12 the development of social competence” (Adams & Baronberg, 2005, p. 15-16). Family is given the power of impacting both in positive and negative forms the development ofthe child and their own learning process. Similarly, thefamily is entitled the role ofthe perpetuator of certain behaviors to be transmitted to future generations, and the provider of positive and negative attitudes and behaviors towards learning (Adams & Baronberg, 2005, p. 15-16). Parental involvement, parental support and family education have a significant role in learner’s achievements, as stated by Desforges and Abouchaar (2003, p. 4). In their work, the authors stated that thefamily is in charge ofthe provision of a “secure and stable environment, intellectual stimulation, parental-child discussion, good models of constructive social and educational values and high aspirations relating to personal fulfillment and good citizenship, as well as the participation in school life” (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003). In this sense, research has constructed the idea of understanding family practices as the “mediators of educational achievement” (De Garmo et al., 1999, p. 1233 in Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003). In other words, this resumes the idea that if thefamily is actively involved and participating inthelearning process, both from the academic and the social-emotional perspective, it will result in developing positive links to learning.
Indeed, the writers claim that not all seats ofthe class provide students with the same chance to visualize the exposure of class explanation. It is obvious that certain seats favor students and even encourage them, but other seats especially those on the corner, on the farther sides and on the further back affect their visualization and level of attention. The authors remark that it is a must for teachers to establish a regular rotation enabling students to sit in visible enough sites ; this of course, must be complemented with the teacher’s strategic movements; forcing the teacher to place his or her self inthe most attention getting position within the room. However, this teaching suggestions do not intent to lead teachers to extreme positions of discomfort but rather promote ways to improve learning effectiveness as well as to learning good will and determination through attentiveness and real interest inthe topic being focused.
The use ofthe L1 as a CS during oral and written production insecondlanguage (L2) learners has been extensively researched (see Celaya, 1992; Poulisse & Bongaerts, 1994; Cenoz, 2001, 2003; Navés, Miralpeix, & Celaya, 2005; Muñoz, 2007). Recently, L1-based CSs have called the attention of researchers in Content-and-Language-Integrated-Learning (CLIL) contexts, where curricular content is taught through the medium of a foreign language, typically to students participating in some form of mainstream education at the primary, secondary, or tertiary level (Dalton-Puffer, 2011). Thanks to the more intense and natural input provided in these educational contexts, learners have been found to attain a higher command ofthe target language (TL) (Lasagabaster, 2008; Martínez-Adrián & Gutiérrez-Mangado, 2015a) and to resort to their L1 to a lesser extent than their NON-CLIL counterparts (see Celaya, 2007; Agustín Llach, 2009; Celaya & Ruiz de Zarobe, 2010; Martínez-Adrián & Gutiérrez-Mangado, 2015b). In addition to oral and written data, another line of research examining CSs has focused on written questionnaires. In particular, the target of these investigations has been primary-school children (i.e. Basterrechea, Martínez-Adrián & Gallardo-del-Puerto, 2017; Martínez-Adrián, Gallardo-del-Puerto & Basterrechea, 2019; Gallardo-del-Puerto, Basterrechea & Martínez-Adrián, in press) and a call has been made as regards secondary-school learners. Likewise, to the best ofthe authors’ knowledge, research comparing CLIL learners’ self-reported opinions on L1-based CSs use to their mainstream counterparts is non-existent.
One ofthe elements that enhanced the functions of written text was font. The font was used depending on the type of information presented. On Livemocha the predominant font type used to identify the lessons and spaces was Arial (Figure 10). The site linotype.com describes Arial as a familyof typefaces versatile for all-purpose (reports, presentations, magazines, newspapers and promotions). In this sense, Livemocha used a typeface easy to read, casual and comfortable. Therefore, the choice of Arial was appropriate for users to make them feel at ease with thelanguage content and get their attention. On Figure 10 we can also see other type of font, Century Gothic inthe slideshow. This typeface “is useful for headlines and general display work and for small quantities of text, particularly in advertising” (linotype.com). For this reason, Century Gothic is appropriate for the slideshow elements; it is easy to read and is useful for short vocabulary items. The selection of these typefaces creates an adequate environment oflearning and addresses learners’ need to easily understand the new vocabulary.
There is substantial research that addresses the role ofthe first languageinsecondlanguagelearning and instruction. Some studies point to the positive effect ofthe first language on thelearning environment. Schweers (1999) found that first language use inthe classroom creates a comfortable environment, and therefore an environment that enhances learning. In fact, in a study where teachers and students were interviewed about the use ofthe mother tongue inthe classroom, most ofthe teachers reported the use of Spanish (mother tongue) inthe classroom to build relationships with students. Students reported that they would like Spanish to be used to explain difficult concepts, which would help them feel more comfortable and confident inthe classroom. Furthermore, Burchinal, Fiel, López, Howees & Pianta (2012) demonstrated the importance ofthe use ofthe first languageinthesecondlanguage classroom. The study indicates that teachers who speak Spanish inthe classroom may create a more culturally sensitive environment that enhances learning and communication for children.
The specific knowledge that can be found in web sites provides a source of information which should be used by language teachers and content teachers to teach students both subject matter and language at the same time. In this paper, we describe the methodology followed in a still ongoing project in which content teachers and language teachers collaborated in order to design online teaching-learning materials which integrated subject matter and language tasks. We explain the criteria followed in designing and evaluating the different activities proposed in order to connect two subjects that have been traditionally taught separately and we provide some examples. Our main conclusion is that language teaching and content teaching can be successfully integrated. The activities proposed proved to be encouraging for both content learning and secondlanguagelearning, reinforcing students' self-steem and collaborative behaviour inthe classroom and online.
On the other hand, Ferlazzo & Sypnieski (2012) insist that students from different levels of proficiency can be an advantage for working in class. The authors believe that students of a low level of English will feel obligated to catch up to the others of higher levels which can result in quicker learning. The authors mentioned above, say that when working in activities, teachers can make groups of students from high and low levels to encourage interaction. Besides these students can support each other in different skills, for example, one could be better at reading and another at writing in English. Consequently, teachers can work effectively with students from different levels of proficiency.
On the other hand, Total Physical Respond developed by Asher (1977) pointed out that children before they speak do a lot of listening accompanied by physical responses. He relates speech and action, teaches language through physical (motor) activity that came from the right-brain function preceded by the left-brain language processing. Asher in this method creates a positive mood inthe classroom among the learners in order to facilitate learning and to reduce the stress through students. But unfortunately like other method had its limitations in reading and writing activities, for this reason ‘The Natural Approach’ came about.
Regarding the evident gender influence when learning a language, results reveal that there is a significant difference inthe advantage that female gender has inthe study of a new and different language. Thus, in both groups, those who had zero level and those who knew English, there was a gender preference to learn it. This result might be due to a) other factors such as motivation or speed comprehension (Carmen Muñoz, 2001) since women began their exams earlier than men did, and b) inthe case of level 0, women knew little French since they had studied it before and it can be an advantage to know other language rules to understand new ones.
Communication is an important skill that humans must develop to live in society, to understand and to be understood. “To be considered a competent interpersonal communicator, a speaker must be able to apply a range of pragmatic skills effectively to ensure smooth face-to-face communication in conversation” (Jeanes, Nienhuys & Rickards, 2000, p. 237). Continuing with Jeanes et al. (2000) hearing children acquire this skills in their first 8 years of life, for Hearing Impaired children much less is known about the develop ofthe pragmatic skills. “Deaf children have fewer opportunities for naturalistic, meaningful conversational interaction (Clark, 1989; Gallaway & Woll, 1994; Ling, 1989) and, as a result, are less likely to acquire the full range of conversational pragmatic skills” (Jeanes et al., 2000, p. 237). According to this, learn a Language with a Hearing Impairment would be much more difficult. So, what would happen if a Hearing Impaired person tries to learn a SecondLanguage? Is it possible? What difficulties could face the person? All these questions and a few more are the ones we want to answer with this investigation work. For that matter, we have done a bibliographic review and analysis and we could interview two professionals that know about the topic and are close to it.
and 45% agree, that is a total of 181 students. However, 14% students partially agree, this means that large classes environments could be an obstacle to practice the main language skills. This result could be related to statement three where it is observed that 73 students, that is a 34%, partially agree that all students are attentive and participate in class tasks. It is probably that in some occasions many of those students sitting at the back ofthe classroom are not adequately participating in class tasks (statement three); consequently they are not practicing listening, speaking, reading and writing skills as much as they should (statement two). Another reason may be that some students do not participate too much in class because they are not good at English, thus they are rejected by the rest ofthe group (Forero, 2005). Despite of this, 48 students totally agree and 81 agree with statement three, that is 22% and 38 % respectively, while only 6% disagree. This shows that in general terms, learners feel there is enough student participation in classroom despite of being in a large group.
communicative events within language that is being produced, interpreted, and negotiated. These include level of formality, relationship between participants, and whether the interaction is public or intimate. Then the macrosocial context relates secondlanguage acquisition to circumstances oflearning, referring to the formal learning that takes place in schools where learners have access to programs which give little opportunity for student to develop full communicative competence, and to broader dimensions such as: age, sex, ethnicity, education level, occupation, and economic status; these dimensions often influencethe experiences learners have, how they are perceived by others, and what is expected from them. The members of different social categories, frequently, experience different learning conditions, and different attitudes or perceptions from within both native and target language communities.
Nobody can deny that school plays a crucial role in L2 learning, however our analysis has clearly highlighted the role of what happens outside the school walls. The promotion of intergroup contact is crucial for both fostering a better understanding and increased mutual feeling of openness and friendliness between the groups and for experiencing the L2 in a real context. The tendency to consider school as the only occasion where the L2 can be acquired, most typical for the Italian speaking community (cfr. Giudiceandrea 2006: 23-37), needs to be changed. As a matter of fact, placing excessive emphasis on the role ofthe school in L2 learning without considering theinfluenceof extra-linguistic factors put L2 teachers in a difficult position and stirs up the ever-recurrent debate about L2 teaching methods, always in search ofthe best ever approach. The attempt by the Italian-speaking schools to introduce the Content and Language Integrated Learning method that dates back to the 1990s and which– after decades of polemics and legal struggles - has only recently been officially ratified for both the Italian and the German-speaking schools (cfr. BU n. 29/I-II of 16/07/2013, BU n. 27/I-II of 08/07/2014 and BU n. 5/I-II of 02/02/2016), is the most evident demonstration ofthe generalized approach to the topic in South Tyrol.
The lack of a pedagogical approach to motivate students inlearning English as a secondlanguage, directly affects their interest when referring to educational context: first, students are not interested in their English classes, and so, their motivation leads to poor results. This deficiency in motivation is justified by the weakness in different aspects as in methodological strategies used in class, the lack of using technological tools that support the communicative approaches oflanguage. Hence, from the teachers’ perspectives, they seem to mostly notice their unmotivated students’ through observing their low scores, their indiscipline and their lack of attention. In fact, teachers ofthe institution are professionals who are characterized for their warmth, experience, responsibility and other human values. But, still follow the traditional pedagogical model.
The process of creation in teaching and learning a language such as Spanish is a topic in which the techniques and methods of this process are the focus of designing material. That fits the necessity and the ideas ofthe creator to a certain level where he/she feels happy with the final product to see that this material actually works and reach the goals proposed at early stages of its creation. There is no point in creating material based on learning a secondlanguage if it is just a piece of activities and games already known with no background specifications and a different approach that shows the print ofthe creator and actually show something inthe field of research for future teachers who can apply this kind of material.
According to the results from statements 12, two teachers which represent the 40% ofthe sample, agreed that design and apply activities to practice writing skills its easier in small classes; three teachers which are the 60% ofthe whole just agreed with this statement; It is also shown that twenty six students which stands for the 70% or the sample, totally agreed, that in classes with small number it is less complicate to complete activities that allow them to practice writing skills .Eleven students agreed with this statement which means the 30% ofthe whole. The observation conducted confirms that inthe 100% ofthe observed class, students seemed to enjoy completing assigned activities to practice writing skill, due to find small classes as the right environment for learning.
The results presented inthe chart indicate that a high percentage of students 40,29% consider that teachers do not have problems to remember all students’ names. But, taking into consideration those 26,86%, who show that the problem exists and those 11,94%, who have this problem, without forgetting those 20,89%, who indicate that the teacher sometimes remember their names. Therefore, this problem exists up to a certain degree because the students do not feel confident enough, which does not generate positive stimulus. About it McGregor, Cooper, Smith, and Robinson (2000) affirm that teachers must call their students by their names, which give students more confidence, more security. On the other hand, the authors express that teachers find certain difficulty to learn their students’ names, especially in large classes where the level of difficulty increases; therefore, teachers need to make a bigger effort and put into practice this statement because it helps to stimulate students.
In this sense, the English area has as its purpose the achievement of communicative competence in a foreign language, which will allow the student to acquire information on the most recent and latest scientific and technological advances, whether digital or printed in English, as well as access to new information and communication technologies to broaden their cultural horizon. In addition, it is important to create the conditions and opportunities for the use of innovative methodologies that strengthen the student's autonomy inlearning other languages. Vivar M. (2014).
The method used for this research was quantitative and the student´s questionnaire was used for this analysis; here the results were tabulated and statistically organized by graphics. In addition, the information was converted into percentages for easier analysis ofthe three different sections, during the analysis ofthe information obtained from the questionnaires; these were different aspects to consider. The first aspect was the purpose of study. Thesecond aspect to remember was which section was being worked with (academic, social or psychological), finally, any radical variation or conflicting data needed to be analyzed with scrutiny to understand its correlation to the whole.
Before keep on indicating the results obtained inthe survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses ofthe students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.