UNESCO decided to recognize the Mediterranean Diet as a World Intangible Cultural Heritage. This recognition was thanks to an alliance between Spain, Italy, Greece and Mo- rocco, who had been working for two years to win the nomination. With its headquarters inBarcelona, the Medi- terranean Diet Foundation (FDM) has been the key organization in this transnational coordination process. This UNESCO recognition represents a major boost to the international prestige of the Mediterranean Diet and its general promotion. This has also been the case when other concepts have been recognized by UNESCO as world heritage. The move also means a huge boost for the promotion of local agricultural production related to Mediterranean and avant-garde cuisine, sustainable rural development, our landscape and the overall environment of our region.
The existence of structural differences is one of the main conclusions of this empirical work. Considering only firms above 50 workers, the size showed by German firms is bigger (2930 average employees) than the one observed inthe subsample of Spanish firms (397 average employees). In terms of profitability German firms outperform Spanish firms whatever is the indicator used, ROA or ROE. This result is important because higher profitability makes easier to borrow money or to use retained earnings, with possible positive effects in level of investment and labour productivity; at the end, it can improve the firms’ competitiveness. An interesting result is that contrary to the expectations the average interest rates paid by German firms are above the values paid by Spanish firms. It is a fact that long interest rate have been higher in Spain than Germany as a consequence of the risk perception, however interest rate also depend on the characteristics of each national financial market and future research in this topic will be useful in understanding how macroeconomic differences transform into individual firms’ conditions. These results are interesting from a policy maker point of view, many voices have asked for an industrial policy in Europe, to be aware and understand countries differences is a key element in defining an efficient policy.
Although consumers’ studies are not abundant, acceptance tests usually reported positives or neutral results, although this depends on the concentration used and on the type of products. Rosales Soto and others (2012) conducted an extensive hedonic study on the effect of grape seed flour on several parameters of 3 cereal products: cereal bar, pancakes, and noodles. Among the 3 prod- ucts, cereal bar with 5% grape seed flour was pointed out as the best option to incorporate the flour. In this case, grape seed flour increased the acceptance rates of appearance, flavor, taste, mouth- feel, and texture attributes. Acun and G ¨ul (2014) also reported that incorporation of 5% of grape pomace flours (seedless wine pomace, whole wine pomace, and seed flours) in cookies improved their acceptability. In contrast, higher levels led to consumers’ re- jection due to darker crust and bitterness. Grape extract at 1% also improved the acceptability of yogurt (Karaaslan and others 2011), whereas grape seed extract at 1000 ppm also improved overall ac- ceptability of dry sausages (Lorenzo and others 2013). In other cases, no significant differences were reported such as in ice cream (Sagdic and others 2012a) or in potato chips (Rababah and others 2012b). Replacement of up to 10 g grape seed flour/100 g in- creased the firmness of bread, but this did not cause any effect on consumer acceptance of hardness, and concentrations of 6 g/100 g did not modify consumer acceptance of astringency or bitterness (Mildner-Szkudlarz and others 2011).
Abstract: Nanotechnology focuses on the characterization, manufacture and handling of smaller than 100 nm biological and non-biological structures. For thefoodindustry, this provides interesting possibilities for application in areas related to the production, processing of materials, research and product development, as well as safe food handling. It is important to note that the Nano world can provide answers to the solution of problems or situations of macro world, so this tiny revolution is doing this slowly in human daily life, helping to lay the foundation for continued development in this literature review the vital of nanotechnology and its applications inthefoodindustry shown. In this paper, a review of the current state of nanotechnology and its potential for thefoodindustry, as well as risks to health and the environment from the use of this technology is made.
Although Crepes & Waffles and Procolombia are very different companies because one of these is focused on thefoodindustry and the other inthe international trade, both use Corporate Social Responsibility as innovation for longevity. Both companies are committed to Colombian society and its development. On the on hand, one offers work to people most needed, and on the other hand the other company helps others Colombian companies to be recognized in foreign markets and to internationalize. These actions help the country’s economy and increase the social welfare. Furthermore, the attitude adopted when the organizations faces CSR is proactive attitude, which means the companies (Crepes & Waffles and Procolombia) try to anticipate their strategies inthe field of CSR, they seek a superior strategy.
Processed products obtained from blackberry have been commercially exploited, to the point that most of the blackberry produced in Colombia is purchased by com- panies, like Postobon®, Compañía Nacional de Chocola- tes®, Casa Luker®, Agrofood®, Pascol®, and Alpina® . It is clear that at present, according to reports from the Colombian Ministry of Agriculture in its platform “www.siembra.gov.co” no research, development and in- novation work related to the agroindustrial exploitation of the blackberry is observed, especially inthe Andean region, which has the highest production of this fruit . Blackberry is a perishable product that can last in storage from 5 days in fresh state to 1 month in frozen state. This implies that there may be great loss due to the lack of existing technical capacity to preserve the organoleptic, microbiological, and nutritional characteristics of black- berry . The Siembra platform by the Ministry of Agri- culture inthe area of harvest, post-harvest, and trans- formation management for the blackberry chain shows a demand in bio-prospection to develop agroindustry and transform this type of product. Development of new products with high added value for national and inter- national markets is of interest for researches. Poor par- ticipation by national players is noted inthe research on transformation alternatives for food, health, and industry compared to the participation by international players in this same chain. On this platform, it can be observed that contributions by national entities towards improving the agroindustrialization of the blackberry has been quite low. It can also be perceived that most efforts made inthe chain have been in agricultural areas, like management of the production system, sanitary and phytosanitary management, and planting material and genetic improve- ment; the area of harvest management, postharvest and transformation would be fourth in importance according to the projects presented and the results published natio- nally .
To summarise, we found that the main processes underlying quality management are planning, improvement and control processes.Theories like Juran trilogy, 12 Deming points, Kaizen theory, six sigma, circles of quality, TQM, TOC, and so on, have in common the objective of improve quality based inthe compliance of customers requirements and necessities, each method is different from the other and companies can combine or use just one of them. Inthefoodindustry due to the existence of obligatory quality management systems (GMP, GHP, HACCP), it could be recommended the combination of three theories, Juran’s trilogy because of its relation with HACCP, Kaizen theory because it's important to improve quality in every process with small steps but incremental ones, and Ishikawa theories regarding to suppliers quality management, because as we described before, quality of a final product has to be managed through the supply chain.
The main goal of this paper is related to the study of maintenance times of industrial equipment, an area linked to industrial reliability theory. To this purpose, it is analyzed a dataset related to the time of maintenance stoppages due to equipment failure in a large industryinthefood sector located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Different statistical methodologies are used to confirm the significant factors inthe variability of the data and also to obtain a good forecasting model. As a first statistical analysis of the data, it is considered a usual analysis of variance (ANOVA) model with transformed data on a logarithmic scale (leading to approximate normality of the data) to check possible differences in average times due to various categorical factors. Potentail differences between the different levels of each factor are also verified from confidence intervals for the maintenance mean times. In a second analysis of the data, it is assumed a multiple linear regression model also considering the transformed data to jointly confirm which factors are most important inthe variability of the stopping maintenance times and also to be
Barcelona wants to develop a techno- logy park specialised inthefood sec- tor, which provides companies inthe sector with the latest technologies and resources that will allow them to im- prove their industrial activity and in- vestigate new products and systems. The polygon will be equipped with cutting-edge technologies that help reduce costs, obtain better quality standards and guarantee food safety. Plans for the park include -apart from additional services for warehousing and storage, safe deposits, a logistics area for containers- a research and in- vestigation area which would act as a link between companies and Catalan universities. The project, supported by a wide variety of administrations, will add to the modernisation and de- velopment of the Catalan food sector.
Furthermore, R&D technological capabilities also depend on human resources. The variable R&D-FORM measures the firm’s training expenditure per employee to develop or introduce new or improved products or services. With respect to the hypothesis (H4) that training for R&D personnel is more linked to process and incremental than to product and radical eco-innovations, our findings are not conclusive. While we find a positive relationship with process eco-innovation for energy-efficiency (coeff. .043) and environmental-responsiveness (coeff. .051), as well as for incremental environmental- responsiveness eco-innovation (coeff. .056), Table 5.3 shows that R&D-FORM negatively promotes product and incremental material-efficiency eco-innovation (coeff. -.058 and -.047, respectively). In other words, training for R&D personnel has a different effect on eco-innovations depending on their type. This could explain why previous literature (e.g. Cuerva et al., 2014) finds no significant influence of formation on eco- innovation infood firms. Training for R&D personnel increases employees’ consciousness about the importance of reducing the environmental impact of firm’s activities. This training leads them to propose incremental innovations to reduce such an impact, which also fosters a more efficient behaviour regarding energy use. However, the development of incremental innovations in products that suppose a reduction in materials’ use is negatively correlated with these training expenses. Given the difficulties in explaining this relationship, deep case studies could shed light on the reasons why more qualified and trained R&D personnel negatively influences the propensity to develop material-efficient eco-innovations inthefoodindustry.
1 Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wine by products and their potential uses in the 1 food industry 2 3 4 Javier Garc?a Lomillo a , M? Luisa Gonz?lez SanJos? a* , Raquel Del Pino Garc?a a ,[.]
With the 1962 amendment to the “Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act,” re- searchers found it necessary to discuss the determinants of inventions in this sector to determine the true impact of the amendment inthe structure of pharmaceutical innovations. Among the structural factors that affect research and development, the literature stresses market size, past cash flow of firms, and research productivity. Peltzman (1973) provided a simple model that explained the introduction of drugs as a function of lagged market size. Using a time-series analysis over the period 1948–1962 (annual data), he found a strong positive effect of market size over the introduction of drugs. In his analysis, the 1962 amendment would have had a significant and negative impact over drugs introduced after 1962. Vernon and Gusen (1974) related the introduction of new chemical entities (new drugs) with the size of the firm—rather than the size of the market—and they found that a larger firm would, holding everything constant, introduce more drugs.
According to a study carried out by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs indicates that inthe world of fashion exerts a great environmental, ethical and social impact. It occurs through the production of raw materials, transport of the products to any part of the world, (since nowadays there are many online sales) the consumption of resources and energy for the production of synthetic materials, toxic elements used in its production, such as certain dyes for fabrics, packaging and distribution of products and even abusive labor, poor working conditions, lack of security in production processes and child exploitation in many of the countries where the big firms of fashion develop their productive processes in order to reduce their production costs.
TheFood Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) was developed through the collaboration of Michigan State University and a professional network of international foodindustry retailers and manufacturers. The key objective of the FSKN project is to provide technical resources, in a cost effective way, in order to promote food safety in developing countries and for small and less developed companies. FSKN uses a competency based model including a framework, OERs, and assessments. These tools are being used to support face-to-face training, fully online training, and to gauge the learning outcomes of a series of pilot groups which were held in India, Egypt, and China.
The transformation of non electrical quantities into electrical ones has to take into account that the physical or chemical magnitude is composed by a main and a side effect: the avowed one and the interference respectively. The design process for sensors needs to take into account these side effects, sometimes called cross sensitivity. The non-ideal properties during signal processing leads to faulty measurements, and so steps have to be considered to compensate for some of the side effects even when using analog circuits. These steps include the use of filters, signal-differences of two identical sensors, or special circuits to suppress the null drift. When the non-linear characteristics of a sensor do not vary over time, it is possible to linearize or adjust them by using the microcomputer. This enables the calibration of each sensor during its manufacturing. The use of microcontrollers makes frequency modulated and incremental sensors economical because of built-in counters which are able to measure frequencies easily. Further improvement is possible by integration of sensor, signal processing, ADC 2 and micro-computer with bus interface into one single unit. This integration (possibly into one single chip) has several important advantages: reduction of the costs for large scale manufacturing, reduction of space requirements, higher precision, and decrease of susceptibility to noise. Because of this integration, however, the requirements for robustness and reliability increase because a sensor is often subject to a rough environment. The fact that all of algorithms may be programmed individually for each sensor is very important, and further possibilities arise with the use of multi-sensor technology, i.e. combination of similar or different types of sensors, and with the many developments now emerging through micromechanics (Isermann, 2006)
6. Countries, areas or territories for which there were insufficient data to conduct the assessment are not considered. These include: American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Aruba, Bahrain, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territories, British Virgin Islands, Canton and Enderbury Islands, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Cook Islands, Equatorial Guinea, Faeroe Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), French Guiana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Guadeloupe, Guam, Holy See, Johnston Island, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Micronesia (Federated States of), Midway Islands, Monaco, Nauru, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Réunion, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, San Marino, Singapore, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, United States Virgin Islands, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna Islands, Western Sahara. Country composition of the special groupings:
Kapric is one of the largest TNCs involved inthe clothing industryin Kenya. Kapric’s view of its relationship with other public and private institutions is typical of the industry’s “wait and see” stance. The company is a member of KAM and its industry arm, KAMEA. Through these forums, Kapric has consistently expressed its concerns over the high cost of doing business in Kenya, including issues over labour costs, inadequacies of infrastructure and the high cost of utility services. It has also been vocal on the lack of support for theindustry from the government. The interviewee from Kapric was pessimistic about the ability of the Kenyan clothing industry to respond to the imminent threat of competition from Chinese garment manufacturers and compared the Government of China’s concerted approach to supporting the expansion of its clothing industry with that of the Government of Kenya. Kapric’s “wait and see” stance resulting in a halt to further expansion of capacity is a product of the lack of government support and the uncertainty over the AGOA’s future prospects. The interviewee at the company noted, “we are lobbying but the government is very slow. We do not wish to keep banging our heads on the wall, if they do not have the sense to listen. They don’t even know what this industry is about” [Interview FDI 12].
A m edida que las econom ías de los países progresan, de la m ano de la u rb a n iz a c ió n , a lto s in g re so s e in c re m e n to de la p o b la c ió n , ca m b ia n los patrones de consum o -in clu ye n d o el de los alim entos, aum entando la proporción de productos de calidad (Pensel, 1997; van der Zijpp, 1999; CAST, 1999). Es notorio que los consum idore s actu ales desean alim ento s que satisfa gan sus dem andas y percepciones y esto se ve reflejado consecuentem ente en productos de a lta c a lid a d y fá c il p re p a ra c ió n . Los p ro d u c to s fre s c o s o qu e p o se a n ca ra cte rística s qu e de no te n fre scura , se im ponen con m a yor fa cilid a d en el m ercad o. En la Tabla 1, se d e sc rib e n las te n d e n c ia s m ás fre c u e n te m e n te expresadas, en las preferencias de los consum idores de alim entos. Se puede apreciar al analizar algunas de estas tendencias, que apuntan a productos, por ejem plo, con m enor contenido de azúcar, sal, agentes preservantes, con procesos y tratam ientos m enos severos. A partir de estas tendencias, por lo tanto, es muy conveniente, conocer y utilizar las herram ientas que puedan aportarse desde la ecología m icrobiana de alim entos, la tecnología de alim entos y la evaluación de riesgos alim entarios, para prod u cir alim ento s de alta calidad, seguro s, y con m ín im os -id e a lm e n te sin, rie sg o s para la salu d pú b lica que surgen -c o m o hem os visto, com o fu e rte s dem an da s del m ercado actual (B uch anan, 1997; Marth, 1998; Walls, 2006; Duffy, etal., 2006). También resulta im portante destacar, del análisis de esas te n de ncias, lo re fe rid o a la valo rización de las zonas y te rrito rio s - a tra v é s de la o fe rta d e p ro d u c to s típ ic o s de un lu g a r - p e ., denom ina ción de origen con tro la d o , indicación ge o g rá fica de p ro ced e ncia y ta m b ié n , lo a tin e n te al c u id a d o del m edio a m b ie n te , en la p ro d u cció n y el procesam iento de los alim entos -u s o de “tecnologías am igables con el m edio am biente" (R odríguez, 2001c).