PDF superior Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

Two new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica in the P. phyllocardia group

The group is characterized by plants with soft- coriaceous, elastic leaves, without a distinctly protruding mid-vein, matte on the upper surface, ovate to lanceolate, usually less than four times longer than broad (mostly <4 cm wide), deeply cordate at the base when mature (immature leaves may be cuneate), and a spathaceous bract producing flowers that are erect to suberect, not prostrate (except in P. adventurae). The flowers are coriaceous, remaining open and mostly reflexing the sepals and petals after anthesis, with an erect dorsal sepal that is narrower than the synsepal. The lip is simple (rarely obscurely three-lobed), triangular-lanceolate, and thick, with a raised, rounded callus and a distinct glenion. Whilst the phylogenetic relationships among the different subsets of species artificially gathered in this study is not granted, they can nevertheless be easily distinguished as a group from other assemblages of taxa. Informally circumscribed, this group includes some 35 species, distributed from Costa Rica to Peru and Bolivia, with the highest diversity recorded in the northern Andes of Colombia and Ecuador (Luer 2005, Wilson et al. 2016).
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Four new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from the Valle del Cauca Department in Colombia

Four new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from the Valle del Cauca Department in Colombia

This species had been previously described as Pleurothallis jimii (Luer 2004), nevertheless, it was simultaneously transferred to the generic name Ancipitia, invalidating both names. The alternative names Pleurothallis jimii and Ancipitia jimii (Luer 2004) are invalid under article 36.2 of the ICN-2012, which reads “When, on or after 1 January 1953, two or more different names based on the same type are proposed simultaneously for the same taxon by the same author (so-called alternative names), none of them is validly published”. Although within the publication the two names appeared under different headings, these should be treated as chapters of the same publication and not as individual publications as the author name [Carlyle A. Luer] only appears below the full title “Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera and three allied subgenera. A second century of new species of Stelis of Ecuador. Epibator, Ophidion, Zootrophion…” on the title page, which is followed by a contents page, citing the mentioned headings. Instead of validating P. jimii we opt to describe the species once again because it was originally based on a single specimen from cultivated material without specific locality data, and we prefer at this time to select a specimen of known origin as holotype, several accompanying paratypes with locality data, and which are all accessible for Colombian students.
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A clarification of the distinctions between Pleurothallis talpinaria and Pleurothallis trimeroglossa (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) and an allied new species from Ecuador

A clarification of the distinctions between Pleurothallis talpinaria and Pleurothallis trimeroglossa (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) and an allied new species from Ecuador

Relatively little is known about pollination in Pleurothallis sensu Pridgeon et al. (2005), but the few studies available suggest that Pleurothallis species are pollinated predominantly by Diptera and occasionally by Hymenoptera and Coleoptera (Archila & Chiron 2015, Calderón-Sáenz 2011, Duque 1993, Duque-Buitrago et al. 2014). These scant field observations are being supplemented by micro-morphological studies of the labellum using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which can be used to hypothesize putative pollination mechanisms for future field testing. While a preliminary study of labellar morphology of species in Pleurothallis subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae (Wilson et al. 2016) has been published, this represents the first study of the labellar morphology in the P. talpinaria group. In this manuscript we clarify the distinction between the species P. talpinaria and P. trimeroglossa and remove the second from synonymy with the first; we describe a new species from Ecuador allied to these two species; and we discuss labellar morphology in
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Novelties in Costa Rican Stelis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae): two new species and a new record in the “Dracontia group”

Novelties in Costa Rican Stelis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae): two new species and a new record in the “Dracontia group”

This species has wandered in different genera without being clearly placed amongst its closest rela- tives. Pridgeon and Chase (2001) believed it to be an Anathallis Barb.Rodr. However, Luer (2000) treated it within Pleurothallis subgen. Effusia Luer, which he latter recognized as a distinct genus under the name Effusiella Luer. Karremans (2011) believed that the obtuse petals, three-lobed lip, helm-shaped anther cap that protrudes beyond the tip of the column, among other features, were suggestive of a Dracontia affin- ity. Such an affinity was later confirmed with DNA data (Karremans et al. 2012). The species’ placement within a broad sense Stelis was not news, as the both Dracontia and Effusiella have been mostly considered synonyms of Stelis, however we can now also point at Stelis cobanensis (Schltr.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase and S. multirostris (Rchb. f.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase as being its closest relatives.
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Hidden in plain sight: a new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Colombia previously misidentified as Pleurothallis luctuosa

Hidden in plain sight: a new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Colombia previously misidentified as Pleurothallis luctuosa

To date, Pleurothallis tenuisepala has been collect- ed from only two confirmed locations in the Depart- ment of Cauca, Colombia: in PNN Gorgona, on Isla Gorgona, an island off the Cauca coast; and on the Pa- cific slope of the Cordillera Occidental near the eastern border of Parque Nacional Natural Munchique, north- west of Popayán, Cauca. The species was also pho- tographed and collected some time ago and has been maintained in cultivation by Uribe Velez and is thought to have come from near Santa Cecilia, Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, Colombia (Ortiz Valdivieso & Uribe Velez 2007, Uribe Velez, pers. comm.). Other than Cauca, and possibly Risaralda, we found no evidence that P. tenuisepala has been collected from any other Colom- bian Departments. While the species may historically have had a wider distribution in the lowland and mid- elevation forests of the Pacific slopes of the Andean Cordillera Occidental of Colombia, part of the Chocó biogeographic region, the only recently confirmed lo- cality is that on Isla Gorgona. To our knowledge, P. luctuosa does not occur in Colombia and collections in herbaria identified as P. luctuosa from southwest Co- lombia are in fact all P. tenuisepala.
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A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Quito, Ecuador

A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Quito, Ecuador

has been found only at one locality in the Hoya de Guayllabamba, valley of Los Chillos, on the canyon of the River Pita (Fig. 4). A population of approximately 50 plants of Pleurothallis quitu-cara grows at the type locality. Two color forms, a xanthic and a non- xanthic form, coexist (Fig. 2B). It is not clear if the species is always represented by this two colour forms, or other phenotypes could be found somewhere else. Nevertheless, no other populations of the species are known by the authors at the moment, which does not necessarily mean P. quitu-cara is restricted to this single population. More exploration is needed to confirm if this original population is the only one known for the species. This finding confirms that, even so close to Quito, the capital of a well explored country, when it comes to orchids, a new species of orchid can still be found anywhere.
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A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia and a note on the relationship between subsections Macrophyllae-Racemosae and Antenniferae

A new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia and a note on the relationship between subsections Macrophyllae-Racemosae and Antenniferae

Of the species studied here P. bicornis, P. caucensis, P. subreniformis and P. torrana all possess relatively simple lips. The flowers of P. caucensis appear to provide a liquid reward on the anterior margin of the central lobe of the labellum (Fig. 10), which is uppermost due to the apparently non-resupinate presentation of the flowers on the raceme (Fig. 1). While the glenion is not very distinct in P. caucensis, or the other species examined, at least compared to members of the Macrophyllae- Fasciculatae (Wilson et al. 2016), there does appear to be secretion of a liquid from under the anther which forms a layer between the two calli on the anterior edge of the lip (Fig. 11). We hypothesize that a potential pollinator lands on the synsepal and is attracted to the liquid reward on the anterior edge of the labellum and then proceeds toward the anther in response to the liquid reward accumulating between the calli on the lip. Most likely this model based on P. caucensis also applies to other members of the Macrophyllae-Racemosae with a simple lip, such as the P. bicornis, P. subreniformis and P. torrana studied here.
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Masdevallia luerorum (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species from Costa Rica

Masdevallia luerorum (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species from Costa Rica

expanded together, connate for about 6–10 mm to form a lamina, the free portion about 23–25 mm long, each basally subtriangular, gradually contracted into a slender, descending, apical tail to 8.5–13.5 mm long. Petals ovate, oblique, unguiculate, 4.5–5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, the apex obtuse with a small apiculus, the labellar margin with a low, longitudinal callus ending in a short, pointed tooth between the iddle and lower third of the petal. Lip oblong, convex, 4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, with marginal folds near the middle, the apex rounded, verrucose, the base subcordate, hinged beneath. Column semiterete, 4 mm long, 1 mm wide. Foot 2 mm long with a short, incurved extension. Pollinia two, ovoid. Anther cap cucullate.
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Three new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) in subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae from northern South America

Three new species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) in subsection Macrophyllae-Fasciculatae from northern South America

castanea is only known from live collections in Ecuador. When describing species from greenhouse collections which have no locality information or accompanying in situ observation one must consider the possibility of a greenhouse hybrid. We believe that the characteristics of this Pleurothallis are sufficiently distinct from the other species of the Pleurothallis cardiostola complex to make the possibility that this represents a hybrid between two species of the complex highly unlikely. Further, all the plants observed at Ecuagenera and EquaflorA were very consistent in morphology, which would not be the case were they seedlings from an unintentional or intentional greenhouse hybrid. We are convinced, therefore, that P. castanea represents a novel species and we will continue to seek field records to confirm that this species occurs in situ and to determine a distribution for the species. The species should not, however, be added to the flora of Ecuador at this time, since it is conceivable the species was obtained from Colombia or Peru and does not occur naturally in Ecuador.
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A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

A new species and three hybrids in the ferns from Cocos Island, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

The first list exclusively for ferns from Cocos Island was presented by Gómez (1975a, 1975b) who registered 60 species of ferns and lycophytes and of them only six (10%) are endemic. After that, other authors as: Gómez (1976) described a new species of Thelypteris Schmidel and reported three species; Smith & Lellinger (1985) described other new species of Thelypteris; Adams (1992) described a new species of Asplenium L.; Rojas (1996) described a new species of Hymenophyllum Sm. and other in Terpsichore A.R. Sm.; Rojas (2001a) described a new species of Hypolepis Bernh.; Rojas (2003) described two new species of Elaphoglossum Sm.; Rojas (2004) a new variety of Trichomanes collariatum Bosch; Rojas & Trusty (2004) described two new varieties of Asplenium delicatum C. Presl and Saccoloma elegans Kaulf. respectively, also registered 80 infrageneric taxa and of them eighteen (22.5%) are endemic. Rojas (2009) described a new species of Elaphoglossum. Rojas (2011) described four new species and registered six other species. Rojas (2013a) described a new species of Stenogrammitis Labiak and Rojas (2013b) described a new species of Danaea Sm. Also Gómez (1976) registered three species and Rojas (2001b) validated the name of Cyathea alfonsiana L.D. Gómez published by Gómez (1971). In summary, 85 infrageneric taxa have been reported and of them twenty five (29.4%) are endemic.
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A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica

Description of Holotype: An adult female with a somewhat truncated, rounded snout of moderate length. Nostril relatively small ; labial protuberances of nasolabial groove short but moderately well-developed. Canthus rostralis short, slightly arched, distinct. Standard length 6.5 times head width; standard length 4.6 times snout-gular fold length. A deep gro ove below eye extends along full length of opening, follo­ wing curvature of eye, but does not communi­ cate with lip. Eye moderately large and protu­ berant. A very indistinct postorbital groove extends posteriorly from eye as shallow depres­ sion for 1 .5 mm, then proceeds sharply ventrad at level of posterior end of mandible and ex­ tends across guIar area as a weakly defined nuchal groove, parallel to the well defined guIar fold. Vomerine teeth 1 8, arranged in a single row on each si de extending to the lateral mar­ gin of the internal nares in a relatively flat arch. The teeth become directed toward the posterior vomerine patch, from which they are separated by a very small (0.2 mm) gap. Maxillary teeth 3 5 , very small, extend about two-thirds through eye. There are three very small prema­ xillary teeth. Tail long, 1 .26 times SL, rounded and with only slight basal constriction. Posti1iac gland obscure. Limbs of moderate length, limb interval 3 ; SL 4.6 times forelimb ; 4.5 times hind limb ; 9.8 times foot width. Hands and feet slightly webbed, with two phalanges free ofweb on longest digits and all digits somewhat free of the web ; all but the first digit have well develo­ ped subterminal pads. The fingers in order of decreasing length: 3 , 2, 4, 1 ; toes in order of decreasing length: 3, 2, 4, 5, 1 .
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New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica

Although this species has not been yet analyzed by molecular phylogenetic techniques, morphological features suggest that it belongs to the genus Acianthera Scheidw. Luer (1978) stated that it vegetatively resembles to Pleurothallis circumplexa Lindl., P. pacayana Schltr., and P. pantasmi Rchb.f. (all now included in the genus Acianthera) because the inflorescence emerges from the blade of the leaf above the base. Also, he noted that the green, glabrous, gaping flowers in the short raceme resemble those of Pleurothallis cogniauxiana Schltr., P. decipiens Ames & C.Schweinf., and P. verecunda Schltr. (as well as many others), all of them also transferred to the genus Acianthera by several authors (Pridgeon & Chase 2001, Luer 2004). Its bicallose, truncate petals ending into a short apiculum, as well as the long claw of the lip, are unusual features of this species. Luer (2004, 2005) considered these floral details, together with the pair of pointed calli laying near the center of lip (rounded in our specimen) as critical features to segregate Pleurothallis aberrans into the monotypic genus Aberrantia Luer. We consider the monotypic genus Aberrantia, only defined by subtle floral features, congeneric with Acianthera. According to Luer (2003a), the voucher cited by Pupulin (2002a) is from Panama. Here, we cite a Costa Rican voucher for this species.
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A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

A new species of Pediobius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Epilachna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Costa Rica

The genus Pediobius Walker is a large and cosmopolitan group, with the majority of species occuring in the northern temperate regions. Relatively few species have been recorded from the Neotropical region, where Pediobius is thought to be largely replaced by Horismenus Walker (Boucek 1988). So far eight species of Pediobius have been recorded from this region, but some of the records need to be checked (e.g. P. furvum (Gahan), an African species (Kerrich 1973) recorded from the Bahamas and Bolivia by De Santis (1979)). The host spectrum of Pediobius is large, with larvae developing as primary or second- ary parasites in eggs, larvae or pupae of other insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and occasionally other insect orders) (Boucek 1988). The new species described below has been reared from a prepu- pa (larva) of Epilachna mexicana Guèrin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Two previously described species of Pediobius also have Epilachna species as hosts: P. amaurocoelus
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Two new species of Cleridae (Coleoptera) from a Costa Rican cloud forest

Two new species of Cleridae (Coleoptera) from a Costa Rican cloud forest

Abstrad: Two species of Clerini (Cleridae: Clerinae), Colyphus hansoni and Enoclerus (E.) puravida , are described from malaise trap samples collected in a patch of c1oudforest at Zurquí de Moravia, San Jose Province, Costa Rica. Colyphus hansoni is compared to its congeners and to the sympatric Enoclerus (Coniferoclerus) subviolaceus (Gorham). The new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of color, seta! pattem and elytral sculpturing. A sympatric, undescribed Colyphus species resembles C. hansoni in details of shape and sculpturing, and may prove to be its sister species. Colyphus hansoni has the elyra tricolorous (red, ivory and black) and thus is easily separated from the undescribed species which has the e1ytra strictly bicolorous (stramineous and black). The generic status of the latter is discussed in relation to Colyphus. The presence of sexually dimorphic tarsal claws in Colyphus is noted for the first time. Enoclerus (E.) puravida is characterized as part of a complex of several similar and possibly related species distributed in Panarna and Costa Rica. It is similar lo several other Mexican and Central American Enoclerus species lhat share small size, ant-like form, shining black or reddish elytral integument and distinctive sculpturing of the elytral base. This group, consisting of E. (E.) tubercularis (Gorharn 1882), E. (E.) gibbus Ekis 1976, E. (E.) albosignatus Ekis 1976, E. (E.) puravida and sorne undescribed species, may eventually prove io form a clade-and thus warrant elevation to subgeneric or generic status. Among described species, E. (E.) puravida is most similar to the PananlalÚan E. (E.) albosignatus, from which it differs by having the of each elytron coarsely alveoJate-¡iunctate and only incidentally and feebly costate, rather than smooth and "embossed" with !bree shalJow carinae. The two species also differ in details of coloration and pronotal sculpturing. E. (E.) puravida may be mimicking ants.
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Two new species of cichlid fishes, Cichlasoma sajica and C  diquis, from southeastern Costa Rica

Two new species of cichlid fishes, Cichlasoma sajica and C diquis, from southeastern Costa Rica

the end of the dorsal fin base and the end of the anal fin base. The seventh bar is centered on fue caudal pedunde or lies slightly closer to the caudal fin base; this bar is very faint or absent on some individuaIs. A blotch whoUy on the caudal fin base is distinct on sorne individuals and absent from others; this blotch is usually centered on the fin base and rarely extends from dorsal to ventral margins. The blotch was not included in the vertical bar count Anterior to the first vertical bar of some males, are one or two indistinct short bars inclined toward the head. The anteriormost bar is most evident dorsally at the nape and fades out before reaching the upper margin of the gill opening. The second short bar is most pronounced below the dorsal fin origin and fades out posterior to the gill opening or may fuse with the first vertical bar. On sorne preserved material an indistinct horizontal band lies perpendicular to the third bar and extends anteriorly to the upper margin of the gill opening.
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The Prosthechea prismatocarpa complex (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) in Costa Rica, with a new species, P. tardiflora

The Prosthechea prismatocarpa complex (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) in Costa Rica, with a new species, P. tardiflora

With their erect, many-flowered inflorescences, Prosthechea prismatocarpa (Rchb.f.) W.E. Higgins and the allied species are among the showiest orchids of Costa Rican flora. Since the time of its original description, the concept of Epidendrum prismatocarpum was used in a broad sense (Reichenbach 1883, 1886, Schlechter 1923, Teuscher 1969, Mora-Retana & Atwood 1992) to include populations which may be distinguished on the basis of ecological data (Fig. 1, 2) and morpho- logical characters (Fig. 3). The need of a careful study of the group was pointed out by Dressler (1993: 58) and new insights were proposed by Mora-Retana and García-Castro (1990), and Pupulin (2001a, 2001b).
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Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

Life history and systematics of Albusambia elaphoglossumae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A new genus and species of musotimine with leaf mining biology from Costa Rica

The basal color of Undulambia adults is brown, not white, as in Albusambia and Neurophyseta. Wings of Undulambia are incised, and those of Albusambia and Neurophyseta are entire. Forewing costal swelling is absent in Albusambia and Neurophyseta, but pres- ent in Undulambia. In the male genitalia of Undulambia the valva is long and equal in width throughout, not widened posteriorly as in Albusambia and some Neurophyseta spe- cies. The body of Undulambia larva is round, not dorsoventrally flattened, and not inter- segmentally constricted as in Albusambia. In Undulambia the mandible consists of one line of teeth, not two as in that of Albusambia. Other than the host plant record, the bio- logical and morphological data of the larvae of Neurophyseta are not available. Unlike the vertex of the pupal head of Albusambia, Undulambia does not have a prominent medial dorsoventral depression. Undulambia has a somewhat rugose, broadly flattened prothorax with two anterolateral horn-like structures that protrude twice as much as in the smooth pro- thorax of Albusambia. Albusambia has lateral conical depressions posterior to the anus, but Undulambia lacks these depressions. Pupal data on Neurophyseta is incomplete.
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New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from Costa Rica and Panama

Elytra 1.33 times longer than wide, 1.58 times longer than pronotum; sides diverging slightly on basal two-thirds; acuIriinately rounded behind; most striae moderately but distinctly impressed, punctures small, deep, spaced by less than diameter of a puncture; interstriae three times wider than striae, punctures half the width of strial punctures, uniseriate, spaced by five times their diameter; interstriae 10 strongly, acutely elevated to level of metacoxae, continuing as a less elevated line to stemum 5; declivity steep, convex; almost flat on central half, strial and interstriál punctures as on disc, except c1oser, · striae slightly more impressed. Vestiture consisting of interstrial rows of erect bristles, and much shorter strial and interstrial hairlike setae, · mostly in rows; vestiture most abundant on oeclivity;
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New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica. III

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica. III

that grows up to 2 cm including the inflorescence (vs. 6 cm tall), a denser and shorter inflorescence which is up to 1.3 cm long (vs. a stingy inflorescence up to 5 cm long), with 1.0-2.0 mm long pedicels (pedicels 2.5-7.0 mm long), with less than 5 mm between each one (distance between pedicels 2.0-5.0 mm long), and smaller flowers with sepals and petals up to 2.3 mm long (vs. up to 3.5 mm long), and the lip up to about 1.5 mm long (vs. 2.5 mm long). From the Guatemalan type material of P. oxyglossa, P. catiensis can be distinguished by the shorter (2.2-2.3 mm), shortly acuminate and marginally glandular sepals (vs. sepals 2.5 mm, long acuminate, glabrous), the petals and lip are longer, subequal to the sepals, the petal margin is glandular, while the lip is elliptic, and completely glandular-hirsute, especially near the apex (vs. sepals and lip 1.5 mm, much shorter than the sepals, and are glabrous, the lip is ovate- lanceolate). It might well turn out that none of the Costa Rican material can be referred to P. oxyglossa. In that case the larger species found in the Central Cordillera should be referred to as Platystele schulzeana (Schltr.) Garay, described from La Carpintera. For the time being we only segregate the easily distinguished and morphologically constant P. catiensis, and point out that the name P. oxyglossa has been applied to two different species in Costa Rica. A few Brazilian species have been placed under synonymy of P. oxyglossa, but from what we have seen they are most likely not the same species, and certainly are not the same as those found in Costa Rica. The recently described Platystele paraensis Campacci & da Silva has the typical general flower morphology of the P. oxyglossa complex, and is as tiny as P. catiensis. It can be distinguished by the single flowered inflorescence, the sepals that are long caudate, that have an orange mid-vein and are much longer than the lip, which is apically yellow-orange. Flower morphology and size is similar to Platystele psix Luer & Hirtz, however the Ecuadorian species has cellular-pubescent sepals and petals. Another similar species occurs in Panama and Ecuador, Platystele taylorii Luer can be however recognized by the lip that is long acuminate and exceeds the glabrous sepals. 6. Platystele sylvestrei Karremans & Bogarín, sp. nov. TYPE: Costa Rica. Cartago: Paraíso, Orosi, Tapantí,
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New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica. II

New species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa Rica. II

Both putative parents of Epidendrum × sandiorum, E. oerstedii and E. ciliare, are members of the Coilostylis Group that is characterized by the sympodial, caespitose plants, the stems forming a fusiform pseudobulb, with an apical, racemose, distichous inflorescence, the peduncle covered by large bracts (but not spathaceous), and flowers with the above-mentioned morphology. The hybrid is recognized by the sub-spherical to ovoid pseudobulbs with a single apical leaf and the inflorescence produced from the immature stem. The outer margins of the lateral lobes of the lip are fimbriate to laciniate, the mid-lobe trullate beyond the middle, 45 mm long, apically long-acuminate, and the margin erose. Epidendrum oerstedii ranges from Honduras to central Panama, produces the inflorescence from the immature, short pseudobulb. The margin of the lip is entire, and the mid-lobe shorter (25-33 mm long), widened beyond the middle. Epidendrum ciliare is widely distributed from western Mexico (Nayarit) south to Peru and Brazil and the Antilles, also produces the inflorescence from the immature, more elongate pseudobulb, but the outer margins of the lip are deeply fimbriate, and the mid-lobe is linear, not widened in the middle (Sánchez & Hágsater 2008b; 2010). The putative parents have not been recorded yet at the same location were the hybrid was found. 6. Epistephium ellipticum R.O.Williams &
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