According to the results, in statement one it is seen that a 55, 5% of students have answered totally agree, while a 33.5% have marked agree, this means most ofthe students think that it is possible to perform activities that permit to reinforce the four skills. On the other hand the 8% of learners have chosen partially agree, and a 3% have answered disagree. It means that there is a small group that does not think that largeclasses provide opportunities for putting into practice what they learn. It is important to mention that contrary to what is thought, that inlargeclasses occur that the teacher is very motivating and the activities are atractive for the students since interesting activities motivate students to work and practice what they have learned. Another reason can be that students are really interested inlearning, so they get engaged inthe activities regarding the number ofthe students.
Another study done by Nakabugo, Opolot-Okurut, Ssebbunga, Maani and Byamugisha (2008) consisted in three main purposes: to increase the number of teachers to allow more than one teacher per class, to provide schools with the necessary resources, and to enable teachers to develop the confidence and skills to improve thelearning environment inlargeclasses. Some difficulties that this research faced were the limited physical space for movement and interaction, few desks, and limited number of instructional materials. Students learned in such poor conditions and there were also danger of easy spread of infectious diseases such as flu and cough.
Based on the above conclusions, a few recommendations can be suggested: First, regarding the instructional implications that largeclasses have on theteaching-learningprocess, this research suggests and recommend that teachers, as information facilitators ofthe students, keeping on the responsibility of increase and update their own knowledge, instructors should learn modern techniques and skills in order to improve the amount of activities, competitions, debates, games etc. so students can improve their knowledge in a better form, remember it and then apply this in their lives, according to the drift ofthe modern times.
Previous related studies have shown that largeclasses do create an impact upon both students and teachers. One such research paper was conducted by Thaher (2005) who focused his research on the instructional, psychological, and social effects oflargeclasses on EFL students. The author concluded that there were more negative than positive implications resulting from large classroom settings. Students failed to be paying attention in class due to the feelings of neglect resulting from the teacher not being able to give each student enough of his/her time. The feeling of neglect led to the students´ perception that there were no opportunities inthe classroom to express themselves. The author made no notes about any limitations.
In a English classroom it is common to find a heterogeneous group of students who have different levels of knowledge. Carrasquillo (2001) opines that when in class there are different levels of proficiency, the students need careful planning and organized instructional for each programmatic steps, for their learning. If the teacher carefully selects the content, students will study topics for which they already possess schemata. Using content and context together to understand messages, students develop coping mechanisms for dealing with unknown languagein other contexts, ultimately fostering the development of foreign language proficiency.
At the end of each observed class a questionnaire was applied to each student. The questionnaire had some questions that would determine whether or not largeclasses affect theEnglishlanguageteaching-learningprocess. Students could give ideas and suggestions about the management oftheEnglishclasses and how teachers could motivate them to learn English. Students were not worried about its largeclasses. They mentioned that teachers have to innovate their teaching methods and make English fun. A personal notebook or field journal was also used to take notes during each observation.
It is crucial that the institutions not only check these plans, but also give the corresponding feedback to the teacher in order for the plan to be related and goes according to the syllabus, and according to the goals that the institutions have. This is important since the lesson plans contain everything that goes inthe lesson, and through these plans the institutions can verify if theclasses area accomplishing the curricula expected for that level. During the observations, it could be seen that topics in many cases repeat again and again, it means that the students study for example simple present in second course and in third course this topic is repeated again, this produces that students get fossilized with the knowledge, they do not advance since what they are learning is repeated and repeated. They manifested that sometimes they get bored because they study the same and the same even though they are in a different level. That is why, the government has put more emphasis on controlling the material and the lesson plans of teachers, and this way it can control what teachers are teaching, how, when, etc. this control pushes the teachers to work responsibly with students and take into consideration the topics and activities that can really benefit students.
According to Harmer (1998), there are some things that teacher can do in order to face largeclasses, so teaching-learningprocess succeed. Hanging out worksheets with different tasks can be great for having students practice their Englishlanguage knowledge. After having done these exercises, the teacher can go through the worksheet with the whole group, and all the students will get the benefit. A group exercise can be conducted as an in-class exercise or out-of-class assignment, and it is a very good way to manage the active learningof students in a large class. Before working in groups, it is very important to give clear instructions, so thelearningprocess can flow without misunderstanding about what it has to be done. In group activities, students work together to discuss or solve problems, a process that is also called collaborative learning or cooperative learning. In a large class, students working in pairs or larger groups can help and learn from each other.
“ Guess Who? ” is an activity in which students write letters and practice information questions, then they mingle the answers and when they find a person, should ask for that person’s signature next to the statement that identifies to the student. Likewise, an activity as “ mutual interviews ” is useful because the students can know what an interview is. Also, students can work in pairs and take turns to interviewing each other, for example, each pair joins another pair and introduces his/her partner to the foursome. In addition, the “ quick-write ” consists in dictating the sentence and the students cannot stop. When they cannot think, they may continue writing loops or write I do not know what to write, until the teacher stops them. Finally, inthe groups, students choose and read the most interesting piece of writing. The last activity is names and adjectives in which the students form rows and they think of an adjective that describes them and that begins with the same letter of their names. After that, students say their names preceded by the adjective and all students will do the same in each row repeating the first students’ names and
mentioned by Hammer (1998). He explains that most students do not want to talk or participate in class, and the first reason could be their own timid behavior, another reason could be the existence of dominating and intimidating students, the silence habit presents in many cultures where women are not allowed to speak freely in mixed groups, or where the quiet behavior is a virtue or the simple fear to make mistakes in front ofthe class because of low language proficiency. The author continues and mentions that it is worthless to try to force such students into talking; it is better to try with other strategies such as pair work activities, controlling speak tasks, acting out, reading aloud, role plays, etc.
Alternatively, another study done by Jimakorn & Singhasiri (2006) in Thailand, which consisted on 75 lecturers done from major state universities teachers, in a class size around 30-40 students, found that the majority ofthe participants thought that teachinginlargeclasses is possible but with different conditions and teaching approaches. However, they also mentioned that the larger the class is, the less effective. In addition, a larger class is extra work for teachers. The participating teachers thought that when the classroom is large, teaching and learning inevitably becomes more difficult, thus less effective. In addition, many students are often found left behind in a large class. A teacher would not be able to notice if a student or two lose interest and keep quiet throughout the lesson because the classroom is too full.
Different levels of proficiency are related with the degree that each learner has from beginner to advance levels; it refers to the use of different strategies and the use of visual material resources according to the level and the age ofthe students. Saville (2006) states that demands learners’ attention, and thus involves controlled processing, for example if there are some students with a lower level and, other with an upper level, teachers should give extra activities to increase the level ofthe student who need to reach the achievement throughout extra classes, extra materials, and academic support inthe school. Some schools have the levels ofEnglish
Regarding this method Richards says that CBI is used at different educational level in different program adaptations especially because the goal of CBI is for learners to become autonomous and independent along thelearningprocess. On the contrary, Spratt, Pulverness & Williams consider CBI to be preferably used in primary and secondary levels in which language is presented through interesting topics related to school subjects that help learners to increase knowledge about the world. For that purpose, many common activities are to be related to current topics such as environment, education, science, etc. and additionally they imply the usage of material such as realia within the syllabus to make tasks meaningful.
from other subjects during theEnglish class while working inthe activities; at the same time they constantly spoke in Spanish about topics unrelated to the lessons. Regarding this topic Davis & Pearse (2000) argue that inlargeclasses are obviously much more difficult to achieve good results because the learners may not all be able to see or hear you well, and teachers may not be able to see or hear all the learners well and it is very hard to get to know all the learners and their names also there are too many pairs or groups for teachers to monitor and teachers cannot often give learners individual feedback on written work.
On the other hand, Asher (1969) explains that total physical response seeks to help students inthelearningprocess with the least amount of stress. This method can be the most expressive of all since under this method the instructors use a lot of non-verbal language as a channel to teach the foreign language using the least amount of translation. In this method the teachers use the very first commands as the little kids do when they learn their native language by using graphic dynamics. The use of body language easily steals the show intheprocess as a didactic tool for example while teaching about the prepositions of space, possessive adjectives, and possessive pronouns, the instructor can play several stances and characters that resemble the topics imparted. However the excessive use of body language can be like a double edge sword because it can make the learners just to wish for entertainment and not specialize on the subject.
Regarding feedback, Gower et al. (2005) state that it enables teachers to help students check their success and progress. These authors also mention that feedback can be given through praise, encouragement, correction, and discussions carried out individually or in group. Moreover, Littlejohn and Hicks (1999) point out that feedback can be given through evaluation activities and can be offered among learners and the teacher. Referring to this issue, the same authors say that it is better for students to give feedback with one another by forming pairs or groups of three classmates, especially those who are friends with each other, since this provides a clear focus when they are asked to do a re-written piece of their work drawing on what each learner has done.
Inthe same context, the Content-Based Instructions approach to second languageteaching was studied by Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 204-220) refer ”t o an approach to second languageteachingin which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllables”. Although content is used with a variety of different meaning inlanguageteaching, it most frequently refers to the substance or subject matter being learned or communicated through language, rather than thelanguage used to transmit it. In addition, CBI Stoller (1997) provides a list of activities classified according to their instructional focus. The classification categories she proposes are: language skills improvement, vocabulary building, discourse organization, communicative interaction, study skills, synthesis of content materials and grammar. The subject matter-core states that organization ofthe curriculum is consequent from the subject matter, more than from forms, functions, situations or skills. Authentic language and texts are used. Central material texts, video tapes, audio recording and visual aids are chosen
The interview showed that five students indicate advantages where students show more confidence. Along with that, students did not have too much problem because they demonstrate their aptitude in talking among them inthe class. However, role play showed some disadvantages where students felt nervous and forgot what they are going to speak in class. In contrast, there were also students that disagreed with the opinion. Even though they forgot their dialogues, they made up dialogues of their own. Moreover, seven students felt and found it difficult to handle the tasks given by the teachers using timing.
Gower, Phillips, and Walters (2005) state that short instructions are entirely appropriate to this situation where the students accept their authority. Also, they usually realize that a firm directive manner is necessary in order to make a good language practice and to avoid confusion and uncertainty. Sometimes students need a little time before they get going while others get on with the task immediately. By providing ongoing feedback you can help your students evaluate their achievement and progress. Feedback can take a number of forms: giving praise and
Khaki (2010) focused his study on finding out the very common expectations of students inthe classroom where they are learningEnglish at a variety of different paces and besides, the class is largein number of students. The study is mainly focused on six different areas: classroom management, establishing collaboration, range of tasks, giving feedback, classroom English and home assignment. 60 students of tenth grade from government-aided school were selected to get required information. They were sampled using purposive non-random sampling procedure. To collect data, one questionnaire containing nineteen closed-ended questions was developed. This study revealed many findings at a time regarding the expectations of students inlarge multilevel classes, for example more than 90% of students like to be called by their first names. This study also proves that an English teacher should move all around the class. Sharing experiences like activity is highly preferred by a considerable number of students (40%). It shows that the sharing of experiences of teachers and students highly motivates the students. Besides, this study revealed that more than 90% of students reported that they expected additional activities over which the ones ofthe textbook. This study also focused that limited use of mother tongue inEnglish classroom it is bearable and accepted, but the teacher should introduce some new words every day in simpler and shorter expression. In case of feedback, feedback at a personal level inthe classroom is more preferable. The study reveals that most ofthe students like challenging activities, neither too easy, nor too difficult. Thus, it is essential to provide different tasks to different students, so that they can adapt them at their own pace.