It is also around this return period that the contribution to theseismic activity rate arising from geological consid- erations may start being significant. Given the convergence rate between theIberian and African plates, it is expected that faults in theIberianPeninsula are also slow, so mor- phogenic earthquakes (hence with magnitude above 6.0–6.5) have recurrence periods ofthe order of few thousand years, which exceeds the period covered by theseismic catalogue: note that the first event in the catalogue dates from the fourth century BC, and the first quantified event from the fifth cen- tury AD. The explicit inclusion of geological data would be carried out adding earthquakes that are representative ofthe characteristic magnitude ofthe fault and with an effective period consistent withthe fault recurrence period. This inclu- sion affects two aspects: the location where the activity rate is modelled, which concentrates around specific geometrical features or faults; and the activity rate itself, which is en- riched with geological information that theseismic catalogue does not reflect.
More recent approaches for establishing theseismic activity rate forego the use of zones and GR statistics and special attention is paid here to such procedures. The paper presents comparisons between the local activity rates that result for the complete IberianPeninsula using kernel estimators as well as two seismogenic zonations. It is concluded that the smooth variation oftheseismic activity rate produced by zoneless methods is more realistic than the stepwise changes associated with zoned approaches; moreover, the choice of zonation often has a stronger influence on the results than its fairly subjective origin would warrant. It is also observed that the activity rate derived from thekernel approach, related withthe GR parameter “a”, is qualitatively consistent withthe epicentres in the catalogue. Finally, when comparing alternative zonations it is not just their geometry but the distribution of activity rate that should be compared.
The most destructive earthquakes that affected theIberianPeninsula have occurred before the 20th century, during the so called historic period. Therefore, the seismicity studies are considered absolutely necessaries since they allow us to know the main features of this time and they represent a great value tool in seismichazard and risk assessment. In this work it is done an analysis about theevaluationofthe macroseismic data, the spatial and temporal earthquake distribution and the damage. Also the new macroseismic information map obtained has been used to estimate the energy by means of magnitude calculation.
In 1568, an Italian printer from Venice published Francesco Sforzino Carcano’s Tre libri degli uccelli da rapina. As the title indicates, it is divided into three books: the first on falcons and merlins; the second on hawks (eagles, goshawks and sparrowhawks); the third on diseases that attack birds of prey with a final section on hunting dog’s ailments. Contrary to the Spanish tradition, Carcano’s treatise does not allow the society of its time to creep into its pages; there is no room for personal an- ecdotes but for one short story about how a friend’s sparrowhawk was killed by a lanner falcon dur- ing a hunt. The person who translated Carcano’s work into Spanish had a sound knowledge of Italian and Spanish; however, he had not mastered falconry terminology: he left some blank spaces in which to insert the correct Spanish term and, to remind himself of what was missing, he wrote the Italian word in a smaller script. There is no certainty about when Carcano’s Tre libri was translated into Spanish. However, Beatriz Hernán-Gómez discovered that the translator used Lorenzo Francio- sini’s Vocabolario italiano e spagnolo, which has helped her to establish the terminus post quem in 1620, the year when the Vocabolario was first published in Rome (h ernán -G ómez 2002).
In this paper we show the synoptic and mesoscale environment aspects associated with a lo- cal event of heavy rainfall in the south oftheIberianPeninsula on 16 August 2010, exceed- ing 200 mm in 5 hours and causing significant flash flooding, by using observational data and operational analyses and forecast data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The event was associated withthe poleward transport of deep tropical moisture along the western flank ofthe upper and middle level summer anticyclone over North Africa, and with a mid-level cyclogenesis caused by the interaction between a middle latitude trough and the tropical moisture band. The cyclogenesis produced an outflow jet streak and the exportation of tropical moisture to theIberianPeninsula. On the synoptic scale, the heavy precipitation oc- curred where this tropical moisture intersected a region of forced ascent situated beneath the equatorward jet streak-entrance region. On the mesoscale, the event was focused on a zone of orographic wind convergence.
The goal of this paper is to research on the analysis ofthe integration process of Phoenician-Punic communities oftheIberianPeninsula during the domination ofthe Roman Empire since the end ofthe Second Punic War (206 BCE) until the Flavian era (mid-1st century CE). We depart from a cultural and identity perspective. The main objective is to explain the process of identity construction in the core of these communities linked to the gradual transformation in Roman ciuitates. In Spain, the topic of Phoenicians under the Roman dominion was not analysed until the last decades ofthe 20th Century. In the 1990s, Prof. J. L. López Castro was the first to deal with this matter in a very extense and detailed way in his work: Hispania Poena: los fenicios en la Hispania romana (1995). This work was one ofthe pioneers of
in exoskeletons from both invertebrates (bivalves, gas- tropods and limulid arthropods, among others) and ver- tebrates (turtles, whales). Although such scars have been known in the fossil record for several decades they have never been systematically studied in paleoichnological terms. The earliest findings on molluscs (Astarte baste- rotti Nyst; Polinices sp.) were reported by Boekschoten (1967) from the Belgian Pliocene. Subsequently, Miller & Brown (1979), reported on the circular trace fossils left by balanids on molluscs from the Pleistocene in Dare Country (North Carolina) and classified them into three different categories depending on their pre- servation state; the specimens, however, were still not regarded as ichnotaxa. Brande (1982) reported the find- ing of oval, discoloured trace fossils of a dentate bound- ary on bivalves from the Pleistocene in Simmon'n Bluff (South Carolina) which he ascribed to the attachment of balanids. A few years later, Mayoral (1986) found simi- lar trace fossils on molluscs from the Lower Pliocene in the Guadalquivir Basin in Huelva (Spain) and, based on the fact that they were closely bound to remains ofthe basal plates, also ascribed them to the attachment of balanomorphs. Additional subsequent findings were madeby GonzaÂlez-Delgado et al. (1995) in fossils from the same area and age. Balanid attachments, particularly of Balanus concavus (Bronn) and B.trigonus Darwin, have also been encountered in materials from the Plio- cene in the Alt EmpordaÂ Basin (specifically, in Girona, Spain) (Martinell et al. 2000), but their trace fossils, however, were not described.
Ulmus laevis is an anemophilous, self-in- compatible (Mittempergher & La Porta 1991), and highly outcrossing species (Niel- sen & Kjær 2010). Its fruits are samaras (winged nuts) with ciliated margins, which are dispersed by both wind (anemochory) and water (hydrochory - Collin 2003). Dis- persal by two or more agents (diplochory) increases dispersal benefits and decreases seed mortality probabilities (Vander Wall & Longland 2004). Wind disperses 95 % of U. laevis seeds at short distances (less than 30 m), thus enabling them to reach suitable mi- crohabitats close to mother trees, or landing on a water surface for secondary transport. In contrast, hydrochory allows long-distance gene exchange and the colorization of new sites (Venturas et al. 2014b). In some U. lae- vis stands, a marked spatial genetic structure can be found due to the low wind dispersal distance (Nielsen & Kjær 2010, Venturas et al. 2013a) and the lack of secondary seed movement (Venturas et al. 2014b).
According to the proposed model of sex chromosome evolution in lacertids (Olmo et al. 1987; Odierna et al. 1993), the W chromosome found in our analysis in L. schreiberi— moderately heterochromatic with two broad euchromatic areas—would represent an earlier stage of degeneration than the W chromosomes of I. monticola and I. galani—comparatively smaller and mostly heterochromatic—while the W microchromosome of T. lepidus would show the highest level of differentiation. Besides the well-documented diversity of sex chromosomes in Iberolacerta, previously reported in Chapter I, the two other genera investigated in this work are good representatives ofthe plasticity of sex chromosomes in lacertids. For instance, populations of Lacerta viridis viridis from Hungary, like L. schreiberi, have a intermediate-sized W chromosome, but completely C-banded (Olmo et al. 1986). Yet some other species, such as L. agilis, L. trilineata, L. strigata and perhaps different populations of L. viridis have a micro-W chromosome (Gorman 1969; Ivanov and Fedorova 1970 1970; De Smet 1981; Olmo et al. 1987; Srikulnath et al. 2014). Intraspecific variability in sex chromosomes has also been reported for T. lepidus: specimens from a population in Northeastern Spain have been found to possess a homomorphic and heterochromatic W chromosome, whilst specimens from a different, but unknown, Spanish population have a W microchromosome, as the one found in the present study (Olmo et al. 1987). Altogether, these findings, and the general lack of phylogenetic correlation in the degree of heteromorphism, have lead to suggest that the transition from a primitive stage of sex chromosome differentiation, where both homologues are cytologically indistinguishable, to a more advanced stage, with a W chromosome heteromorphic and heterochromatic, might have happened independently in different species, and even in subspecies or populations ofthe same species (Olmo et al. 1987; Odierna et al. 1993).
and southern Spain by Ortiz et al. (2004b) for the dating these deposits because a similar thermal history can be inferred for these areas, as they are all located in the Mediterranean climatic zone oftheIberianPeninsula, with a similar mean annual tem- perature. Likewise, the age calculation algorithms were established for the ostracod species analyzed here (C. torosa and H. reptans), which show similar racemization
parapet becoming lower and nearly disappearing in adult specimens (Pazukhin in Kulagina et al., 1992). The small forms have smaller ornamented platforms and more separated rows of nodes. They are located towards the limit ofthe specific variability that we accept now for Gnathodus kiensis. An element exactly like the holotype is not present in our samples, which display a too wide platform, a very low parapet, and maximum divergence between the carina and the posterior parapet. However, some elements from sample MILL-7 (Fig. 4.22-23) are similar to the medium-sized specimens of Pazukhin (in Kulagina et al., 1992). Elements described by Park (1983) and Belka & Lehmann (1998) have a weak ornamentation on the outer cup made of randomly distributed nodes (Fig. 4.18), although concentric rows are visible in the holotype of G. cantabricus (see Belka & Lehmann, 1998, Pl. 2, fig.1) (Fig. 4.17). We agree with Menéndez-Álvarez (1991), in that poorly ornamented cups are found together with elements where rows of nodes clearly occur, and together with intermediate elements. Blanco-Ferrera et al. (in press, Fig. 6.15) illustrated a young morph of G. kiensis with a short inner parapet composed of separated nodes isolated backwards (Fig. 4, 19), and in which the outer cup only bears rare nodes.
Conservation prioritization often focuses on areas with high species richness and great concentrations of endemic or threatened species (Myers et al. 2000). Our results demonstrate that such a strategy would be insufficient to tackle the challenges brought by global environmental changes (see also, Araújo et al. 2004). More specifically, in our study area, focusing conservation on high-rich areas would lead to overlooking areas with high exposure to future threats and/or high concentrations of vulnerable species (e.g. Cardillo et al. 2006). Estimates of global environmental change risk for biodiversity might be under- or over- estimated depending on the methodology and assumptions employed in the assessments (e.g. Chin et al. 2010). Our study indicates that projections that do not consider species capacity to cope with environmental changes overestimate local extinction risk. It is unclear how different uncertainties will act together to increase or decrease risk. For instance, the consideration of physiological and behavioural responses, as well as the genetic and plastic capacity of species, might provide lower estimates of local extinction risk. On the other hand, the inclusion of factors such as co-extinction, synergies and tipping points are expected to increase the estimates (Bellard et al. 2012). For example, a previous study with vertebrates in Europe (Araújo et al. 2011c) showed that highly exposed species to climate change were often poorly connected in a modelled network of species interactions and therefore they were less likely to be important for the stability of interaction networks.
El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido revisar las muestras de Sanionia, registra- das en los herbarios, con el fin de conocer: 1) qué taxones de Sanionia están pre- sentes en la Flora Briológica Ibérica, 2) cuál es su hábitat y área de distribución, 3) estudiar la morfología del peristoma al SEM y 3) valorar su estado de conservación, de acuerdo con los criterios de la Red Data of European bryophytes (S CHUMACKER & M ARTINY , 1995) y la Lista Vermelha dos Briófitos da Península Ibérica (S ÉRGIO &
Ptolemy’s Geographia is an important, famous treaty from the 2 nd century subject of later studies. However, the collection of maps based on this work, preserved in codices dating from the 13 th to the 15 th centuries, has been scarcely analyzed with regards to their criteria of representation. After an extensive localization and analysis work in those graphic documents, four codices groups have been established according the maps featured. A selection of them served to analyze the graphic conventions used in these first representations oftheIberianPeninsula: spatial references – meridians, parallels, and climate–, territorial elements –relief, hydrographic network, divisions–, particular elements –landmarks and maritime area– and labelling. Then, the analysis focuses on the area of nowadays Extremadura, concentrating on the toponymy of its populated areas and relative location. The combination of both spheres results in an innovative approach to the eloquent criteria for representation followed in this work. These criteria constituted a primeval cartographic language displaying signs that were used in a flexible way in each codex, inspiring numerous maps in subsequent centuries.
In the reach of Nora River where the redclaw crayfish was found several years, the minimum winter water temperature (slightly less than 10 ºC), can allow its survival during the cold season. During the spring and summer months, the maxi- mum water temperature (over 20 ºC) is lower than the minimum of 22-23 ºC (range 22-31 ºC) usually reported in literature as necessary to reproduction and to reach an optimal growth with aquaculture purposes (Jones, 2000; Lawrence & Jones, 2002; Souty-Grosset et al., 2006; Jones & Gherardi, 2011; Saoud et al., 2013). Neverthe- less, the Nora River temperature range (10-20 ºC) falls within the tolerance range ofthe redclaw crayfish in the wild (i.e. 10-35 ºC: Jones & Gherardi, 2011), and may allow the survival and reproduction of this crayfish in northern Iberia, although in suboptimal conditions. However, several episodes of introduction from different years cannot be ruled out, since this location is a periurban reach surroundings Oviedo, easily accessed by humans. Due to its proximity to the city, the Nora River suffers introductions of NIS derived from recreational fishing (e.g. the red swamp and signal crayfishes) and/or aquarium release. This later is apparently the case of an established population ofthe giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (L.) (Arias & Torralba-Bur- rial, 2014). Indeed, trade of ornamental aquatic pets has been considered one ofthe main path- ways of crayfish introductions into Europe, explaining most ofthe cases of feral specimens in natural environments (Chucholl, 2013), including the introduction ofthe species in northern Iberia herein documented. Outside Europe, redclaw crayfish established wild populations are intro- duced via either aquarium-trade, due to multiple releases from home aquaria (e.g. feral popula- tions from Singapore: Ahyong & Yeo, 2007) or aquaculture intentional or unintentional releases from holding aquaculture facilities (e.g. intro- duced populations in the Caribbean drainage of Costa Rica: Azofeifa-Solano et al., 2017, or in several African countries: Nunes et al., 2017).