PDF superior Study of the water quality of basin Santa river

Study of the water quality of basin Santa river

Study of the water quality of basin Santa river

La relavera de la Cía. Minera Alianza tiene una ubicación no adecuada y cuya operación sólo fue posible por alimentar los relaves por distintos puntos alternados y camuflar los rebalses y deslizamientos de bordes por la corriente del caudaloso río Santa, al que muchas veces se vertió relave directamente. Los relaves son los residuos sólidos sin valor co- mercial que se desecha de los procesos metalúrgicos de beneficio de minerales, y los cuales son almace- nados en las llamadas relaveras; cuyos diseños de construcción, operación y mantenimiento deben ser desarrollados de acuerdo a normas establecidas para evitar el impacto en el deterioro del medio ambiente. Si se cumple lo establecido, la presa de relaves debe garantizar su estabilidad estática, pseudo estáticas y potencial de licuefacción (Ministerio de Energía y Minas, Perú (1995)).
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9 Lee mas

WATER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM APPROACH TO SUPPORT GUAPI-MACACU RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

WATER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM APPROACH TO SUPPORT GUAPI-MACACU RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

It is defined by the World Bank as a tool that assesses the costs of an activity that can be justified by the outcomes and impacts. However, the input is assessed by monetary means, while the outcomes are assessed by non-monetary measure (World Bank, 2004) . It has been shown that there are two ways to do a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), the bottom-up and the top-down approaches. The first approach deals with focus on technical specifications of measures at a single water body. While the other one, deals with instruments or group of measurements at the sub-basin (Schrank, 2006). For step 4 of the thesis ( Figure 6 ), it is proposed to do only an Effective Analysis (EA) with the first mentioned approach of the current water monitoring in a specified area of the river basin, because it was not possible have access to the real cost of monitoring in this basin.
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121 Lee mas

The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

The Arrow-Pratt absolute risk aversion coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage change in marginal utility caused by each monetary unit of a gain or loss (Raskin and Cochran, 1986). If the coefficient does not change across the monetary level, the decision-maker exhibits constant abso- lute risk aversion (CARA), which implies that the level of the argument of the utility function does not affect his or her de- cisions under uncertainty. Since ρ is not a non-dimensional measure of risk aversion, its value is dependent on the cur- rency in which the monetary units are expressed (G´omez- Lim´on et al., 2003), which makes comparison between dif- ferent economic agents difficult. However, it remains a good measure for decision- making problems involving one sole economic agent. This is suitable for the river basin manager’s decision problem, while the risk aversion remains indepen- dent of the productivity loss value. The optimal decision in this case is obtained maximizing the expected utility, which increases with the decrease of the expected yields reduction. (This is the reason for writing the payoffs as negative mone- tary costs).
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15 Lee mas

Analysis of water quality measurements in the tributaries of the Guayllabamba River with nonuniform interpolation methods

Analysis of water quality measurements in the tributaries of the Guayllabamba River with nonuniform interpolation methods

Generally, water quality monitoring tasks focus on scheduled sampling, storage and analysis of samples in situ or in the laboratory. But some additional questions arise in regard to the frequency of sampling or the variability of the measurements because of different seasons, the influence of population and industries that the river passes through. In addition, monitoring campaigns are not regular in time and space, because monitoring stations are not necessarily equidistant to each other. For these reasons, it is very important to collect the largest number of samples for all seasons of the year to study the spatio- temporal variability of the most important parameters at a specific area. In the Han River (China), 41 monitoring sites were analyzed during 2005 and 2006 with the objective of exploring the spatio-temporal variability of water quality parameters in the river basin [15]. Statistical tools were used to group the 41 stations into 5 statistically significant groups. Specific studies have also been conducted on the dynamics of phosphate along the Raritan River (New Jersey, USA) between 1990 and 2002 in 55 monitoring stations [16]. Techniques of multivariate statistical analysis, including cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, and principal components, have also been used to distinguish the spatio-temporal variability of some pollutants from Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China between January 2012 to April 2015. In previous works, SVM has been applied to build prediction models of structures of freshwater biological communities. They have considered databases that include physic-chemical parameters such as DO, EC, NH 3 N, COD, BOD, pH, TP,
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88 Lee mas

View of Analysis of pesticide residues in the surface water of the Ayuquila-Armeria river watershed, Mexico

View of Analysis of pesticide residues in the surface water of the Ayuquila-Armeria river watershed, Mexico

current system of agricultural production in the basin is causing degradation of water quality due to the presence of a wide variety of pesticides. For the f irst objective, we visited 27 outlets of pesticides located in the main municipal capitals within the basin, obtaining a total of 143 commercialized active ingredients, mainly of chemical origin. For the second objective, we carried out two samplings in the dry season and two in the rainy season, in 30 sites distributed within the basin. The sampling sites were chosen in a directed way according to the problem of existing contamination and trying to cover the largest agricultural areas within the basin. The analyses were carried out through liquid chromatography coupled to mass-mass spectrometry. The results showed that 66% of the samples contained at least one pesticide. The most frequent pesticides were ametrine, dimethoate and diazinon. The sites that presented the highest number of pesticides in the four samplings were Palo Blanco, Antes Manantlán, Tuxcacuesco and Ayuquila. The sites near the area of intensive agriculture had a higher number of pesticides than those located in areas with rainfed agriculture. This study is the f irst to analyze the presence of pesticides in surface waters of the basin.
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11 Lee mas

ANALYSIS OF A HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING TOOL FOR WATER REOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE VALLES RIVER BASIN, MEXICO

ANALYSIS OF A HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING TOOL FOR WATER REOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE VALLES RIVER BASIN, MEXICO

A literature revision made by Borah, et al. (2003) found that the SWAT model has been found suitable for predicting annual flow volumes, sediment and nutrient loads. Monthly simulations are generally good, except for months having extreme storm events and hydrologic conditions. Daily simulations are usually not as good as monthly ones. This is understandable taking into account that yearly and monthly totals tend to smooth the data, increasing the NSE. Although some years has passed since publication of that work and many changes and improvements have been included within the model, this decreasing tendency in performance rating following the reduction of the time step could be evidenced with the results obtained, as may be observed in table 5.2. According to Gassman, et al. (2007), many of the poorest calibration results can be attributed, in part, to inadequate representation of rainfall inputs, due to either a lack of adequate rain gauges in the simulated watershed or subwatershed configurations that were too coarse to capture the spatial detail of rainfall inputs. Inaccuracies in measured streamflow data and relatively short calibration and validation periods are also frequent factors affecting the quality of calibration results. Besides the modelling experience required, in the case of the present study, poor results are attributed also to a combination of another two factors. First of all, the established objective of simulating land use/land cover change effects required calibration and simulation to be performed on a daily time step, because part of the interest was put on the peak flows, which constitute a rapid response of the watershed to rainfall events. If a different goal had been set, such as predicting the annual water balance, requiring much less precision, probably the results had been better.
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153 Lee mas

Quality of water for human consumption in the balsa communities in the middle, Julián and Severino of the Carrizal micro-basin, Ecuador

Quality of water for human consumption in the balsa communities in the middle, Julián and Severino of the Carrizal micro-basin, Ecuador

A study on the quality of water for human consumption was carried out in Julián, Severino and Balsa en Medio communities located in the micro-basin of the Carrizal River in the province of Manabí, Ecuador. Surface water samples were taken to determine chemical, physical and microbiological properties. To establish the quality of the water in the sampling sites, the ICA NSF water quality index was used, which allows weighing parameters assigning a weight. A completely randomized design with three repetitions was used, taking the localities as treatments. The analysis of variance was carried out through the InfoStat program and the average comparisons through the Tukey test at 5% probability. The physical chemical variables of the locality of Severino showed values that induced lower water quality than those obtained for the localities of Julián and Balsa en Medio, with a similar behavior among themselves. From the microbiological point of view, the highest health risks correspond to the locality of Balsa en Medio, followed by Severino; while the lowest risk corresponded to the town of Julián. According to the ICA NSF criteria, the waters of Balsa en Medio and Julián are classified as “poorly polluted waters”, while the waters of the community of Severino are classified as “contaminated waters”.
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8 Lee mas

HYDROCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IRRIGATION  WATER QUALITY OF LERMA-CHAPALA RIVER SYSTEM, MEXICO

HYDROCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY OF LERMA-CHAPALA RIVER SYSTEM, MEXICO

By water evaporation, the salts it contains are concentrated, and consequently, the carbonated minerals precipitate from the least soluble (calcite) to the most soluble (natron) (Risacher and Fritz, 1995; Mancilla et al., 2014). In this sense, the precipitation and dilution processes, the contribution of water from a different source and the el weathering of rocks bring about changes in the chemical composition of water during its flow downstream (Sánchez et al., 2014). In this regard, some studies agree that the water of the rivers Lerma, Zula, Santiago, and lake Chapala present changes in its chemical composition, as well as a high concentration of elements that, negatively valued, make its use impossible (Bogar, 2006; Duran and Hernández, 2010). CoWith this background, the aim of this study was to find the hydrochemical composition in the Lerma-Chapala river system, as well as to estimate some salinity and sodicity indices, and classify water according to these agronomic criteria.
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9 Lee mas

Environmental flow calculation for the maintenance of the water reserve of the Piaxtla River, Sinaloa, Mexico

Environmental flow calculation for the maintenance of the water reserve of the Piaxtla River, Sinaloa, Mexico

dry, and the system of avenues (considered as the sudden increase in the volume and speed of the current in a river due to runoff resulting from rain cyclical or extraordinary, it is also known as flooding), considering at least three ca- tegories of avenues (intra-annual, annual and interannual low magnitude of average size) with corresponding attributes of magnitude, duration, frequency, time of occurrence and rate exchange. For greater certainty calculation it will always be necessary to have records in the three levels of a basin. This level of analysis is to determine the final volume of ecological flow, considering the benchmark to achieve the previously defined environmental objective. For ecological calculation referred by the NMX , some fundamental aspects were considered, such as: ecology importance (which ranks among very high, high, medium and low based on the concepts of the rule itself); use pressures (determined as the ratio percentage of the volume allocated over the con- cession between the annual average availability basin or aquifer, determined as high ≥ 80%, ≥ 40% high, medium and low ≥ 11% ≤ 10%) ; the environmental objective (ecological status to be achieved within the watershed to maintain the integrity of existing ecosystems or when they believe that they are degraded, contributing to the recovery or rehabilitation); and annual percentage rate recommended for environmental protection. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to quantify the river flow of the Piaxtla river,
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14 Lee mas

Impact of population growth of Pereira on water resource in the Cestillal River Basin

Impact of population growth of Pereira on water resource in the Cestillal River Basin

En Colombia, no existe consenso sobre la reducción de la oferta por este concepto, y ello incide en el hecho de que no se tengan establecidas metodologías claras para tal fin, en consecuencia, se retoma la propuesta de UTP y CARDER (2008) [2], en la cual se asocia la calidad de agua en la corriente hídrica calculando el Índice de Calidad de Agua (ICA), usando una versión modificada del “WQI” (Water Quality Index) y se correlaciona con un porcentaje de afectación.

6 Lee mas

Impact of the Morón stream on water quality of the Reconquista River  (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Impact of the Morón stream on water quality of the Reconquista River (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Key words: heavy metals, Mor6n stream, organic contamination, Reconquista River, urban river, water quality.. The Reconquista River basin has a surface of 1.67 10"ectares 72,000 [r]

8 Lee mas

Barbas river basin water supply and demand study

Barbas river basin water supply and demand study

Colombian environmental policies define the regulation, as the joint implementation of technical and legal activities by to obtain a better distribution of water. Accordingly, technical studies have been carried by to understand the behavior of supply and demand of water in the Barbas river, taking into account the biophysical characteristics and institutional conditions in the zone. This studies, supports the implementation of the regulation as an instrument for integrated water resources management (IWRM), that to achieve efficient management, concentrating efforts of controlling and monitoring on main catchments.
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6 Lee mas

The water footprint of a river basin with a special focus on groundwater: The case of Guadalquivir basin (Spain).

The water footprint of a river basin with a special focus on groundwater: The case of Guadalquivir basin (Spain).

Agriculture, without the dams WF, represents also 80% of the blue WF. The attractiveness of irrigation comes from the substantial increase in pro fi tability allowed by blue water. However, many users bene fi t from this resource and environmental and social con fl icts are recurrent in a context of high climatic variability. The state of the water resources presented in relation to the EU WFD clearly reveals the need for a reduction of the current WF to relieve the pressure on the environment and to improve water quality. Nevertheless, some common solutions to address thewater crisis ” – rising ef fi ciency through irrigation modernization and wastewater reuse [19] – should be introduced with caution. In many cases, these actions result in an increase of the WF (for instance through the shift to more water-intensive crops or irrigated area development), leading to the consumption of resources committed to other users downstream. In this situation, rising ef fi ciency can hardly be understood as demand management since the WF increases. On the contrary, it allows retaining water upstream, making it available there, just like a dam.
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17 Lee mas

The fish fauna of Anambra river basin, Nigeria: species abundance and morphometry

The fish fauna of Anambra river basin, Nigeria: species abundance and morphometry

rivers, the rivers would be characterized by higher species diversity (ita 1993). Boulenger (1916) published a list of African freshwater fishes to include 976 species, referable to 185 genera and 43 families. But Welman (1948) produced a list of 181 species of fish that could be found in Nigeria inland waters. The report also revealed that Kaduna and Sokoto-Rima Rivers have 28 and 22 species respectively, in them. Cross River, Ogun, and OsunRivers have 39, 23, and 23 fish species respectively. ita (1993) reported that an estimated 230 spe- cies of fish have been recorded from the rivers of Nigeria but no record is available on the species present in Rivers Echi, Anambra, Oji and Adada, which all empty directly into the ocean via River Niger. information is scanty on the biometry and relative abundance of the ichthyofauna of Anambra River. For sustain- able exploitation of these fishery resources in the river basin, a crucial management tool is would be a comprehensive understanding of the ichthyofaunal composition of the water bodies. This paper provides preliminary data on the composition, biometry, and relative abun- dance of the ichthyofauna of Anambra River. This forms part of a large and on going study on the fishes of the river basin. The information obtained in this investigation has been used to outline desirable management measures for the species in the basin.
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10 Lee mas

Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichuña (Moquegua, Peru)

Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichuña (Moquegua, Peru)

3. Distrito Ichuña, comprende en su mayoría localidades altip- lánicas, limitando al norte y este con el departamento de Puno, al oeste con los distritos de Ubinas, Yunga y Lloque, y al sur con el distrito de Chojata. Se designaron 9 sectores ubicados entre los poblados de Italpallune, Ichuña y Santa Cruz de Oyo Oyo, en una gradiente altitudinal de 3800 – 4500 m. El distrito de Ichuña se encuentra entre los más alejados y menos estudiados, resaltando por su gran dimensión territorial y variedad de ecosistemas altiplánicos de suelos crioturbados.

14 Lee mas

Landslide inventory in the lower basin of Blanco River (31ºS), central Andes of Argentina

Landslide inventory in the lower basin of Blanco River (31ºS), central Andes of Argentina

We introduce the first landslides inventory made in the lower basins of Río Blanco, San Juan province, Argentina. The prehistoric events were recognized through interpretation of diverse satellite images. The obtained results were verified during field trips to terrain and digitalized via a geographical information system (QGIS). After a detailed geomorphological map was made, around 800 mass removal processes were identified, which takes up to 30 % of the study area. The recognized mass removal processes were falls, flows, slides, rock avalanches and soligelifluction. It was also noticed that almost all mapped events and scars are located over the 3000 m a.s.l. The active events tend to be originated in the periglacial environment with evidence of glacier
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13 Lee mas

Metodología para el cálculo de variables hidrológicas. Proyecto SYWAG (System of Water Accounting in Guadalquivir River Basin)

Metodología para el cálculo de variables hidrológicas. Proyecto SYWAG (System of Water Accounting in Guadalquivir River Basin)

Los resultados de SIMPA presentan limitaciones en las estimaciones de la evapotranspiración, especialmente para agricultura, que quizá desaconsejen su utilización en este proyecto. Por[r]

50 Lee mas

The present use of soil and water in the basin of the creek Piçarrão-Araguari-MG-Brazil

The present use of soil and water in the basin of the creek Piçarrão-Araguari-MG-Brazil

Abstract. The agricultural expansion in the basin of the creek Piçarrão during the period from 1970 to 2005 produced changes in the use of soil and water that heretofore had not been documented. A diagnosis of the present situation was carried out to evaluate the prospect of agricultural activity in the basin. The literature was reviewed, 16 rural producers were interviewed, and the creek and its tributaries were inspected. The results of the study are presented in form of maps and tables. The total area drained by the creek is
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10 Lee mas

Numerical study of intense cyclogenesis events in the Mediterranean basin 

Numerical study of intense cyclogenesis events in the Mediterranean basin 

ËJà¥ÎÉÊÝÞÍ Bà1Íáâ ÉÊËáÈÊÉ5 Æà¥ÎÉÊÝÞÍ gÎaSà¥ÎBÎN‹Ì-G ÆÝÞ͏Îà1É\Í SÎaáÌ-GPáÄG݌ÉÊâáÌÆâwà/ÞÝAÝAâ ÎÝÝÞÈ+ Ý1Ä Æà1ÄÄDG|ÝÞߋΠà ÆÝ1 Ë áÈÊÌRÎ̔â‹Ì RÄɋÎÉÊÝÞÍ6Ý2+#â,GAÍSà1Ë4É à¥Íáâ6ÎaáÌÆÄGËJÝAâ,[r]

320 Lee mas

Change of extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

Change of extreme rainfall indexes at Ebro River Basin

For this purpose, 14 meteorological stations were selected based on the length of the rainfall series and the climatic clas- sification to obtain a representative untreated dataset from the river basin. Daily rainfall series from 1957 to 2002 were obtained from each meteorological station. First, classical climatic indexes were analysed with an autoregressive test to study possible trends in rainfall. The results can be ex- plained following the evolution of the NAO and WeMO in- dexes, which indicate that the initial period should be subdi- vided in two periods (1957–1979 and 1980–2002) to assume stationarity and to analyse the rainfall distribution functions. The general results obtained in this study for both sub- periods, through the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) parameters and the maximum expected return values, do not support the results previously obtained by other authors that affirm a positive trend in extreme rainfall indexes and point to a slight reduction indicated by others. Three ex- treme precipitation indexes show negative statistical signif- icant trends. GPD-scale parameters decrease except for only one rain gauge, although this decrease is only statistically significant for two rain gauges. Another two locations show statistical significance decreased for maximum expected re- turn values.
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11 Lee mas

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