provide teachers and leaners examples of different types of language contexts and how intercultural issues can be addressed. As Lund (2006, p.47) states: ¨ moreover, textbooks can provide valuable input when it comes to exposing students to new cultural expressions and to the diversity of cultures¨. Lund (2006) also mentions that recent research done about English textbooks describes three different trends: first, most textbooks focuses mostly into two countries United Kingdom and United States; second, English teaching textbooks that take the language as international one and so as a lingua franca; and the third group consists on the textbooks that link English teaching with students´ own culture. Examples of these kind of books, according to Cortazzi & Jin (1999) can be found in Venezuela, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. As mention here, textbooks have the advantage for teachers of giving assessment constantly, it also offers the opportunity for students to do autonomous learning through the different activities proposed by the books; on terms of intercultural competence books might have some elements that can motivate students to search for more information; books nowadays promote global perspectives, critical thinking and as