PDF superior STRP draft Resolution and guidance on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

STRP draft Resolution and guidance on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

STRP draft Resolution and guidance on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

As well as providing conditions for virus mutation and generation, agricultural practices, particularly those used on wetlands, can enhance the ability of a virus to spread. The role of Asian domestic ducks in the epidemiology of HPAI H5N1 has been closely researched and found to be central not only to the genesis of the virus (Hulse-Post et al. 2005; Sims et al. 2005), but also to its spread and the maintenance of infection in several Asian countries (Shortridge & Melville 2006). Typically this has involved flocks of domestic ducks used for ‘cleaning’ rice paddies of waste grain and various pests, during which they are exposed to wild ducks using the same wetlands. Detailed research (Gilbert et al. 2006; Songserm et al. 2006) in Thailand has demonstrated a strong association between the HPAI H5N1 virus and abundance of free-grazing ducks. Gilbert et al. (2006) concluded that in Thailand “wetlands used for double-crop rice production, where free-grazing duck feed year round in rice paddies, appear to be a critical factor in HPAI persistence and spread”.
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Ramsar COP10 DR 21 Draft Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

Ramsar COP10 DR 21 Draft Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

recognised that, as well as the direct impacts of HPAI H5N1 on susceptible birds, public attitudes (and therefore support for wetland conservation, particularly of Ramsar sites and other wetlands of importance for waterbirds) could be negatively affected by concerns about the possible role of waterbirds in the spread of HPAI H5N1. Parties at COP9 were also greatly concerned that in many countries there was a significant lack of information and, in some countries, public misunderstanding, about important issues related to the spread of HPAI, the risks it may pose, and how to anticipate and respond to outbreaks of HPAI. Accordingly COP9 agreed Resolution IX.23 on Highly pathogenic avian influenza and its consequences for wetland and waterbird conservation and wise use. This Resolution inter alia called on the Convention’s Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) to develop practical advice that could assist countries in responding to this serious and rapidly developing situation. 6. In particular, Ramsar COP9 requested the STRP, with the Scientific Task Force on Avian
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Resolution X.10 Future implementation of scientific and technical aspects of the Convention

Resolution X.10 Future implementation of scientific and technical aspects of the Convention

i) Maintain an active overview of and input to issues relating to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), especially in relation to surveillance, information- exchange and response strategies, including by continued participation in the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, and including a determination of whether lessons learnt from best practice responses to HPAI H5N1 have implications for Ramsar guidance relating to protected sites and other aspects of wetland wise use, followed by the development of any necessary proposals for modifying such guidance; and
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Avian influenza and wetlands

Avian influenza and wetlands

in 2005 recognized that, as well as the direct impacts of HPAI H5N1 on susceptible birds, public attitudes (and therefore support for wetland conservation, particularly of Ramsar sites and other wetlands of importance for waterbirds) could be negatively affected by concerns about the possible role of waterbirds in the spread of HPAI H5N1. Parties at COP9 were also greatly concerned that in many countries there was a significant lack of information and, in some countries, public misunderstanding, about important issues related to the spread of HPAI, the risks it may pose, and how to anticipate and respond to outbreaks of HPAI. Accordingly COP9 agreed Resolution IX.23 on Highly pathogenic avian influenza and its consequences for wetland and waterbird conservation and wise use. This Resolution inter alia called on the Convention’s Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) to develop practical advice that could assist countries in responding to this serious and rapidly developing situation.
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Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza

Resolution X.21 Guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza

2. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 of Asian lineage (HPAI H5N1) is a viral zoonotic disease that emerged in poultry in southeast Asia between 1997 and 2003. It has since attracted widespread media attention and the attention of decision-makers within governments and international agencies. Between 2003 and 2008, the virus spread in an unprecedented fashion across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. The disease has had major impacts on rural livelihoods linked to the keeping of domestic birds (mainly chickens, ducks, turkeys, ostrich and quail) and nature conservation, including mortality of waterbirds at many Ramsar sites and negative public attitude toward waterbirds and their habitats as a result of lack of understanding of the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the disease. There have also been major concerns as to the potential for viral change that might precipitate a human influenza pandemic, given the ongoing exposure of humans to the circulating avian virus through close contact with infected domestic birds and their products.
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Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Healthy wetlands, healthy people”

Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Healthy wetlands, healthy people”

5. The framework guidance is designed to give new advice on the overall scheme or “architecture” of Ramsar’s regime on this issue, the ways in which different parts of it (detecting, reporting, responding) fit together, and the processes that should operate if implementation by Contracting Parties and others involved are to be consistent with the terms of the Convention.

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In the past, some wetland restoration efforts have failed due to, among other things, narrow objectives which focus on one benefit or a partial suite of ben-

In the past, some wetland restoration efforts have failed due to, among other things, narrow objectives which focus on one benefit or a partial suite of ben-

When wetlands are degraded, the broad range of ben- efits they produce begins to deteriorate and eventually vanish. In some cases, degradation occurs because one particular benefit is valued above all others, such as wa- ter supply for irrigation in agricultural production sys- tems. Wetland degradation is defined as the alteration of an existing or intact wetland resulting in a simplifica- tion or disruption in its structure, function and compo- sition and, in turn, a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This is most often caused by human activities or disturbances that are too frequent or severe to al- low for natural recovery. Not only have population pres- sures and other human-induced stressors resulted in the degradation of wetlands across the globe, but the effects of climate change (e.g., sea level rise, tempera- ture increases, changes in flood and drought patterns) are also increasingly impacting the quality and flow of wetland services. The continued loss and degradation of wetlands will result in a further reduction in benefits and thus negatively impact human health and well- being into the future, particularly for the poor and dis- enfranchised who often depend disproportionately on these public goods and services.
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Ramsar COP9 DOC. 30 Draft Resolutions and related Information Papers for consideration under each COP9 Agenda item

Ramsar COP9 DOC. 30 Draft Resolutions and related Information Papers for consideration under each COP9 Agenda item

and Technical Review Panel (STRP) COP9 DR1 guidance for implementing the Ramsar wise use Additional scientific and technical concept.. COP9 DOC.[r]

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Progress report on the implementation of the second Joint Work Plan (2000-2001) of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)

Progress report on the implementation of the second Joint Work Plan (2000-2001) of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)

13. The first two CBD-Ramsar Joint Work Plans have focused on global-scale activities through collaboration chiefly between secretariats and subsidiary scientific and technical bodies. There is a need to engage more fully the national focal points of both conventions in the delivery of joint action on matters of common interest, recognizing that closer understanding and cooperation at country level between CBD focal points and their counterpart Ramsar Administrative Authorities are essential for the successful implementation of the Conventions.

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Influenza en 1918: La madre de todas las pandemias

Influenza en 1918: La madre de todas las pandemias

nearly half of the influenza-related deaths in the 1918 pandemic were in young adults 20-40 years of age, a phenomenon unique to that pandemic year. The 1918 pandemic is also unique among influenza pandemics in that absolute risk of influenza death was higher in those <65 years of age than in those >65; persons <65 years of age accounted for >99% of all excess influenza-related deaths in 1918–1919. In comparison, the <65-year age group accounted for 36% of all excess influenza-related deaths in the 1957 H2N2 pandemic and 48% in the 1968 H3N2 pandemic (33). A sharper perspective emerges when 1918 age- specific influenza morbidity rates (21) are used to adjust the W-shaped mortality curve (Figure 3, panels, A, B, and C [35,37]). Persons <35 years of age in 1918 had a disproportionately high influenza incidence (Figure 3, panel A). But even after adjusting age- specific deaths by age-specific clinical attack rates (Figure 3, panel B), a W-shaped curve with a case- fatality peak in young adults remains and is significantly different from U-shaped age-specific case-fatality curves typically seen in other influenza years, e.g., 1928-1929 (Figure 3, panel C). Also, in 1918 those 5 to 14 years of age accounted for a disproportionate number of influenza cases, but had a much lower death
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STRP advice on COP10 draft Resolutions submitted by Contracting Parties, and additional advice on scientific and technical content of other DRs

STRP advice on COP10 draft Resolutions submitted by Contracting Parties, and additional advice on scientific and technical content of other DRs

10. In Australia there is some preliminary work on the comparative value of rice fields and natural wetlands for some waterbirds; the rice fields do not win. There is likely to be similar research elsewhere. It might be helpful to request the STRP to further investigate such matters in its future work. Further, there are assumptions in the DR that rice fields are good for biodiversity, but where they have replaced other wetlands they may (do) alter the biodiversity – adding more taxa to an area is not necessarily a good biodiversity outcome, especially if others have been lost or populations reduced. Suggest that the less savoury outcomes are recognised along with the benefits, and an operative paragraph be added, something along the lines of “REQUESTS the STRP and other interested organizations to assess and provide a technical report on the role of rice fields and
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Ramsar COP10 DR 17 Draft Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

Ramsar COP10 DR 17 Draft Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

At the species diversity level - references to ‘a population of a species’ should include wetland species and migratory species. As a reference for populations, for waterbirds appropriate biogeographical populations are established in Wetlands International’s periodically published Waterbird Population Estimates. For other taxa, population information regularly updated by IUCN’s Specialist Groups though the IUCN Species Information Service (SIS) and published in the Ramsar Technical Report series should be used. Where a site regularly supports >1% of one or more populations of waterbirds or other wetland-dependent animal species, an additional question could be: would the intended activity threaten to cause a direct or indirect loss of the international importance of these interests at the site?
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Draft Resolution X.00 Wetlands and human health and well-being

Draft Resolution X.00 Wetlands and human health and well-being

31. FURTHER INVITES governments, NGOs, research institutions and others to make available, in appropriate forms including to the Secretariat and the STRP, the results of research and demonstration projects on good practice in integrated approaches to wetland ecosystem conservation and wise use and human health, with a view to demonstrating the practical value of such good practices for those directly involved with wetland

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THEME 4: WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE (RAMSAR SITES)

THEME 4: WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE (RAMSAR SITES)

Awareness of guidance is needed for the wise use of wetlands in relation to burgeoning new coastal aquaculture but also for stocked inland wetlands. Contribution of small scale fisheries in inland and coastal waters to livelihoods and food security is poorly known but vastly underestimated. By improving the knowledge base on these fisheries, the motivation for aquaculture, that may degrade wetlands, could be reduced. Without this information aquaculture may be promoted or planned were it would not be competitive with capture fisheries and would fail. There is much existing guidance including that devloped by FAO and WorldFish so rather than generating new material, the need is for guidance on how to access existing material, relevant to different target audiences.
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CONVENTION ON WETLANDS (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) 35 th Meeting of the Standing Committee

CONVENTION ON WETLANDS (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) 35 th Meeting of the Standing Committee

C.8 Potential activity/project concept (viii): Coordinated response mechanisms. The IOPs might consider developing some kind of “rapid response coordination mechanism” in respect of cases of sites where monitoring (in whatever form) reveals problems requiring action. Questions of prioritisation, delegation/division of labour, consensus opinion, creative solution-finding, resource-finding, publicity, participation in Ramsar Advisory Missions, etc., could be addressed in a (loosely) pre-planned way, instead of having to be addressed on a case-by-case reactive basis each time. The IOPs have shown on a number of occasions that the potential for mature cooperation on such things exists, but no anticipatory mechanisms or structures to facilitate it in the most effective way have been put in place.
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CONVENTION ON WETLANDS (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) 31 st Meeting of the Standing Committee

CONVENTION ON WETLANDS (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) 31 st Meeting of the Standing Committee

9. Thus far the Convention Secretariat has had a largely reactive press or media strategy, dealing with critical issues in an ad hoc way. For the next triennium it is proposed that we develop a more coordinated approach, seeking media opportunities and connections to spread good and positive stories and to try to achieve a better profile for the Convention. We will attempt to start this process for COP9, working particularly with the Ugandan authorities, but also seeking to ensure appropriate international press attention to the meeting. The Secretariat will implement this with Contracting Party support and assistance for particular opportunities.
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Anlisis del genoma de un virus atpico de influenza aviar H5N2 de baja patogenicidad de origen mexicano

Anlisis del genoma de un virus atpico de influenza aviar H5N2 de baja patogenicidad de origen mexicano

Since December 1994, when the high- and low-pathogenic H5N2 avian in- fluenza viruses were isolated in Mexico, an avian influenza vaccination campaign was established as part of an eradication programme that used inactivated, emulsi- fied, and recombinant pox-avian influenza vaccines. However, only the high-patho- genic avian influenza (HPAI) was eradicated (Villarreal-Chavez and Rivera-Cruz, 2003). Since then, LPAI has been controlled by the officially authorized virus strain A/Ck/México/CPA-232/1994 (H5N2), which is a unique case of long-term mas- sive vaccination of poultry in Mexico. However, major antigenic differences be- tween isolates have been reported through haemogglutination inhibition and virus neutralization tests from viruses isolated between the years of 1993–2002 and 1994–2008, compared to the virus strain A/Ck/México/CPA-232/1994 (H5N2), which suggest that the vaccine does not protect and allows for the circulation of LPAI viruses in specific regions of Mexico (Lee et al., 2004; Escorcia et al., 2010; Armas et al., 2015). Additionally, LPAI virus (H5N2) isolates from chickens in Mexico were genetically closely related to LPAI virus (H5N2) isolates from outbreaks in Taiwan (Chang-Chun et al., 2014) and Central America (Okamatsu et al., 2007).
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Programme of joint work between the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) and the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB)

Programme of joint work between the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) and the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB)

12.4 Ensure that the proposed MAB BRIM monitoring procedure (see 11.8 above), once developed, is evaluated by the relevant Ramsar STRP working groups; also ensure that Ramsar site managers are made aware of the monitoring procedure; and seek to test the monitoring procedure, including the use of indicators, on jointly designated sites. 12.5 Develop demonstration projects for the co-management of jointly-designated sites,

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Guidance for addressing the implications for wetlands of policies, plans and activities in the energy sector

Guidance for addressing the implications for wetlands of policies, plans and activities in the energy sector

10. In Resolution X.25, the Conference of the Parties i) called upon Parties to apply EIA and SEA to assess the potential impacts, benefits and risks, including drainage, of proposed biofuel crop production schemes affecting Ramsar Sites and other wetlands, and ii) strongly urged Parties to “consider the full range and value of ecosystem services and livelihoods provided by wetlands and the biodiversity they support, and to consider the trade-offs between these services alongside cost benefit analysis and make use of, as appropriate, the application of the precautionary approach as defined in Principle 15 of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development”.
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Preparation and consideration of draft Resolutions for COP10

Preparation and consideration of draft Resolutions for COP10

3. The Secretariat believes that this document provides valuable briefing for all those involved in COP preparatory processes and all participants to the COP itself, and particularly for those who will be participating in a Ramsar COP for the first time. The Secretariat intends to make this briefing paper widely available in all three Convention languages and to include it as a COP10 Information Paper. Staff of the Ramsar Wetlands Center Korea, in Changwon, have offered to translate the briefing note into the Korean language for the information of local organizers and participants.
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