An analysis of the frequency tables (see Appendix F) shows that teachers consider that the most serious 2dishonest action is then “when a student helps another student do better in exam by giving them crib notes” and “when a student hands in to his teacher an essay/a paper written by somebody else (a colleague / a friend /a family member) and claims it was written by him /her”. For both these items, teachers rendered only two of the five possible answers, 83.3% of them strongly disagreeing and 16.7% disagreeing that these actions would be academically honest. However, when asked about “downloading images, pictures or music from the internet in order to be used them for school projects without mentioning their source”, 28.6% were undecided and only 7% strongly disagreed on the dishonest character of this action. In fact, this is the item that scored the lowest mean value (M = 3.50).
Twenty-nine percent of the students reported that improving their English level is the highest reason that encourages them to participate in speaking activities. It seems that this groupof students is eager to practice their language, especially in speaking skills. This might indicate stude nts‟ preparation in English language. According to Byrne, Flood, and Shanahan (2012), who did a qualitative exploration of oral communication, the preparation makes students feel comfortable when speaking English in the classroom. With a considerable difference, the 24% of the students indicate that grading reinforces motivation to participating in speaking activities. Another significant amount of students (22%) thinks that grades are the reason why they feel motivated to participate in the speaking activities done in class. It appears that teachers set rules to participate in speaking activities such as getting extra points as it was confirmed with one teacher during the class observation. Fourteen percent of the students believe that the teacher ‟ s attitude also plays a role in students‟ motivation to speak Eng lish in class. According to Shrum and Glisan (2009), the teachers have to pay close attention to the quality of their interaction with the students, due to its influence in the quality of the learning process, especially in oral interpersonal communications.
Different types of parental involvement in homework have been reported in the literature. For example, Hoover-Dempsey et al. (2001) describe eight ways in which parents can be involved in their children’s homework. From a more precise perspective, Pomerantz et al. (2007) indicated four qualitatively different dimensions of parent involvement in homework: autonomy support vs. control, process vs. person focus, positive vs. negative affect, and positive vs. negative beliefs about children’s potential. At a more systematic and operational level, Lorenz and Wild (2007), proposed four different types of parental involvement: autonomy supportive practices (i.e., parents encourage self- initiated homework activities), control (i.e., parents pressure children to complete their homework assignments and issue instructions that undermine autonomous behavior), structure (i.e., parents organize the homework environment), and emotional involvement (i.e., parents acknowledge children’s feelings about homework). Gonida and Cortina (2014), basing their work on various ideas from previous research, developed and validated a self-report scale that provides information directly through parents’ responses on four different forms of parental involvement in homework: (i) autonomy support and promotion of self-regulated learning, (ii) control, (iii) interference, and (iv) cognitive engagement related to schoolwork as supplementary to homework. Recently, Cunha et al. (2018b) validated the Parental Homework Management Scale (PHMS) for parents of elementary and junior highschool children (ages 9– 13 years) in the domain of mathematics, based on the responses of a sample of 2,118 parent–child dyads. The PHMS scale was originally constructed to measure four common types of parental involvement: (1) environment, (2) time, (3) motivation, and (4) emotion management. However, the results showed that at such early ages the PHMS is composed of two different but related factors: (1) environment-time management and (2) motivation- emotion management.
Controlling for legal origin and religion does not alter the coe¢cients of the natural resource variables and their interaction terms with ethnic fractionalization signi cantly. The coe¢cients on the interaction terms of mineral and fuel exports as a share of exports and GDP remain negative and highly signi cant at the one percent level. Similarly, the corresponding coe¢cient on mineral and fuel exports per capita is signi cant at the ve percent level once legal origin and religious dummies are included in the set of regressors. As discussed above, natural resources provide means and incentives to people who live in resource-rich regions to form an independent state and may contribute signi cantly to triggering, prolonging and nancing civil conicts. The occurrence of a violent sec- cessionist movement is statistically more likely in natural resource abundant countries. In many instances, ethnic cleavages can appear to generate the conict and secessionist movements could seem to be ethnically based. Often the conict seems to appear as an ethnically distinct population enjoys few bene ts from resource extractions, while bear- ing the costs. Examples are Aceh (Indonesia), Biafra (Nigeria) and Katanga (DRC). 69
The teacher’s eschewal of the teaching of slang paralleled the espousal of the teaching of the received vocabulary. Interestingly, the teacher’s preference for Standard English seems to partly correspond to NESs’ endeavours to designate “anything that isn’t ‘standard’ as ‘dialect’ if lucky and ‘slang’ if not” (McArthur 1998: 200) in an effort to safeguard Standard English. What is involved in such micro- and macro-discourse on Standard English is an attempt to reinforce authority (Milroy and Milroy, 1991). Bourdieu (1991) contended that discourses also represent symbols of authority, fated to be trusted and obeyed. The focus of the teacherin the current study on her students’ obedience to her authority, repeatedly foregrounded, appears to indicate that it was the locus of motivation for her reconstructive efforts toward EFL learner identity. These factors, arising from the teacher’s pedagogical perceptions, contributed to the lower incidence of English slang use in the teacher-student interactions: the students had to pay more attention to the teacher’s disapproval of English slang use than when in the student-student interactions. The students confirmed (in the post-observation interviews) these differences in their attention to the teacher’s disapproval. The high-level student’s use of a taboo word, observed in Excerpt 3, triggered a neg- ative reaction from the intermediate- and low-level students. The following is an excerpt of what a low-level student entered in his journal.
Regarding the specific case of guerrilla warfare, one can also argue the existence of a relationship between natural disasters such as floods and landslides—mostly a result of extreme weather conditions—and the number and intensity of attacks. Guerrilla military strategies consist of not holding ground, concentrating for action, performing small and occasionally large attacks, and then immediately dispersing (Paschal, 2012). In this regard, guerilla warfare may respond or react to weather and terrain conditions. As natural disasters make it difficult to carry out guerrilla attacks in the municipality where they occur, combatants may decide to launch attacks in neighboring ones where the terrain and weather conditions are expected to be better. Figure 1 shows preliminary quantitative evidence in favor of this hypothesis. As can be observed, there is a positive relationship between conflicts in a given municipality and natural disasters in neighboring ones. This positive relationship is further supported by qualitative evidence gathered from the testimony given by a former member of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the strongest guerrilla groupin the country, in a detailed interview conducted specifically for this purpose.
Introduction: Vocational school aims to prepare students for their incorporation into the labour market, being necessary that the training received is of quality and guaranteed the acquisition of professional skills. For this, the present study proposes the use of a combined teaching-learning methodology that favors active practice and participation. Aim: To improve the academic result and reduce school absenteeism. Methods: The experience was carried out with the students of the professional module "Physical activities for people with disabilities", corresponding to the second course of the degree of Higher Technical Degree in Animation of Physical and Sports Activities taught at the MEDAC Institute of Granada during the 2017-2018 school year. 129 subjects were analyzed, 82.95% (n = 107) men, 17.05% (n = 22) women, divided into 5 groups of similar distribution. Attendance, final grade and association between variables are analyzed. Results & discussion: Absenteeism was very low for all groups (1.29 ± 1.84SD) and very good grades (8.23 ± 1.32SD). No gender differences were found in assessments (p = 0.08) or in absenteeism (p = 0.91). In groups there were no differences with respect to the grade (p = 0.12) but with respect to attendance (p <0.00), specifically ingroup D, with an afternoon shift and a smaller number of sessions with groups with disabilities. Conclusions: The combined use of practical learning teaching methodologies seems to favor the improvement of qualifications and a high class attendance rate in vocational studies.
The systematic approach found in IQEA and HRS is more common in the USA where so- called Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models have received considerable attention and investment. They are school improvement programmes that have been specially developed and tested and are intended to be replicable in different contexts. Funding and training are key components along with a high level ofschool staff commitment to the programmes. A major meta - analysis of CSR in US concluded that CSR models were effective across the range ofschool poverty levels and that The strongest evidence of effectiveness was found for three different CSR models: Direct Instruction, School Development Program, and Success for All. These can al be viewed as examples of detailed, structured, research based improvement programs rather than loosely structured approaches. The successful expansion of CSR shows that research based models of improvement can be brought to scale across many schools and varying contexts (Borman et al., 2003).
TBL fostered students’ reflections on their own learning process in different ways. For instance, in task one, I observed students were not really aware about the importance of planning the task or monitoring their progress. In this sense, the foreigner who was invited to the classroom stated that although students had thought of very useful advice for a foreigner, some messages were confusing as students wrote them without thinking about the context or checking on what they were doing. This consideration guided students during the post-task phase to evaluate their achievements, weaknesses, and strengths, and to reflect on their mistakes to avoid repeating them in the next task. (…) as Sophia stated: “todo es por evolución y uno ya va aprendiendo más o sea los errores ya nos los comete, ya no comete los mismos errores que cometió en la primera, en la segunda y la tercera” (student’s interview ) and Britney said: (…) la post-tarea me gustó porque o sea uno aparte de que ya hizo todo, se encaminó tanto y se esforzó tanto en hacer que uno llega y ya llega al punto que uno se sienta y piensa listo ¿qué hice mal? ¿Por qué lo hice? ¿Qué debo mejorar? ¿Qué debo aprender más? ¿Si me sirvió? ¿No me sirvió? ¿Si lo puedo poner en otra tarea si me ponen? Sí sí sí lo puedo mejorar o puedo tener muchas más ideas para para poder aprender” (student’s interview).
The majority of students (71%) reported that their immediate educational goal was a bachelor’s degree and 57% were originally admitted as baccalaureate degree seeking. Seventy- seven percent had declared a major area of study. Nearly 30% of the retained students enrolled in classes during the months of August, September, and October. Twenty-four percent were enrolled in UNIV 1001 Introduction to University Life. Of all the remedial classes, math had the most enrolled (52%). The average first Fall semester GPA was 2.29 ( σ =1.29). This variable was not categorized, as was that for highschool GPA, since there were no students with an “unknown” Fall GPA value.
Juan Pablo Patiño Loaiza 27 Students interacted orally in groups of two, three and four people. During these interactions, students supported each other in the solving of language exercises. They used both languages (Spanish and English) during these interactions. “María” usually asked questions to the whole group, especially when students had finished the group task. She also interacted with the whole group when showing them pictures to elicit language, present new grammar topics, etc. During role-play activities, students worked in pairs and triads, and they did so to practice the grammar items dealt with in class. Finally, María would interact with students while working in groups. During these interactions, she checked whether they understood what they were expected to do, encouraged them to do the different learning tasks, and gave them feedback.
After greeting his students, the best way to begin the first class for this topic was with the sport objects that the teacherand students had brought in to the class. He held the objects one by one up for all the students to be able to see them and asked questions such as do you know what this is?, Where can we find this? What function does it have in our life? Does it help us in any way? While he kept asking these questions, he would pass the object they were referring to so that every student had the opportunity to carefully look at it.
This relationship of proximity allows the UCM program to place the Physical Education professional as an educator, developing systematic actions and destined to contribute to the learning of others, learning its complex dimension and not merely intellectual. The Learning is the main proposal of this contruction of meanings, and the teacher is the person who guides it, guides and accompanies the journey through knowledge, which requires structural and differentiated mediations where the meaning is the construction of each individual according to their cultural capitals, codes and life experiences. It is a question of conceiving the action of the education professional in its dimension of double responsibility: with the knowledge of its own professional field and with the development of knowledge with the subject in its formative relation. This framework of responsibility places the education professional in a scenario of ethical, responsible and transcendental actions with the development of humanity.
The main school-level factors explaining the schoolin- fluence on smoking are school bonding, school truancy, the perceptionof drug availability, andschool math achievements. These findings are consistent with the idea that those schools more academically orientated, with better attendance, and schools where students feel more strongly bonded seem to provide a more protective environment or ethos against smoking behaviour. A re- cent review found that school ethos appears to be an im- portant influence on adolescent smoking . School bonding andschool truancy had been previously consid- ered as important modifiable individual-level protective factors against poor academic achievement , poor mental health  and substance misuse .
At the end of their two-week mobility period the student teachers were asked to complete two online questionnaires. The first concerned their point of view concerning the organization and content of the TTIMS project, and the second concerned the learning outcomes. In this paper we will focus on the answers to one of the questions in the first questionnaire in which the participants were invited to “summarize three main positive aspects of the intensive program for you personally”. The participants answered specific questions about the theoretical references (in the first questionnaire) and about professional development (in the second questionnaire). However, for the purposes of the current study we are interested in knowing whether or not, when given a free choice of response, actions which can be said to constitute part of a teacher’s professional posture came to the student-teachers minds as being major positive features of the student mobility experience.
La organización contará con una oficina en la ciudad de Bogotá e infraestructura física acorde a la prestación del servicio, que permita establecer una interacción con el cliente, por otro lado, se espera diseñar una página web y una app de comunicación donde el cliente ingrese y pueda realizar el proceso de solicitud, esto permite mejorar los procesos de entrega y de interacción, donde el cliente acordara hora y destino el cual estará en las condiciones de promesa del venta de la organización, así mismo, se tendrán presentes los siguientes pasos del modelo de distribución de RZ Group S.A.S.
Academic performance is a multifactorial phenomenon that can be evaluated by several indicators which include school grades, school environment, level intelligence, etc. There are several factors that can influence the academic performance of an individual, such as the environment, family relationships or individual characteristics. This study examines the relationship between intrafamilial relationships and the academic performance of secondary students of the Gral. Guadalupe Victoria # 5 secondary school, located in the city of Durango, Durango. The Otis Test of Intelligence was applied to a sample of 53 highschool students to measure the level of intelligence and the Assessment Scale of intrafamilial relationships to know their family dynamics. In order to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the level of intrafamilial relationships and the academic performance of the students, the Pearson correlation test was used. The results showed that the correlation of the scores and the different dimensions of the intrapersonal relationships are very weak, that is, they were not statistically significant to test the hypothesis.
Two basic requirements are needed if T and P measures are to be used to assess (a) knowledge andperception at the individual andgroup level, and (b) potential gender-related differences in these two variables. First, they must both behave as essentially unidimensional measures and have some degree of measurement accuracy. Second, ideally their items should be gender invariant. Differential item functioning (DIF, see Muñiz, 1990) would mean that these items have different measurement properties in men and women, which would make gender-related comparisons more complex. Overall, then, the study had to be carried out in four stages: (a) development of the T and P measures, (b) assessment of their psychometric properties (unidimensionality, accuracy and invariance) in a representative sample, (c) comparison of the estimated levels in knowledge andperceptionin men and women, and (d) assessment of responses to individual items in order to identify the main sources of distortion and lack of knowledge.