Thegroup is characterized by plants with soft- coriaceous, elastic leaves, without a distinctly protruding mid-vein, matte on the upper surface, ovate to lanceolate, usually less than four times longer than broad (mostly <4 cm wide), deeply cordate at the base when mature (immature leaves may be cuneate), and a spathaceous bract producing flowers that are erect to suberect, not prostrate (except inP. adventurae). The flowers are coriaceous, remaining open and mostly reflexing the sepals and petals after anthesis, with an erect dorsal sepal that is narrower than the synsepal. The lip is simple (rarely obscurely three-lobed), triangular-lanceolate, and thick, with a raised, rounded callus and a distinct glenion. Whilst the phylogenetic relationships among the different subsets ofspecies artificially gathered in this study is not granted, they can nevertheless be easily distinguished as a groupfrom other assemblages of taxa. Informally circumscribed, this group includes some 35 species, distributed fromCostaRica to Peru and Bolivia, with the highest diversity recorded inthe northern Andes of Colombia and Ecuador (Luer 2005, Wilson et al. 2016).
This species had been previously described as Pleurothallis jimii (Luer 2004), nevertheless, it was simultaneously transferred to the generic name Ancipitia, invalidating both names. The alternative names Pleurothallis jimii and Ancipitia jimii (Luer 2004) are invalid under article 36.2 ofthe ICN-2012, which reads “When, on or after 1 January 1953, two or more different names based on the same type are proposed simultaneously for the same taxon by the same author (so-called alternative names), none of them is validly published”. Although within the publication thetwo names appeared under different headings, these should be treated as chapters ofthe same publication and not as individual publications as the author name [Carlyle A. Luer] only appears below the full title “Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera and three allied subgenera. A second century ofnewspeciesof Stelis of Ecuador. Epibator, Ophidion, Zootrophion…” on the title page, which is followed by a contents page, citing the mentioned headings. Instead of validating P. jimii we opt to describe thespecies once again because it was originally based on a single specimen from cultivated material without specific locality data, and we prefer at this time to select a specimen of known origin as holotype, several accompanying paratypes with locality data, and which are all accessible for Colombian students.
Relatively little is known about pollination inPleurothallis sensu Pridgeon et al. (2005), but the few studies available suggest that Pleurothallisspecies are pollinated predominantly by Diptera and occasionally by Hymenoptera and Coleoptera (Archila & Chiron 2015, Calderón-Sáenz 2011, Duque 1993, Duque-Buitrago et al. 2014). These scant field observations are being supplemented by micro-morphological studies ofthe labellum using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which can be used to hypothesize putative pollination mechanisms for future field testing. While a preliminary study of labellar morphology ofspeciesinPleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae (Wilson et al. 2016) has been published, this represents the first study ofthe labellar morphology intheP. talpinaria group. In this manuscript we clarify the distinction between thespeciesP. talpinaria and P. trimeroglossa and remove the second from synonymy with the first; we describe a newspeciesfrom Ecuador allied to these twospecies; and we discuss labellar morphology in
This species has wandered in different genera without being clearly placed amongst its closest rela- tives. Pridgeon and Chase (2001) believed it to be an Anathallis Barb.Rodr. However, Luer (2000) treated it within Pleurothallis subgen. Effusia Luer, which he latter recognized as a distinct genus under the name Effusiella Luer. Karremans (2011) believed that the obtuse petals, three-lobed lip, helm-shaped anther cap that protrudes beyond the tip ofthe column, among other features, were suggestive of a Dracontia affin- ity. Such an affinity was later confirmed with DNA data (Karremans et al. 2012). Thespecies’ placement within a broad sense Stelis was not news, as the both Dracontia and Effusiella have been mostly considered synonyms of Stelis, however we can now also point at Stelis cobanensis (Schltr.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase and S. multirostris (Rchb. f.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase as being its closest relatives.
To date, Pleurothallis tenuisepala has been collect- ed from only two confirmed locations inthe Depart- ment of Cauca, Colombia: in PNN Gorgona, on Isla Gorgona, an island off the Cauca coast; and on the Pa- cific slope ofthe Cordillera Occidental near the eastern border of Parque Nacional Natural Munchique, north- west of Popayán, Cauca. Thespecies was also pho- tographed and collected some time ago and has been maintained in cultivation by Uribe Velez and is thought to have come from near Santa Cecilia, Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, Colombia (Ortiz Valdivieso & Uribe Velez 2007, Uribe Velez, pers. comm.). Other than Cauca, and possibly Risaralda, we found no evidence that P. tenuisepala has been collected from any other Colom- bian Departments. While thespecies may historically have had a wider distribution inthe lowland and mid- elevation forests ofthe Pacific slopes ofthe Andean Cordillera Occidental of Colombia, part ofthe Chocó biogeographic region, the only recently confirmed lo- cality is that on Isla Gorgona. To our knowledge, P. luctuosa does not occur in Colombia and collections in herbaria identified as P. luctuosa from southwest Co- lombia are in fact all P. tenuisepala.
has been found only at one locality inthe Hoya de Guayllabamba, valley of Los Chillos, on the canyon ofthe River Pita (Fig. 4). A population of approximately 50 plants ofPleurothallis quitu-cara grows at the type locality. Two color forms, a xanthic and a non- xanthic form, coexist (Fig. 2B). It is not clear if thespecies is always represented by this two colour forms, or other phenotypes could be found somewhere else. Nevertheless, no other populations ofthespecies are known by the authors at the moment, which does not necessarily mean P. quitu-cara is restricted to this single population. More exploration is needed to confirm if this original population is the only one known for thespecies. This finding confirms that, even so close to Quito, the capital of a well explored country, when it comes to orchids, a newspeciesof orchid can still be found anywhere.
Ofthespecies studied here P. bicornis, P. caucensis, P. subreniformis and P. torrana all possess relatively simple lips. The flowers ofP. caucensis appear to provide a liquid reward on the anterior margin ofthe central lobe ofthe labellum (Fig. 10), which is uppermost due to the apparently non-resupinate presentation ofthe flowers on the raceme (Fig. 1). While the glenion is not very distinct inP. caucensis, or the other species examined, at least compared to members ofthe Macrophyllae- Fasciculatae (Wilson et al. 2016), there does appear to be secretion of a liquid from under the anther which forms a layer between thetwo calli on the anterior edge ofthe lip (Fig. 11). We hypothesize that a potential pollinator lands on the synsepal and is attracted to the liquid reward on the anterior edge ofthe labellum and then proceeds toward the anther in response to the liquid reward accumulating between the calli on the lip. Most likely this model based on P. caucensis also applies to other members ofthe Macrophyllae-Racemosae with a simple lip, such as theP. bicornis, P. subreniformis and P. torrana studied here.
expanded together, connate for about 6–10 mm to form a lamina, the free portion about 23–25 mm long, each basally subtriangular, gradually contracted into a slender, descending, apical tail to 8.5–13.5 mm long. Petals ovate, oblique, unguiculate, 4.5–5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, the apex obtuse with a small apiculus, the labellar margin with a low, longitudinal callus ending in a short, pointed tooth between the iddle and lower third ofthe petal. Lip oblong, convex, 4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, with marginal folds near the middle, the apex rounded, verrucose, the base subcordate, hinged beneath. Column semiterete, 4 mm long, 1 mm wide. Foot 2 mm long with a short, incurved extension. Pollinia two, ovoid. Anther cap cucullate.
castanea is only known from live collections in Ecuador. When describing speciesfrom greenhouse collections which have no locality information or accompanying in situ observation one must consider the possibility of a greenhouse hybrid. We believe that the characteristics of this Pleurothallis are sufficiently distinct fromthe other speciesofthePleurothallis cardiostola complex to make the possibility that this represents a hybrid between twospeciesofthe complex highly unlikely. Further, all the plants observed at Ecuagenera and EquaflorA were very consistent in morphology, which would not be the case were they seedlings from an unintentional or intentional greenhouse hybrid. We are convinced, therefore, that P. castanea represents a novel species and we will continue to seek field records to confirm that this species occurs in situ and to determine a distribution for thespecies. Thespecies should not, however, be added to the flora of Ecuador at this time, since it is conceivable thespecies was obtained from Colombia or Peru and does not occur naturally in Ecuador.
The first list exclusively for ferns from Cocos Island was presented by Gómez (1975a, 1975b) who registered 60 speciesof ferns and lycophytes and of them only six (10%) are endemic. After that, other authors as: Gómez (1976) described a newspeciesof Thelypteris Schmidel and reported three species; Smith & Lellinger (1985) described other newspeciesof Thelypteris; Adams (1992) described a newspeciesof Asplenium L.; Rojas (1996) described a newspeciesof Hymenophyllum Sm. and other in Terpsichore A.R. Sm.; Rojas (2001a) described a newspeciesof Hypolepis Bernh.; Rojas (2003) described twonewspeciesof Elaphoglossum Sm.; Rojas (2004) a new variety of Trichomanes collariatum Bosch; Rojas & Trusty (2004) described twonew varieties of Asplenium delicatum C. Presl and Saccoloma elegans Kaulf. respectively, also registered 80 infrageneric taxa and of them eighteen (22.5%) are endemic. Rojas (2009) described a newspeciesof Elaphoglossum. Rojas (2011) described four newspecies and registered six other species. Rojas (2013a) described a newspeciesof Stenogrammitis Labiak and Rojas (2013b) described a newspeciesof Danaea Sm. Also Gómez (1976) registered three species and Rojas (2001b) validated the name of Cyathea alfonsiana L.D. Gómez published by Gómez (1971). In summary, 85 infrageneric taxa have been reported and of them twenty five (29.4%) are endemic.
Description of Holotype: An adult female with a somewhat truncated, rounded snout of moderate length. Nostril relatively small ; labial protuberances of nasolabial groove short but moderately well-developed. Canthus rostralis short, slightly arched, distinct. Standard length 6.5 times head width; standard length 4.6 times snout-gular fold length. A deep gro ove below eye extends along full length of opening, follo wing curvature of eye, but does not communi cate with lip. Eye moderately large and protu berant. A very indistinct postorbital groove extends posteriorly from eye as shallow depres sion for 1 .5 mm, then proceeds sharply ventrad at level of posterior end of mandible and ex tends across guIar area as a weakly defined nuchal groove, parallel to the well defined guIar fold. Vomerine teeth 1 8, arranged in a single row on each si de extending to the lateral mar gin ofthe internal nares in a relatively flat arch. The teeth become directed toward the posterior vomerine patch, from which they are separated by a very small (0.2 mm) gap. Maxillary teeth 3 5 , very small, extend about two-thirds through eye. There are three very small prema xillary teeth. Tail long, 1 .26 times SL, rounded and with only slight basal constriction. Posti1iac gland obscure. Limbs of moderate length, limb interval 3 ; SL 4.6 times forelimb ; 4.5 times hind limb ; 9.8 times foot width. Hands and feet slightly webbed, with two phalanges free ofweb on longest digits and all digits somewhat free ofthe web ; all but the first digit have well develo ped subterminal pads. The fingers in order of decreasing length: 3 , 2, 4, 1 ; toes in order of decreasing length: 3, 2, 4, 5, 1 .
Although this species has not been yet analyzed by molecular phylogenetic techniques, morphological features suggest that it belongs to the genus Acianthera Scheidw. Luer (1978) stated that it vegetatively resembles to Pleurothallis circumplexa Lindl., P. pacayana Schltr., and P. pantasmi Rchb.f. (all now included inthe genus Acianthera) because the inflorescence emerges fromthe blade ofthe leaf above the base. Also, he noted that the green, glabrous, gaping flowers inthe short raceme resemble those ofPleurothallis cogniauxiana Schltr., P. decipiens Ames & C.Schweinf., and P. verecunda Schltr. (as well as many others), all of them also transferred to the genus Acianthera by several authors (Pridgeon & Chase 2001, Luer 2004). Its bicallose, truncate petals ending into a short apiculum, as well as the long claw ofthe lip, are unusual features of this species. Luer (2004, 2005) considered these floral details, together with the pair of pointed calli laying near the center of lip (rounded in our specimen) as critical features to segregate Pleurothallis aberrans into the monotypic genus Aberrantia Luer. We consider the monotypic genus Aberrantia, only defined by subtle floral features, congeneric with Acianthera. According to Luer (2003a), the voucher cited by Pupulin (2002a) is from Panama. Here, we cite a Costa Rican voucher for this species.
The genus Pediobius Walker is a large and cosmopolitan group, with the majority ofspecies occuring inthe northern temperate regions. Relatively few species have been recorded fromthe Neotropical region, where Pediobius is thought to be largely replaced by Horismenus Walker (Boucek 1988). So far eight speciesof Pediobius have been recorded from this region, but some ofthe records need to be checked (e.g. P. furvum (Gahan), an African species (Kerrich 1973) recorded fromthe Bahamas and Bolivia by De Santis (1979)). The host spectrum of Pediobius is large, with larvae developing as primary or second- ary parasites in eggs, larvae or pupae of other insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and occasionally other insect orders) (Boucek 1988). Thenewspecies described below has been reared from a prepu- pa (larva) of Epilachna mexicana Guèrin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Two previously described speciesof Pediobius also have Epilachna species as hosts: P. amaurocoelus
Abstrad: Twospeciesof Clerini (Cleridae: Clerinae), Colyphus hansoni and Enoclerus (E.) puravida , are described from malaise trap samples collected in a patch of c1oudforest at Zurquí de Moravia, San Jose Province, CostaRica. Colyphus hansoni is compared to its congeners and to the sympatric Enoclerus (Coniferoclerus) subviolaceus (Gorham). Thenewspecies is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of color, seta! pattem and elytral sculpturing. A sympatric, undescribed Colyphus species resembles C. hansoni in details of shape and sculpturing, and may prove to be its sister species. Colyphus hansoni has the elyra tricolorous (red, ivory and black) and thus is easily separated fromthe undescribed species which has the e1ytra strictly bicolorous (stramineous and black). The generic status ofthe latter is discussed in relation to Colyphus. The presence of sexually dimorphic tarsal claws in Colyphus is noted for the first time. Enoclerus (E.) puravida is characterized as part of a complex of several similar and possibly related species distributed in Panarna and CostaRica. It is similar lo several other Mexican and Central American Enoclerus species lhat share small size, ant-like form, shining black or reddish elytral integument and distinctive sculpturing ofthe elytral base. This group, consisting of E. (E.) tubercularis (Gorharn 1882), E. (E.) gibbus Ekis 1976, E. (E.) albosignatus Ekis 1976, E. (E.) puravida and sorne undescribed species, may eventually prove io form a clade-and thus warrant elevation to subgeneric or generic status. Among described species, E. (E.) puravida is most similar to the PananlalÚan E. (E.) albosignatus, from which it differs by having theof each elytron coarsely alveoJate-¡iunctate and only incidentally and feebly costate, rather than smooth and "embossed" with !bree shalJow carinae. Thetwospecies also differ in details of coloration and pronotal sculpturing. E. (E.) puravida may be mimicking ants.
the end ofthe dorsal fin base and the end ofthe anal fin base. The seventh bar is centered on fue caudal pedunde or lies slightly closer to the caudal fin base; this bar is very faint or absent on some individuaIs. A blotch whoUy on the caudal fin base is distinct on sorne individuals and absent from others; this blotch is usually centered on the fin base and rarely extends from dorsal to ventral margins. The blotch was not included inthe vertical bar count Anterior to the first vertical bar of some males, are one or two indistinct short bars inclined toward the head. The anteriormost bar is most evident dorsally at the nape and fades out before reaching the upper margin ofthe gill opening. The second short bar is most pronounced below the dorsal fin origin and fades out posterior to the gill opening or may fuse with the first vertical bar. On sorne preserved material an indistinct horizontal band lies perpendicular to the third bar and extends anteriorly to the upper margin ofthe gill opening.
With their erect, many-flowered inflorescences, Prosthechea prismatocarpa (Rchb.f.) W.E. Higgins and the allied species are among the showiest orchids ofCosta Rican flora. Since the time of its original description, the concept of Epidendrum prismatocarpum was used in a broad sense (Reichenbach 1883, 1886, Schlechter 1923, Teuscher 1969, Mora-Retana & Atwood 1992) to include populations which may be distinguished on the basis of ecological data (Fig. 1, 2) and morpho- logical characters (Fig. 3). The need of a careful study ofthegroup was pointed out by Dressler (1993: 58) and new insights were proposed by Mora-Retana and García-Castro (1990), and Pupulin (2001a, 2001b).
The basal color of Undulambia adults is brown, not white, as in Albusambia and Neurophyseta. Wings of Undulambia are incised, and those of Albusambia and Neurophyseta are entire. Forewing costal swelling is absent in Albusambia and Neurophyseta, but pres- ent in Undulambia. Inthe male genitalia of Undulambia the valva is long and equal in width throughout, not widened posteriorly as in Albusambia and some Neurophyseta spe- cies. The body of Undulambia larva is round, not dorsoventrally flattened, and not inter- segmentally constricted as in Albusambia. In Undulambia the mandible consists of one line of teeth, not two as in that of Albusambia. Other than the host plant record, the bio- logical and morphological data ofthe larvae of Neurophyseta are not available. Unlike the vertex ofthe pupal head of Albusambia, Undulambia does not have a prominent medial dorsoventral depression. Undulambia has a somewhat rugose, broadly flattened prothorax with two anterolateral horn-like structures that protrude twice as much as inthe smooth pro- thorax of Albusambia. Albusambia has lateral conical depressions posterior to the anus, but Undulambia lacks these depressions. Pupal data on Neurophyseta is incomplete.
Elytra 1.33 times longer than wide, 1.58 times longer than pronotum; sides diverging slightly on basal two-thirds; acuIriinately rounded behind; most striae moderately but distinctly impressed, punctures small, deep, spaced by less than diameter of a puncture; interstriae three times wider than striae, punctures half the width of strial punctures, uniseriate, spaced by five times their diameter; interstriae 10 strongly, acutely elevated to level of metacoxae, continuing as a less elevated line to stemum 5; declivity steep, convex; almost flat on central half, strial and interstriál punctures as on disc, except c1oser, · striae slightly more impressed. Vestiture consisting of interstrial rows of erect bristles, and much shorter strial and interstrial hairlike setae, · mostly in rows; vestiture most abundant on oeclivity;
that grows up to 2 cm including the inflorescence (vs. 6 cm tall), a denser and shorter inflorescence which is up to 1.3 cm long (vs. a stingy inflorescence up to 5 cm long), with 1.0-2.0 mm long pedicels (pedicels 2.5-7.0 mm long), with less than 5 mm between each one (distance between pedicels 2.0-5.0 mm long), and smaller flowers with sepals and petals up to 2.3 mm long (vs. up to 3.5 mm long), and the lip up to about 1.5 mm long (vs. 2.5 mm long). Fromthe Guatemalan type material ofP. oxyglossa, P. catiensis can be distinguished by the shorter (2.2-2.3 mm), shortly acuminate and marginally glandular sepals (vs. sepals 2.5 mm, long acuminate, glabrous), the petals and lip are longer, subequal to the sepals, the petal margin is glandular, while the lip is elliptic, and completely glandular-hirsute, especially near the apex (vs. sepals and lip 1.5 mm, much shorter than the sepals, and are glabrous, the lip is ovate- lanceolate). It might well turn out that none oftheCosta Rican material can be referred to P. oxyglossa. In that case the larger species found inthe Central Cordillera should be referred to as Platystele schulzeana (Schltr.) Garay, described from La Carpintera. For the time being we only segregate the easily distinguished and morphologically constant P. catiensis, and point out that the name P. oxyglossa has been applied to two different speciesinCostaRica. A few Brazilian species have been placed under synonymy ofP. oxyglossa, but from what we have seen they are most likely not the same species, and certainly are not the same as those found inCostaRica. The recently described Platystele paraensis Campacci & da Silva has the typical general flower morphology oftheP. oxyglossa complex, and is as tiny as P. catiensis. It can be distinguished by the single flowered inflorescence, the sepals that are long caudate, that have an orange mid-vein and are much longer than the lip, which is apically yellow-orange. Flower morphology and size is similar to Platystele psix Luer & Hirtz, however the Ecuadorian species has cellular-pubescent sepals and petals. Another similar species occurs in Panama and Ecuador, Platystele taylorii Luer can be however recognized by the lip that is long acuminate and exceeds the glabrous sepals. 6. Platystele sylvestrei Karremans & Bogarín, sp. nov. TYPE: CostaRica. Cartago: Paraíso, Orosi, Tapantí,
Both putative parents of Epidendrum × sandiorum, E. oerstedii and E. ciliare, are members ofthe Coilostylis Group that is characterized by the sympodial, caespitose plants, the stems forming a fusiform pseudobulb, with an apical, racemose, distichous inflorescence, the peduncle covered by large bracts (but not spathaceous), and flowers with the above-mentioned morphology. The hybrid is recognized by the sub-spherical to ovoid pseudobulbs with a single apical leaf and the inflorescence produced fromthe immature stem. The outer margins ofthe lateral lobes ofthe lip are fimbriate to laciniate, the mid-lobe trullate beyond the middle, 45 mm long, apically long-acuminate, and the margin erose. Epidendrum oerstedii ranges from Honduras to central Panama, produces the inflorescence fromthe immature, short pseudobulb. The margin ofthe lip is entire, and the mid-lobe shorter (25-33 mm long), widened beyond the middle. Epidendrum ciliare is widely distributed from western Mexico (Nayarit) south to Peru and Brazil and the Antilles, also produces the inflorescence fromthe immature, more elongate pseudobulb, but the outer margins ofthe lip are deeply fimbriate, and the mid-lobe is linear, not widened inthe middle (Sánchez & Hágsater 2008b; 2010). The putative parents have not been recorded yet at the same location were the hybrid was found. 6. Epistephium ellipticum R.O.Williams &