PDF superior The analysis of the methodology used for the teaching of English as a second language in high schools in Loja city

The analysis of the methodology used for the teaching of English as a second language in high schools in Loja city

The analysis of the methodology used for the teaching of English as a second language in high schools in Loja city

There are some techniques on this method. According to this Larsen-Freeman (2000) there are nine techniques, these are: Translation of a literary passage, which consists in the fact that students translate a reading passage from the target language into their native language; it increases the vocabulary and grammatical structures; reading comprehension questions, which consists in that students answer questions in the target language based on what they understood of the reading passage; antonyms/synonyms, which consists in that students have to look for the antonyms and synonyms in the reading passage; cognates, which indicates that students have to recognize cognates, it means memorize words that look like cognates but have different meanings in the native language; deductive application of rules, which means that students learn grammar rules with examples and when they understand a rule they have to apply it doing different examples; fill-in-the-blanks exercise, which indicates that students have to complete the sentences with words missing with new vocabulary or particular grammar type; memorization, which consists in that students have to memorize grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms; use words in sentences, which is in order to show what students know about grammar and vocabulary; composition, which is the last technique, it refers that students have to write a topic in the target language based in some aspects of the reading passage.
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Factors that Affect the English Language Teaching - Learning Process In Ecuadorian Public High Schools

Factors that Affect the English Language Teaching - Learning Process In Ecuadorian Public High Schools

The importance of English language usage has been increasing in all over the world because it is considered as ¨The universal language¨. In Ecuador, teaching English has become a challenge as a result of the new requirements of the society and the modern educational curriculum. Nowadays, the government of our country has given much importance to teaching English. It mainly focuses on its importance by creating innovative projects which can improve the English level in public high schools especially for the less-educated and trained learners. Unfortunately, the lack of English teachers, a limited number of professionals with a good level of English proficiency, and the inadequate teaching methodology have made difficult to get good results. In addition, the physical conditions where the teaching process is applied needs to be renewed according to the necessities of the present time.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

In the Audio-lingual Method, Díaz-Rico & Weed (1995) observe the use of this method in the decades from 1930 to 1970. It focuses on communicative skills, which were developed through the listening of particular sound patterns and the repetition of them acquire a correct pronunciation and the understanding of second language. This methodology was developed taking into account the way kids acquired their first language; they were taught to learn their mother tongue as a process of habit formation. This method used ordered structures in dialogues that created pattern, which turned into habits. The weakness of this method was the lack of creativity at the moment of talking since patterned drills were used. It is important to say that this method is used to teach idioms and greetings that are normally patterned. Similar observations are the ones from Richards & Rodgers (2001) who stated that the Audio-lingual method or Audiolingualism primary objective was to reach oral proficiency, leaving a second role for the study of grammar or with a little grammatical explanation however, the number of classes also limited of ten or less are considered optimal. In this method many procedures are repeated such as hear a model dialogue containing key structures that are the focus of the lesson. Pattern drills dialogues are taught to be memorized by students, expecting them to minimize mistakes production.
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The use of English literature in the teaching of English as a second language

The use of English literature in the teaching of English as a second language

e. Day had broken cold and gray, exceedingly cold and gray, when the man turned aside from the main Yukon trail and climbed the high earth-bank, where a dim and little-travelled trail led eastward through the fat spruce timberland. It was a steep bank, and he paused for breath at the top, excusing the act to himself by looking at his watch. It was nine o'clock. There was no sun nor hint of sun, though there was not a cloud in the sky. It was a clear day, and yet there seemed an intangible pall over the face of things, a subtle gloom that made the day dark, and that was due to the absence of sun. This fact did not worry the man. He was used to the lack of sun. It had been days since he had seen the sun, and he knew that a few more days must pass before that cheerful orb, due south, would just peep above the sky-line and dip immediately from view.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The authors above also pointed out that there are different and stimulating techniques to learn English. First, there are interesting tools for teaching English, such as jigsaw tasks, information gaps and solving tasks. Second, information-gap tasks show that students find out information missing from other students. Third, problem solving tasks where the students have to obtain information to solve a problem. Next, decision-making activities help students to get multiple results of information to solve a problem. And the last task, opinion exchange focus on students guide mutual expressions of opinions without worrying to reach a term.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

One of these methods is Grammar Translation Method that has been used by language teachers for many years. It was thought that, through the study of the grammar of the target language, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language and that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. Students study grammar deductively; that is, they are provided the grammar rules and examples, are commanded to memorize them, and then are requested to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations and memorize native-language equivalents for target-language vocabulary words (Larsen, 2000).
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The Development of the English Language Teaching in the High Schools of Ecuador during the last two decades

The Development of the English Language Teaching in the High Schools of Ecuador during the last two decades

According to Wikipedia, due to the political, economic, military, scientific and cultural influence of Britain and the United Kingdom since the eighteenth century, and the British Empire and the United States since the mid-twentieth century, the English language has widespread throughout the world and is the main language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions. In the same way, it is used generally as a lingua franca between speakers of different languages in most countries of the world. The English language is also taught as a second language in many educational systems, which over time has provided a culturally superior status to their non-native speakers, because of the influence of the Anglo-Saxon countries in the world. The English language is the official language of many Commonwealth countries, is widely studied as a second language and is one of the official languages of the European Union and many world organizations. (2007)
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The second study conducted by Bahanshal (2013) had the purpose to investigate the effect of large classes in the English learning and teaching process. This research took place in two public secondary schools in the city of Jaddah. Six Saudi Secondary English teachers were interviewed to express their point of view and discuss their solutions to the effective teaching and learning in the class. The results showed that there is a negative impact to working with large classes due to the large domain with many aspects that cannot be undertaken in one class. The study concluded that it is possible for teachers to teach English in large classes by using various strategies and methods.
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A digital library for English Language II  a tool for improving its bibliography

A digital library for English Language II a tool for improving its bibliography

In the English Language course with a second foreign language: French at the Universidad Central «Marta Abreu» de Las Villas, there are some limitations in the basic and complementary bibliography of the subject English Language II. The purpose of this research was to propose a Digital Library to systematize the bibliography to satisfy the students’ needs. The study was carried out from a qualitative methodology. The needs analysis allowed the selection and organization of the bibliography for the proposal. For the design of the Digital Library for English Language II (DLELII) the Greenstone Digital Library Software was used. Specialists from the area of English Language and Scientific and Technological Information evaluated the proposal and agreed that it meets requirements such as bibliographic completeness, updating, variety of sources, easy accessibility which resulted in a valid proposal for the improvement of the teaching and learning process of the subject.
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he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

20 This research adopted the Ex-post Facto design. The sample comprised all secondary schools and senior secondary school teachers. Five hundred teachers and two thousand students of public schools were randomly selected through stratified random sampling technique. Researchers used instruments developed by themselves called class size pressure questionnaire and teachers’ work quality questionnaire. Teachers filled in the first questionnaire which was made up of demographic data and information on class size. Students replied to the second questionnaire composed by 2 sections. Section A contained demographic data, section B consisted of 18 items which measured the teachers’ work quality in terms of teaching, assessment of students’ academic performance, and classroom control. After experts in the profession ensured the validation, then a test-retest reliability method was applied to get reliability estimate. Data analysis was done using ANOVA.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

As far as The Natural Approach is concerned, Richards and Rodgers (2001) point out that this approach is seen as a traditional method of teaching because it focuses on observing and interpreting how students learn their native and second language in an informal setting. Moreover, it is important to mention that the same authors state that from the beginning of a lesson, The Natural Approach emphasizes language exposure in order to make good the learning preparation; it means that there is an amount of time in which students hear linguistic input before they make an effort to produce the target language being learned. In addition, House et al. (2011) say that in The Natural Approach, the target language provides learners with input in a meaningful way since techniques such as TPR as well as mime and gesture are used.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

In contrast, with this concept Stansfield (1989) states aptitude for learning such asthe amount of time it takes an individual to learn the task in question.” He mentions Carroll (1962) who explains that learner’s aptitude has four cognitive abilities. The first one is phonetic coding which is the recognizing, relationship and retaining of distinct sounds. The second one is grammatical sensivity, where the students are capable to distinguish grammatical functions of words and structures. The third one is the rote learning ability; it is a sort of overall memory where some learners apply it in a different way during foreign language circumstances.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

There are several methods and organizations that work with peer observation for improving teaching skills; peer observation has been highlighted as an assessment and as a development tool in language teaching. The University of Nottingham (2009) confirms that peer observation is an effective way to improve and to build teaching skills; teachers discuss teaching techniques before sitting in each other’s classes, afterwards they provide fee dback to each other in order to improve their teaching skills. The MET (Measures of Effective Teaching) Project was established in 2010 with an idea to improve teaching abilities by observing classes; observers typically watch a lesson and then score it and give feedback to the teacher. The Imperial College London (2011) explains that the main purpose of observing teachers is to “enhance practice”, after being observed, teachers have the opportunity to engage into constructive analysis of their class, discussing teaching practices in an
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The influence of large classes in the English language Teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high school, estudio realizado en el colegío fiscal ¨Francisco Campos Coello¨, canton Guayaquil, provincia del Guayas, en el año lectivo 2013 2014

The influence of large classes in the English language Teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high school, estudio realizado en el colegío fiscal ¨Francisco Campos Coello¨, canton Guayaquil, provincia del Guayas, en el año lectivo 2013 2014

Classroom space and Seating Arrangement (physical space-big/small rooms) Teachers must consider that students are members of a team; they should be able to see each other and to talk one another in English, and to facilitate interaction among them. One alternative of doing so is to arrange the classroom in patters of semi-circles, U-shapes, or concentric circles on large classes. If the class size is small, only one circle may need. In classes where the students come from different language background, it is preferably students do not sit next to each other of the same native language speaking; English will be more practiced in the classroom. Brown (2001).
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Exploring the washback effects of a high-stakes English test on the teaching of English in Spanish upper secondary schools

Exploring the washback effects of a high-stakes English test on the teaching of English in Spanish upper secondary schools

It is also worth noting the fact that although the majority of teachers (78.4%) in Table 3 reported paying some attention to the skills not evaluated in the ET, Table 4 below shows that only 2% of the teachers indicated spending more than 50% of class time to the practice of these skills. In fact, 51% of the teachers reported spending less than the third part of their course time working with them and 27.5% of the teachers admitted to spend less than half of their course time to practising them. Moreover, if we compare the data obtained in 2007 and 2008 (ET 2007 vs. ET 2008), it can be observed that the tendency seems to be toward a decrease in the amount of time devoted to the teaching of skills not featured in the ET. These results find support for the fact that the ET considerably reduces the time available for instruction. Thus, there is no denying that virtually all the teachers are conditioned by the ET and, accordingly, they teach to the test. This finding is in line with others that found that when high-stakes are involved, “‘teaching to the test’ becomes almost unavoidable” (Bachman and Palmer, 1996: 33). Davies (1990) also considers any attempt to prevent teaching to the test futile.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, research carried out at “Colegio Nacional Calderón”, “Colegio Nacional Luxemburgo”, “Colegio Nacional Técnico Nicolás Jiménez”, “Colegio Helena Cortés Be

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools, research carried out at “Colegio Nacional Calderón”, “Colegio Nacional Luxemburgo”, “Colegio Nacional Técnico Nicolás Jiménez”, “Colegio Helena Cortés Be

The importance of teaching- learning English as foreign language in Ecuador has been widely recognized in the last years due to its everyday use in all fields. Having an advanced level of English has become into a tool, which allows facing the accelerated advance of globalization and the galloping development of technology. The unlimited access to the countless educational resources published in this language, as well as, to the information available in internet, updated every day; furthermore, a great deal of scholarships offered abroad directed toward students who master English language are the strongest reasons for students to achieve a B1.2 (CEFR) level at the end of third year of high school.
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Literature in the teaching of English as a foreing language

Literature in the teaching of English as a foreing language

It would appear that over the last few years there is a positive swing back to using literature in a language context, or at least literary texts are being used hand in hand with other[r]

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Factors that affect the English Language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English Language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Nevertheless, during the classroom observations the application of individual activities could be evidenced only in few classrooms with less number of students. For this type of individual work the teacher provided a task for each student, and suggested to students try to improve in the skill they were working with. It was noticed that some students enjoyed to work on their own and could concentrate well without distractions caused by other students. In this sense, Harmer (1991) says that one disadvantage of individual work is that it can lead to isolation of individual students especially with the ones who have no social-educational component and run the risk of idling. To avoid such problems the teacher should prepare some extra activities with more than one task for quicker students and also the teacher´s attitude
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Keys for an investigation into the origins of the communicative methodology in language teaching

Keys for an investigation into the origins of the communicative methodology in language teaching

For example, why students are unable to apply a well «learned» (memorízed) rule correctly, even after practicing it in sentences designed for such a purpose; why methods centred on the[r]

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Narrativas de docentes de inglés no certificados: una reflexión pedagógica

Narrativas de docentes de inglés no certificados: una reflexión pedagógica

Disappointment is deep (as well as frustration) and is not only expressed by Gloria when forgetting words, but also when not knowing how to express something that for her seems to be very easy and that she thinks she should already know. There is disappointment when thinking that one gets blocked for no reason and one may lose face in front of others, and those others can be one’s own students at any point. Her lack of awareness about why she forgets words may be related to a process of vocabulary teaching and learning. In this regard, Hunt and Beglar (as cited in Richards & Renandya, 2002) argue that there are three approaches to the teaching and learning of vocabulary: incidental learning (students learning vocabulary as a by-product of doing other things such as reading or listening, which implies out-of-class activity), explicit instruction (the teacher identifying specific vocabulary – acquisition targets for learners), and independent strategy development (teaching students strategies for inferring words from context and retaining the meanings of those words). The three of them are ideally connected, and the latter plays an important role in the sense that learners do need to be taught strategies that help them to deal with the learning of vocabulary, as such. Another way of explaining Gloria’s experience is that she simply forgot the words at that very moment, and neither she nor we will know why.
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