Aditionally, Danielsen, Simon and Pavlick (2006) argue two types of cheating: low-tech cheating and high-tech. These authors explain that low-teaching occurs when students write answers on rubber bands, the inside of water bottles, on hands, arms, thighs, and other body parts, on the desk, or even on a cheat sheet they sit on. Students have been known to cheat by putting notes o n the floor or on their bag, looking at another student’s exam directly or indirectly, by wearing sunglasses or by a brimmed hat worn low to hide the student’s roaming eyes. On the other hand, high-tech cheating has enhanced the technology of cheating by using some common devices that may contribute to cheating such as: handheld scanners and pens, handheld computers and watches, programmable calculators and other electronic devices.
interviewed were not fully aware ofthe use of these strategies which suggested that strategy training was not introduced in their teaching. This study offered an understanding about the difficulties students face when dealing with learningEnglish and how they try to overcome them to succeed in their learningprocess. They create mental linkages, deduct, compare and contrast; and doing this requires a plenty of time and previous preparation. As a result teachers need not only to master thelanguage they are teaching, they must have also a full understanding ofthe procedures and techniques that can be used for students to learn effectively.
Each part ofthe lesson must be complete according to the plan so the teacher must tell students how much time they have for a specific activity and they must finish it according to that. Instructions must be clear and logical. Feedback is not possible in all the classes but it helps to correct mistakes. As Spratt, Pulverness and Williams (2005) argue, feedback is really important because it helps learners to understand what their problems are and how to improve their learning. In some classes according to the observations teachers should control discipline in a better way. Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) claim teachers can control discipline by using direct instructions, monitoring the class, with positive discipline, clear instructions and having the attention of everyone before starting the lesson.
Abu-Rabia (1996) conducted other a research to determine how students’ attitudes and cultural backgrounds affect their reading comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar information in their first and second language. Eighty three students from two intermediate schools in southern Israel participated inthe study. Most ofthe participants in both schools were from families of low socioeconomic status, and they studied English 5 hours a week. The method used was quantitative. Data was collected through reading tests and questionnaires. During the research process, the participants completed a 15-rain pretest about the stories they were to read inthe investigation. A week after the pretest, the participants were administered a 20-rain questionnaire to assess their attitudes toward learningEnglish. The reading tests were administered 2 days later; each group of participants received one story a day for 3 days.
English is one ofthe most spoken languages inthe world. It is used in different environments such as businesses, education, organizations and traveling. That is why many people are learningEnglish as a foreign or second language. However, when teachers do not use appropriate methods, techniques and materials, students may not learn it effectively. Thus, the main topic of this research has to do with the different factors that influencetheteaching-learningofEnglish as a foreign language. In order to develop this study, it is necessary to obtain theoretical support about themes related to this topic like the importance ofteachingEnglishin Ecuador, teaching methods, managing learning, lesson design, class size, classroom space, seating arrangement, teaching resources, classroom observation, learning styles and language aptitude. Also, there is information of previous studies which were carried out at different educational institutions referred to the factors affecting foreign languageteaching and learning around the world.
comfortable with the number of students in their classrooms. The rest of teachers representing 37 % ofthe group of 15 teachers claimed they were comfortable with the number of students they had to work with. This last group has a reason why they said it; those teachers had groups with less than 20 students. There is a direct relationship between the number of students in a classroom and the rate of success a teacher will have in having students learn according to the number of students in a classroom. The reduced number of students gives ample options of activities, as well as a more personalized focus on students’ needs and individual traits to help the teacher teach better. Savage and Savage (2010) claim the teacher-student ratio needs to be considered as well as the student density ratio for a successful class.
It is also important to consider that through the interview applied to teachers, their English proficiency level was verified according to the standards provided by CEFR (Common European framework of reference). Six out ofthe fifteen teachers interviewed have C2 Englishlanguage proficiency level; 4 teachers have C1English level; 3 teachers have B2 English level, and only two teachers have B1 English level. In this sense, the teachers who have B1were not able to interact with students using appropriate language fluency. Moreover, the teachers switched to Spanish sometimes during the interview because they did not understand the questions appropriately. This means that teachers have basic skills for interacting with others and they cannot use English for social and academic purposes. Therefore, it affects students´
17 Snivicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002) claim that if the number of students is about 16, the position face to face is more advisable; on the other hand, there is another way to arrange the chairs: they can be placed around the tables which is called “café style”. The advantage of this type of organization gives a successful result because learners are in a comfortable position, since “café style” offers students the possibility to work in pairs or in groups. Also, the authors explain that during the ‘open pair work’ two students discuss some topics under the supervision of their tutor, while the other students can hear the discussion, they do not move from their chairs, which give them the possibility of establishing communication; moreover, the teachers could arrange the seats in a circle and learners can move easily.
Lightbrown and Spada (2006) summarize the term learning : “it has been used to describe an individual’s natural, habitual, a nd preferred way of absorbing, processing and retaining new information and skills ” (p.59). One ofthe most popular learning styles is the “kinesthetic” which refers to learning through action. In order to take into account the different learning styles teachers must be flexible and Coleman (2005) consider this by saying that evidence shows that individuals perceive, analyze, organize, and recall information in different and stable ways. They go on and state that conflicting theoretical frameworks and classifications make applying the information practically difficult. As a result of these difficulties, teachers must be aware ofthe different students learning styles and be flexible inthe classroom in order to accommodate these different learning styles. Once the students’ learning style; visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic are identified then the teacher can choose the best activities for their lessons.
The audio-lingual method is rooted in behaviorist theory and is similar to the direct method. The basic premises that form audio-lingual is that the four basic skills are isolated and taught separately with listening and speaking receiving the most emphasis. The primary tool used in audio-lingual is the use of dialogues and explicit grammar instruction is avoided. Through dialogues the form ofthelanguage is copied and committed to memory. Through practice it is expected students will eventually be able to use the given language spontaneously. Nagaraj (2005) suggested that reading and writing are not ignored, there is more of an emphasis on listening and speaking. Languagelearning is primarily taught through dialogues providing pupils to mimic, practice and memorize the parts oflanguage. Richards and Rodgers (2001) are in agreement with Nagaraj, however they go on to speak more specifically about vocabulary. Once sounds and grammatical forms are clearly learned then the student goes on to increase lexical abilities.
There are many recommendations to work with activities inlarge classes. Baker & Westrup (2003) suggest beginning theprocess dividing a large class, for example a class of 150 students, divide into small groups of three to five students then, select research ideas from a list of 13 topics, after choosing a topic for each group, then subdivide the assignment among the members. Finally, the students organize their individual work into a draft of a research paper. The same authors suggest use methodologies such as, case studies, supply information, assign problems, etc. many teachers could employ such things as video, scenarios. Newspapers, which help students, apply difficult concepts to real world problems, and work better inlarge classes
In this observed class while the students were doing some tasks specially the speaking tasks, the teacher formed groups to talk about and describe personalities. Consequently, a good strategy to control large classes is the use of pair or group work. Brown (2007) mentions set up small ―learning centers‖ in your class where students can do individualized work.Scrivener (2012) agrees with Brown (2007) saying that large classes are likely to benefit from lots of pair and group work because it grants learners the opportunity to use and/or practice thelanguage themselves. Students enjoyed completing the task and presenting it to their
It is crucial that the institutions not only check these plans, but also give the corresponding feedback to the teacher in order for the plan to be related and goes according to the syllabus, and according to the goals that the institutions have. This is important since the lesson plans contain everything that goes inthe lesson, and through these plans the institutions can verify if the classes area accomplishing the curricula expected for that level. During the observations, it could be seen that topics in many cases repeat again and again, it means that the students study for example simple present in second course and in third course this topic is repeated again, this produces that students get fossilized with the knowledge, they do not advance since what they are learning is repeated and repeated. They manifested that sometimes they get bored because they study the same and the same even though they are in a different level. That is why, the government has put more emphasis on controlling the material and the lesson plans of teachers, and this way it can control what teachers are teaching, how, when, etc. this control pushes the teachers to work responsibly with students and take into consideration the topics and activities that can really benefit students.
Inteaching-learningprocess, the teacher always considers which teaching methods and approaches to use for effective instruction. Concerning this issue, some methods and approaches will be tackled. Richards & Rodgers (2001) suggest that grammar translation approaches thelanguage through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge ofthe task of translating sentences and texts into and out ofthe target language. Also, reading and writing are the major focus and speaking and listening have little or no systematic attention. Also, with this approach vocabulary is based only in using the dictionary and
There is a wide variety of languages around the world, some of them more widely spread than the others and all helped by a factor called technological development which influences communication, work and study in an enormous way. For this reason, Englishlanguageinthe present time has become a worldwide necessity far away from the common language that it used to be. In this context, it is known that most ofthe scientific information as well as the new technology come from the developed countries. The best means to understand and manipulate those is with thelearning and use ofEnglish as a universal language; that is why some counties are trying to improve theteaching-learningEnglishprocessin different Educational institutions. Ecuador is not an exception and, according to the Ministry of Education (MinEduc) (2012), the professional standards given for new English teachers for both schools and universities inthe public sector, theprocess has started. The selection process will be based on scores where the maximum is 100 scores, where the 90 percent is related with language proficiency and the ten percent ofthe score is related to pedagogy.
Referring to th e whole class interaction, in class discussion or “open” pair work, when two students talk across the classroom under teacher control, giving other students the opportunity to hear, there is no need to change the position ofthe seats. When all the students are working together in “closed” pairs, without the teacher direct control, fellows need to be able to look at each other. So either gets them to move their chairs slightly towards each other or lift their chairs and work facing someone other than their neighbor, depending on the amount of time the activity is going to take. How the seats are arranged depends on the size ofthe class, the size ofthe groups, the types of activity and the styles ofthe furniture. For many activities dealing with four students per group, the ideal is probably to have the students sit round desks café style, or to remove the desks altogether. If it is possible, move the furniture to make good use ofthe corners ofthe room. At all coast, avoid having all members of a group on the one side ofthe desk. Also avoid separating the members of a group to far, making it difficult for them to talk easily (Gower, Phillips and Walters, 2005).
Khaki (2010) focused his study on finding out the very common expectations of students inthe classroom where they are learningEnglish at a variety of different paces and besides, the class is largein number of students. The study is mainly focused on six different areas: classroom management, establishing collaboration, range of tasks, giving feedback, classroom English and home assignment. 60 students of tenth grade from government-aided school were selected to get required information. They were sampled using purposive non-random sampling procedure. To collect data, one questionnaire containing nineteen closed-ended questions was developed. This study revealed many findings at a time regarding the expectations of students inlarge multilevel classes, for example more than 90% of students like to be called by their first names. This study also proves that an English teacher should move all around the class. Sharing experiences like activity is highly preferred by a considerable number of students (40%). It shows that the sharing of experiences of teachers and students highly motivates the students. Besides, this study revealed that more than 90% of students reported that they expected additional activities over which the ones ofthe textbook. This study also focused that limited use of mother tongue inEnglish classroom it is bearable and accepted, but the teacher should introduce some new words every day in simpler and shorter expression. In case of feedback, feedback at a personal level inthe classroom is more preferable. The study reveals that most ofthe students like challenging activities, neither too easy, nor too difficult. Thus, it is essential to provide different tasks to different students, so that they can adapt them at their own pace.
In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups inthe classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important in students when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
teachers develop their own style ofteaching according to their personality. Gower & Walters (1995) give some practical advice to follow when referring to instructions. They suggest to primary create a center of attention inthe student to make sure everyone is listening and watching, to employ simple language and short expressions, and to use language at a lower level than thelanguage being taught. Furthermore, teachers should use visual or written clues whenever possible utilizing real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. Making demonstrations if possible, illustrating what to do; break down instructions if the activity requires a series of procedures, provide simple commands in sections and check for understanding, rather than giving out all instructions at the start ofthe activity. It is also a good idea to target instructions inthe sense of explaining the content only to the students who need it, instead of giving complete directions to the class as a whole. In addition, discipline is a very important issue inthe classroom. It depends on a number of factors such as: age of students; evidently children require more discipline than adults. Usually young teenagers are considered to be the most complex when it comes to classroom control. Discipline is intimately related to the causes for learning and student motivation whether they are forced to be in class or whether they are there voluntarily. Class size plays an important role, as it is more difficult to keep an orderly atmosphere in a large class than in a smaller one.
participants and the end are likely to be left out the conversation with conference table, large portion of participants have eye contact with each other and large table useful for plenary group discussion but cannot break into small groups easily , cannot fit many participants around table and during general discussion, several sub- discussions may form and disrupt proceedings and circle and semicircles of chair, people can relax and interact well , participants able to adopt open poses , no natural top position for trainer , easy to move into various exercises and games and stops people sticking to a specific desk or chair but in this style no flat work surface , no tables on which to rest books or material , no physical barriers , so more openness needed and intimidate shy people . Inlarge groups , participants sit far from these opposite them .