The objects of investigation are characterized by having a high level of activity and enjoying cooperative games and competitive sports which make it easier for the author to implement the system of activities. They may adopt extremes and fads in clothing, speech, handwriting and mannerisms and have a strong desire to assert individuality and independence. The objects feel unsure of their place in society and they a lso establish a personal moral code. This helps the author in having their respect and putting them in time and space. They ask many questions and want thoughtful answers so the author always needs to be prepared. They tend to develop strong interests, hobbies and collections, so they begin to think in their future roles, which is a great help for the implementation ofthe system of activities. They can plan ahead and organize tasks with little or no guidance from adults. Some of them enjoy humor by telling jokes.
Speaking skill is the productive skill inthe oral mode. Like the other skill, speaking is more complicated that seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words. There are five components of speaking skill that can be defined as follows: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. To be a good speaker theEnglish learners have to master all ofthe components. However, besides those linguistic components above there are many factors that influence speaking ability. Cooperative learning method can be an appropriate method to use inteachinglearningprocess to improve students speaking skill. Cooperative learning method has several techniques that stimulate the student to make verbal interaction with the other member ofthe class. Cooperative learning method is a method that divides the class member to several groups and arranges thestudents to work in a group. This method is useful to encourage thestudents’ activeness and responsibility to their own self and their team members. (Darsini, 2013)
This research paper emphasizes vocabulary one the most important aspects when theEnglish Language is learned. The use of authentic materials or real items at the moment to teach vocabulary intheEnglish classes is the best way to acquire new word for students. It is suggested that due to the educative requirement, this proposal be implemented since students feel motivated to develop their English communicative skills focused in vocabulary. The use of Realia is an appropriate method to improve vocabulary applying didactic resources. For the development of this investigation the Qualitative and Quantitative method were applied. As techniques applied in it, focus group and interviews were put in practice. All the information was analyzed carefully at the moment to show the results. This research work was implemented at Escuela de Educación Básica Rosendo Félix Mejillón among studentsof seventh grade. The designed proposal used realia activities intheteaching-learningprocess to acquire vocabulary intheEnglish language. The results show that students highly increase their vocabulary, it means that the use of Realia resources as an Englishteaching technique intheteachinglearningprocess is the one of best way to improve thestudents ‘vocabulary.
Throughout the years, many teaching approaches and methods have been proposed and used to improve theEnglish language teaching-learningprocess, being important for teachers to know them, in order to choose and apply the best ones in their classes. Richards & Rodgers (2001) suggest that a way to understand how the field of language teaching has evolved is by means of studying approaches and methods. This is the reason why teachers were asked to tick the method they used mostly in their classes, but as it can be seen in graph 2, most of them chose two or more methods, even though it was clearly stated that they had to select only one. This shows that there is no a specific or unique method that a teacher can apply within his or her teaching, but a great variety of approaches which are mixed according to thestudents ‟ n eeds and the environment in which they are involved.
Harfit (2012 ) conducted a study to examine whether, and how, class size reduction might help to alleviate language learning anxiety, which has long been seen as an obstacle to second language acquisition. Inthe study the researcher use mainly questionnaires , class observations and interviews, this study employed multiple case studies in four Hong Kong secondary schools. Each case constituted one teacher teachingEnglish language to first language Chinese studentsin a reduced-size class (where class size was between 21 and 25 students) and a large class (where class size was between 38 and 41 students) ofthe same year grade, and of similar academic ability. In conclusion this study suggests that the student voice can provide insights into language learning classrooms. Data from the case studies reveal that students‟ sense of anxiety can be reduced in smaller classes and that class
To teach a second language the teacher should take into consideration theprocessoflearning and the way how the brain processes the new knowledge; therefore, applying the best methods and approaches let thestudents to learn the language inthe most effective way. Curran (as cited in Richards & Rodgers, 2001) claims that Community Language Learning is a method that establishes in a clear |way the role that two basic elements play in a class: the teacher who makes the role of counselor and thestudents who make the role of clients. Therefore, the humanistic techniques that these two important elements of communication include have become part of an integral formation because during theprocessof communication teachers and learners manifest their feelings and emotions; thus, teachers should use this particular feature withintheteaching-learningprocess, bearing in mind that the linguistic knowledge reflects people’s emotional and behavioral abilities.
Timing is another important aspect of managing learning. Wajnryb (1992) states that teaching is an event that needs to be structured and planned withinthe parameters and constrain of timing. When teachers are in their first years working as educators they can have some problems with timing inthe planning ofthe lesson and sometimes they do not know how to control thestudents´ behaviors. This is the main reason why teachers should prepare their lessons considering the time required for each activity. With more experienced teachers, factors as timing and discipline come easier, they become more familiar with thestudents´ activities and can do the lessons more relaxed to flow softly.
There are strong grounds for suggesting that the study ofpronunciation is a crucial factor in achieving intelligibility in second language learning. Inthe case ofEnglish vowels, for example, this feature is central because its phonological system lacks clear connections between spelling and pronunciation. However, far too little attention has been paid to pronunciationintheteaching and learningofEnglish as a Foreign Language withinthe Spanish Educational System. English text books and teachers have focused in other grammatical or lexical aspects which were considered as more useful for communication purposes or easier to teach. Furthermore, teaching and learningpronunciation may involve overcoming a number of emotional barriers. “Pronunciation is a unique feature of language performance, one in which, the ego, the self, is involved” (Fernández González, 1998:137; taken from Celce Murcia, 1996:18-19, quoting A. Guiora). When speaking, a great amount of personal information is provided. Aspects such as age, sex, nationality, social status, or psychological features can be inferred from thepronunciationof any speaker. (Aurrecoechea Montenegro, 2002:3).
Inthe same context, the Content-Based Instructions approach to second language teaching was studied by Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 204-220) refer ”t o an approach to second language teachingin which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllables”. Although content is used with a variety of different meaning in language teaching, it most frequently refers to the substance or subject matter being learned or communicated through language, rather than the language used to transmit it. In addition, CBI Stoller (1997) provides a list of activities classified according to their instructional focus. The classification categories she proposes are: language skills improvement, vocabulary building, discourse organization, communicative interaction, study skills, synthesis of content materials and grammar. The subject matter-core states that organization ofthe curriculum is consequent from the subject matter, more than from forms, functions, situations or skills. Authentic language and texts are used. Central material texts, video tapes, audio recording and visual aids are chosen
JClic is a multimedia resource that consists of a set of computer applications that are used to perform different educational activities: puzzles, exercises, texts, etc. The activities are established within projects, so that the activities are part of a set. The predecessor of JClic is called Clic, which is a free multimedia application. It has been used by teachers from various countries as a tool for creating learning activities for their students since 1992. JClic and Clic were created by the Spanish pioneer Francesc Busquets i Burguera who was born in Barcelona in 1959. JClic was developed on the Java platform; it is an open source project and it works on different operating systems. In brief, JClic is a set of free software applications designed to create various types of educational activities. Thus, the Click area is a service ofthe Department of Education ofthe Generalitat of Catalonia aiming to support and promote the use of these resources. Furthermore, it provides an open space for cooperation to promote the participation of all teachers who want to share this type ofteaching material created by the programme.
TheEnglish9thgrade syllabus has ten units, which should be taught from seven to ten hours each. Some ofthe hours in each unit should be devoted to theteachingof vocabulary, as this is one ofthe main areas that should be developed in Secondary School students. The syllabus is organized taking into account the communicative functions and then thepronunciation, grammar and the necessary vocabulary. As it could be noticed, theteachingof vocabulary is declared inthe syllabus. There are methodological suggestions to work with communicative functions, grammar, pronunciation patterns, intonation, rhythm, videos, listening, reading, project works. However, there is not any suggestion about how to work with vocabulary. The activities inthe lesson plan are not varied; they follow the same type of design: working with a mini dialogue to practice the communicative function. They are mostly directed to the practice of speaking components (intonation, fluency). Inthe workbook, there is only one game at the end of it, and most ofthe exercises are aimed at practicing grammar (tenses, modal verbs).
IntheEnglish Language course with a second foreign language: French at the Universidad Central «Marta Abreu» de Las Villas, there are some limitations inthe basic and complementary bibliography ofthe subject English Language II. The purpose of this research was to propose a Digital Library to systematize the bibliography to satisfy thestudents’ needs. The study was carried out from a qualitative methodology. The needs analysis allowed the selection and organization ofthe bibliography for the proposal. For the design ofthe Digital Library for English Language II (DLELII) the Greenstone Digital Library Software was used. Specialists from the area ofEnglish Language and Scientific and Technological Information evaluated the proposal and agreed that it meets requirements such as bibliographic completeness, updating, variety of sources, easy accessibility which resulted in a valid proposal for theimprovementoftheteaching and learningprocessofthe subject.
Inthe Audio-lingual Method, Díaz-Rico & Weed (1995) observe the use of this method inthe decades from 1930 to 1970. It focuses on communicative skills, which were developed through the listening of particular sound patterns and the repetition of them acquire a correct pronunciation and the understanding of second language. This methodology was developed taking into account the way kids acquired their first language; they were taught to learn their mother tongue as a processof habit formation. This method used ordered structures in dialogues that created pattern, which turned into habits. The weakness of this method was the lack of creativity at the moment of talking since patterned drills were used. It is important to say that this method is used to teach idioms and greetings that are normally patterned. Similar observations are the ones from Richards & Rodgers (2001) who stated that the Audio-lingual method or Audiolingualism primary objective was to reach oral proficiency, leaving a second role for the study of grammar or with a little grammatical explanation however, the number of classes also limited of ten or less are considered optimal. In this method many procedures are repeated such as hear a model dialogue containing key structures that are the focus ofthe lesson. Pattern drills dialogues are taught to be memorized by students, expecting them to minimize mistakes production.
Today‟s society integrates the use of information and communication technologies (ICTS) and it is precisely in education where technological strategies should be implemented. This will allow students to consolidate the acquired knowledge, question the knowledge, and look for new knowledge always supervised by the teachers in their role of guidance oftheprocess. A modeling strategy is used to help students to pronounce fluently by repeating what the teacher and record conversation pronounced. All this activities are going to be developed by students through a Wiki. It shows theimprovementoftheEnglishpronunciationof eighth gradestudents EBG at Unidad Educativa Salinas Innova School through the implementation of a Wiki. As the fundamental base ofthe research, WIKI has been used as well as other important web tools which are helpful for theimprovementofthepronunciation skill. The present research shows the application of different methods, such as, qualitative, quantitative, and deductive-inductive. For each method previously mentioned, different instruments such as surveys, interviews which were applied in order to collect information.
This research paper emphasizes vocabulary one the most important aspects when theEnglish Language is learned. The use of authentic materials or real items at the moment to teach vocabulary intheEnglish classes is the best way to acquire new word for students. The use of Realia is an appropriate method to improve vocabulary applying didactic resources. It is suggested that due to the high educational impact, this should be implemented so that students could feel motivated students to develop their English communicative skills focused in vocabulary. For the development of this investigation the qualitative and quantitative method were applied. As techniques applied in it, focus group and interviews were put in practice. All the information was analyzed carefully at the moment to show the results. This research work was implemented at Escuela de Educación Básica Rosendo Félix Mejillón among studentsof seventh grade. The designed proposal used realia activities intheteaching-learningprocess to acquire vocabulary intheEnglish language. The results show that students highly increase their vocabulary, it means that the use of Realia resources as an Englishteaching technique intheteachinglearningprocess is one ofthe best ways to improve thestudents ‘vocabulary.
In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups inthe classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important instudents when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
Firstly, Jimakorn and Singhasiri (2006) carried out a study to investigate teachers' beliefs in terms of perceptions, opinions, and attitudes towards teachingEnglishin large classes. In order to access the opinions and perceptions ofthe teachers, it was decided to use a questionnaire. The questionnaire was piloted with theteaching staff ofthe Department of Language, School of Liberal Arts, KMUTT. It is composed of three parts with open-ended questions, closed-ended questions and rating scales. Part I, open- ended questions, asks for t he participant‟s personal details, gender, teaching experience, education and where they currently worked. Part II, closed- ended questions, concerns the participant‟s knowledge of their university‟s policy on class size. Facts and Opinions on Large Classes was in Part III.
CBLI is the last approach regarded before dealing with other topic. It focuses on providing content information through the target language and using academic subjects to acquire the foreign language (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary, and Robbins, 1999; Richards et al., 2001). CBLI has many advantages in a foreign language class but two are especially relevant. Thestudents are able to improve their language competence into specific areas of their interest and the four language skills (speaking, writing, reading, and listening) are naturally joined (Brinton, 1989; Chamot et al., 1999).
The application ofthe theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to teach the material, to an entire school using M.I. as a framework. In general, those who subscribe to the theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the different intelligences, not just the few at which they naturally excel. There are many different tests teachers can have their students take in order to determine which ofthe intelligences are best suited for their personal learning.