PDF superior The effects of large class size on the english learning environment

The effects of large class size on the english learning environment

The effects of large class size on the english learning environment

Students were asked about how the learning of English was affected by a large class size. They agreed that they did not have activities in which they had to speak in English. One student expressed that “falta conversar en inglés. Sólo aprendemos palabras y eso no sirve para poder hablar. Faltan actividades, por ejemplo, en las que podamos aprender y practicar expresiones” (Focus Group, October 25th, 2017). When the teacher was asked about the disadvantages of a large class size, she explained that “we don’t practice speaking. It would be possible if students could work in groups, but it is very difficult in this class” (Interview, October 30 th , 2017). In fact,
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Khaki (2010) focused his study on finding out the very common expectations of students in the classroom where they are learning English at a variety of different paces and besides, the class is large in number of students. The study is mainly focused on six different areas: classroom management, establishing collaboration, range of tasks, giving feedback, classroom English and home assignment. 60 students of tenth grade from government-aided school were selected to get required information. They were sampled using purposive non-random sampling procedure. To collect data, one questionnaire containing nineteen closed-ended questions was developed. This study revealed many findings at a time regarding the expectations of students in large multilevel classes, for example more than 90% of students like to be called by their first names. This study also proves that an English teacher should move all around the class. Sharing experiences like activity is highly preferred by a considerable number of students (40%). It shows that the sharing of experiences of teachers and students highly motivates the students. Besides, this study revealed that more than 90% of students reported that they expected additional activities over which the ones of the textbook. This study also focused that limited use of mother tongue in English classroom it is bearable and accepted, but the teacher should introduce some new words every day in simpler and shorter expression. In case of feedback, feedback at a personal level in the classroom is more preferable. The study reveals that most of the students like challenging activities, neither too easy, nor too difficult. Thus, it is essential to provide different tasks to different students, so that they can adapt them at their own pace.
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The influence of large classes on the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes on the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

allow beginners to become intermediate level students. Through this approach it is expected that students will have the skills to adequately function in the L2 and have the ability to relay ideas and requests. Garcia (2005) completely agrees with what has been claimed by Richards and Rodgers, however he explains in detail the four principles that support the Natural Approach. In the first principle, students will be able to understand before they will be able to speak. In the second one, language production follows a series of stages starting with nonverbal interaction leading up to complex grammatical segments of speaking. The third principle involves classes that are based on communicative objectives and not levels of grammar. Lastly, the fourth principle indicates that the class should be friendly and as near stress free as possible to maximize learning.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Harmer (1998) states some of the principal learning skills that may be affected by a large number of students; even though for listening comprehension or reading lessons, class size is not a real obstacle, for speaking and writing lessons do present serious problems because teachers do not have enough time to check all of the activities, and due to the group is really big, classroom management will become a real problem for the teacher, especially if it is an inexperienced teacher. Regarding this topic Snow (2006) also states that the main purpose of speaking practice is to have students work in pairs and small groups rather than having dialogues with the teacher and in big classes; they may not have the opportunity to make sure and check if students are in fact using the language while they are not near them. He also claims that concerning writing classes, correction may become a big issue for teachers, since they will have to respond to each piece of writing done by the students.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Harfit (2012 ) conducted a study to examine whether, and how, class size reduction might help to alleviate language learning anxiety, which has long been seen as an obstacle to second language acquisition. In the study the researcher use mainly questionnaires , class observations and interviews, this study employed multiple case studies in four Hong Kong secondary schools. Each case constituted one teacher teaching English language to first language Chinese students in a reduced-size class (where class size was between 21 and 25 students) and a large class (where class size was between 38 and 41 students) of the same year grade, and of similar academic ability. In conclusion this study suggests that the student voice can provide insights into language learning classrooms. Data from the case studies reveal that students‟ sense of anxiety can be reduced in smaller classes and that class
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

CBLI is the last approach regarded before dealing with other topic. It focuses on providing content information through the target language and using academic subjects to acquire the foreign language (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary, and Robbins, 1999; Richards et al., 2001). CBLI has many advantages in a foreign language class but two are especially relevant. The students are able to improve their language competence into specific areas of their interest and the four language skills (speaking, writing, reading, and listening) are naturally joined (Brinton, 1989; Chamot et al., 1999).
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The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

At last, the implications related to how feedback is dealt to the students will also be a matter of discussion of this work. Assisting every students’ requirement may turn to be impossible in big classes. Feedback is important for both, students and teacher; however, it has to be planned in a way that saves time and unnecessary work. This study puts forth that a little more than half of the students, 51.60%, show disagreement with the fact that they cannot benefit from a good feedback, though the difference with the ones who feel that the class lacks this benefit, is not big. The reason for this little margin between the ones who agree and the ones who disagree is simple to explain, the teacher can only answer so many questions due to the lack of time common in large classes, so the students who have questions with no answers, feel as if they were left aside, growing a negative feeling towards the teacher’s way to work out the students’ doubts. Truscott (1999) and Krashen (1994) have discussed the effect of feedback in students. It must be given out the appropriate way to avoid the students’ self-limitation in their participation because of possible public embarrassment, but it cannot be left on the side.
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The Influence of large classes on the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of large classes on the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian High Schools

that is 41% agree, 24 students, that is 14% partially agree and 4 students, that is 2% disagree. 84% of students consider that they are able to practice listening and speaking, as well as reading and writing, which shows that large class size is not an impediment for students to be able to practice the above areas. This agrees with the findings of Blatchford (2003) and Woodward (2001). They state that in classrooms with a large number of students, they can be organized into collaborative groups and pairs to complete activities. This kind of grouping is vital if the necessary interaction to practice listening and speaking skills is going to take place. On the other hand, the results of the current study do not support the observations made by Gilstrap, S. C. (2003), who states that large classes only received teacher-centered instruction, which would greatly limit the amount of time spent on practicing speaking skills.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Firstly, Jimakorn and Singhasiri (2006) carried out a study to investigate teachers' beliefs in terms of perceptions, opinions, and attitudes towards teaching English in large classes. In order to access the opinions and perceptions of the teachers, it was decided to use a questionnaire. The questionnaire was piloted with the teaching staff of the Department of Language, School of Liberal Arts, KMUTT. It is composed of three parts with open-ended questions, closed-ended questions and rating scales. Part I, open- ended questions, asks for t he participant‟s personal details, gender, teaching experience, education and where they currently worked. Part II, closed- ended questions, concerns the participant‟s knowledge of their university‟s policy on class size. Facts and Opinions on Large Classes was in Part III.
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The influence of large classes on the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The influence of large classes on the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian High Schools

Finally, once the class is set and the students understand what is required; learners need to receive feedback of their performance – it can take several forms -. Feedback is one of the most important roles in teaching, through it teachers can evaluate the level of success or progress the learner has developed so far; . Gower, Philip and Walters (2005, p.163) states “Everyone thrives on genuine praise and encouragement. When giving feedback … always be on the lookout for positive points to comment upon.” There are different ways of giving feedback: praising or encouraging; correcting; setting regular tests; talk about how the groups are performing; or individually how the learners are doing. One of the best ways to be fair and centered at the moment of providing feedback is the use of criterion - referenced feedback, telling students how they are progressing in learning specific types of knowledge and skills, this is better than giving them a score reflecting numbers of correct answers.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

teachers develop their own style of teaching according to their personality. Gower & Walters (1995) give some practical advice to follow when referring to instructions. They suggest to primary create a center of attention in the student to make sure everyone is listening and watching, to employ simple language and short expressions, and to use language at a lower level than the language being taught. Furthermore, teachers should use visual or written clues whenever possible utilizing real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. Making demonstrations if possible, illustrating what to do; break down instructions if the activity requires a series of procedures, provide simple commands in sections and check for understanding, rather than giving out all instructions at the start of the activity. It is also a good idea to target instructions in the sense of explaining the content only to the students who need it, instead of giving complete directions to the class as a whole. In addition, discipline is a very important issue in the classroom. It depends on a number of factors such as: age of students; evidently children require more discipline than adults. Usually young teenagers are considered to be the most complex when it comes to classroom control. Discipline is intimately related to the causes for learning and student motivation whether they are forced to be in class or whether they are there voluntarily. Class size plays an important role, as it is more difficult to keep an orderly atmosphere in a large class than in a smaller one.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Moreover, Blatchford, Bassett, and Brown (2011) carried out a research to examine the effects of class size on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interactions. Six hundred students of forty nine educational institutions participated in the study. The general approach of the research was quantitative. Data was collected through careful systematic observations. The observations involved both observing when classroom-based activities started and providing a representative and systematic account of students’ behavior. The observations were done in intervals of ten seconds; there were gaps of twenty seconds between observations to record what had been observed previously. All the collected dada was analyzed by examining relationships between class size and observation measures.
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he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

20 This research adopted the Ex-post Facto design. The sample comprised all secondary schools and senior secondary school teachers. Five hundred teachers and two thousand students of public schools were randomly selected through stratified random sampling technique. Researchers used instruments developed by themselves called class size pressure questionnaire and teachers’ work quality questionnaire. Teachers filled in the first questionnaire which was made up of demographic data and information on class size. Students replied to the second questionnaire composed by 2 sections. Section A contained demographic data, section B consisted of 18 items which measured the teachers’ work quality in terms of teaching, assessment of students’ academic performance, and classroom control. After experts in the profession ensured the validation, then a test-retest reliability method was applied to get reliability estimate. Data analysis was done using ANOVA.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Ruiter and Dang (2005) investigated about the aspects ESL teachers should consider before they start teaching and one of them is the size of the class. They stated that teachers should be aware that large classes affect students and teachers. In large classes, many students feel afraid of speaking in a foreign language in front of a big crowd and also give minimal responses. Moreover, a great deal of students feel anonymous and do not pay attention to the class. Students also do not speak in English with their classmates during group or pair work unless the teacher is monitoring them. Lastly, students’ circulation around the class is difficult for interactive tasks. Teachers; on the other hand, have problems creating a solid teacher-student learning relationship. They cannot even remember all students’ names in large classes and taking attendance consumes a lot of time. Moreover, large in classes, teachers require a lot of time for planning appropriate activities to reach all students.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching - learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

On the other hand, Harmer (2007) explains that small classes have considerable advantages over large classes. Stating that, while in a group an individual student only gets a part of the teacher attention, in a small class the teacher focuses exclusively on one person at a time; in this sense, students get deeply enhanced feedback from their teacher, and last but not least, teachers enter into a really dialogic relationship with their pupils in a way that is considerable less possible in a large group situation. However, the same author mentions that students and teachers in small classes may be affected by monotony since the active interaction of large classrooms it is not present.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

As mentioned before and based on observations, class size in the sample is a great advantage for the teachers. Small groups allow them to offer one-on-one assistance at times and to meet the individual needs of their students. Most teachers who marked the 10 to 15 category for this question work with students whose level of English is basic. Students in such classes had various chances to participate and use the language. Discipline could easily be managed and controlled. In addition, a sense of belonging could be felt in these environments. Though sometimes teachers find it quite challenging to keep their students interested and excited about learning in such groups, during the observed classes, teachers did not have this problem at all. Only in two
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Estudio realizado en la Unidad Educativa Pública Santa Elena , del cantón Santa Elena y de la Provincia de Santa Elena en el año 2014-2015

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Estudio realizado en la Unidad Educativa Pública Santa Elena , del cantón Santa Elena y de la Provincia de Santa Elena en el año 2014-2015

This research analyzes the influence of large classes in the teaching and learning of English language in schools in Ecuador; the purpose of the study is to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learning process, and the implications of classes with many students in academic, social and psychological aspects. The study was conducted in the Santa Elena province. The population of this research included students of a public high school. This research was carried out in three basic general education classrooms and two classrooms of higher Secondary education in the public high school. There were forty to sixty students per course where the questionnaire was administered. The method was quantitative. The variables considered for research focused on the influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process; they included class size, teaching approaches and methods, managing learning, activities for working with large classes, and classroom space and the different levels of proficiency. The data was collected in statistical tables. This study allowed to know that interaction in the English classrooms.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Another useful activity in large classes is to use worksheets which are very helpful, not only to practice grammar and writing, but also for students to participate more individually. This material comes to bind pairs together in order to give a presentation or simply to practice some vocabulary. The teachers can succeed when doing this activity because they are able to advance in others tasks as well, like giving an oral test, or an oral exposition can take place during the class. Some students can be working on worksheets while others can be working on developing specific knacks (speaking, writing, listening and understanding), of course the ones they are behind on. In this way at least some students can advance in skills they are behind on and the lesson can be satisfactorily completed (Longman, 2008; Rocha, 2005).
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Positive learning environment encourages students’ desire to invest effort in the English learning activity

Positive learning environment encourages students’ desire to invest effort in the English learning activity

At the beginning of the class, students used to ignoring teachers’ greeting, and continue doing what they were doing before the teacher arrived to the classroom. They stand up to greet, only if they are asked to. Usually, the class begins after ten or fifteen minutes after the corresponding start, since some students approach the teacher to make different kind of questions such as the date of the next test or the grade of the past one. Recurrently students leave the classroom for a bathroom break during lesson time and they spend a lot of time there. During lessons it is common to see students playing with cell phones, eating, doing exercises from other subjects or preparing the test that will take place during the next hours. The teacher tries to maintain a reasonable level of silence during her lessons. However, she frequently speaks out when trying to obtain students’ attention. She has never asked a student to leave the room, which is a rare situation in this school.
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Effects of the synthetic method on the particle size and purity of magnetite

Effects of the synthetic method on the particle size and purity of magnetite

The characterization of magnetites synthesized by methods reported with some modiications is presented. The inluence on purity and particle size of the obtained oxides is discussed. The samples were characterized by Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature, particle size analysis by light scattering and by transmission electron microscopy of naked particles. The results showed that depending on the method of synthesis there are variations on stoichiometry and composition of magnetites, being this difference more important when the rate of addition of the alkaline solution to the combined ferrous and dispersant solution is changed. Moreover, it has been found strong agglomeration evidenced by TEM, however the sizes of the individual crystallites are in the nanometer scale.
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