PDF superior The Naturalization of Humor in Dubbing: translation of Cultural References and Humor in Modern Family

The Naturalization of Humor in Dubbing: translation of Cultural References and Humor in Modern Family

The Naturalization of Humor in Dubbing: translation of Cultural References and Humor in Modern Family

Some years later, together with the appearance of sound films, dubbing emerged. The first sound film was The Jazz Singer, released in New York in 1927, in which intertitles and dubbing were mixed. However, at the beginning there was a huge rejection against this type of movies as people thought that the artistic part of the movies would be lost. The first attempt of audiovisual translation consisted of the creation of subtitled versions of American movies into Spanish, French and German. The previously mentioned movie, The Jazz Singer was released in Paris in 1929; however, subtitling was not very well received and dubbing started being used. Furthermore, one of the main problems about subtitles was that in the 1930s most of the people were illiterate and did not know how to read.
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Audio Visual Translation: Problems and Techniques in the Translation of Humour in Modern Family

Audio Visual Translation: Problems and Techniques in the Translation of Humour in Modern Family

As we have seen through this analysis, the biggest problems faced by the translator of this series are those related to cultural references and puns. Indeed, finding equivalents for the ST cultural references in the TT is difficult, as well as trying to adapt phonetic or visual puns. This confirms that the translation of humour for dubbing is very complex, and also that the decision taken by the translator is not always the most appropriate one. We must bear in mind that after the work of the translator comes the adjuster, who is responsible for adjusting the translated text to the image and can make changes that change the original translation. There is also the possibility that in the dubbing studio itself some phrases may be modified due to different circumstances (inappropriate phrase length, humorous details, etc.).
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The translation of humor in dubbing: the case of Woody Allen

The translation of humor in dubbing: the case of Woody Allen

When they ask her, in the original version Jasmine answers that her mother has a date, however in the dubbed version she says “ha quedado con alguien”. From my point of view the literal translation “tiene una cita” would also be perfectly understood. But the most important aspect about the translation of this dialogue is the irony that Jasmine uses to answer the children: “I don’t think she’s in Chuck E. Cheese”. This sentence does not represent any understanding problems by the source culture, since that is the name of a very popular American chain of family entertainment centers (chuckecheese). The irony lies on the fact that she has a date with his lover, and obviously Ginger will not go with him to a place specially designed for parents and their children, also because she always takes care of her own, and at that moment she does not have to be worried about them. Chuck E. Cheese is an unknown brand here in Spain, so translators decided to change it. Since it is a cultural reference, I think the translator decision to omit the source referent and replace it by other easier to be understood by the target culture/audience is quite correct, since in Spain there are no famous chains specialized exclusively in family entertainment. There are brands like Mc. Donalds or thematic parks, but adults can also go on their own. It is probably for this reason that they decided to use the word “mini-golf”, which is also a family place. If we pay attention to this dubbed version, we could understand the sentence in a different way, since adults can also go on their own to a mini-golf, so humorously, we can understand that Jasmine suggests her sister is flirting with a man and does not waste any time, which is also what the Spanish audience gets.
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Audiovisual Translation and Subtitling  Spanish Subtitles: Analysis of Modern Family translation

Audiovisual Translation and Subtitling Spanish Subtitles: Analysis of Modern Family translation

There are different factors that determine the choice of the method used in each case. It could be due to the country policy and legislation, the cultural preparation of its society, the economy, etc. Thus, each country has a preferable way of translating the audiovisual products spread there. For instance, France, Spain, Italy and Germany prefer dubbing while Portugal, the Netherlands and Greece prefer subtitling (Díaz Cintas 50, 51). Both have advantages and disadvantages. Díaz Cintas explains some of them: subtitling is cheaper than dubbing, which is expensive. Additionally, subtitling is quicker and less laborious than dubbing, where preparing the material takes longer. Nonetheless, subtitling preserves the original speech and the characters’ voices while these aspects are lost in dubbing (67). Contrary to that, subtitling could disturb the original image and some original information of the ST is lost, while dubbing maintains those former aspects. All in all, both methods have limitations. Subtitling has space and time limitations while dubbing needs lip synchronisation (Díaz Cintas 67).
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Psychometric comparisons of benevolent and corrective humor across 22 countries: The virtue gap in humor goes international

Psychometric comparisons of benevolent and corrective humor across 22 countries: The virtue gap in humor goes international

Several culture-specific differences in the understanding of the items and factors could be hypothesized, which might help to explain some of the deviations found in the factor analyses. For example, in Malaysia (Terengganu region), several informal interviews suggested that corrective humor seems to have an inherent benevolence, as close bonds exist between people and informing others about their wrongdoings in a respectful, but also humorous manner is expected and encouraged within friendships. Thus, the virtuous aspect of corrective humor might be stronger in this culture, also distinguishing this sample from the general Malaysian sample. In the Croatian, Indian, and Latvian contexts, corrective humor might not be employed at the societal level very often, perhaps because people do not feel that they can produce a change, and people might thus rather adjust than try to change the conditions with satirical remarks. Also, corrective humor might not only serve to correct transgressions, but it might also serve as a coping mechanism by venting one’s feelings in making public humorous remarks about things that go wrong, independent of whether an improvement can actually be achieved or not. For the Russian context, existential freedom and implicit creative potential might be valued. Thus, there would be less need to correct rule breaking, as it would be considered a manifestation of free will, which might even arouse some sympathy. These hypotheses on cultural differences in benevolent and corrective humor should be systematically explored in future studies.
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The history of translation and of the theory of translation in the context of translation studies

The history of translation and of the theory of translation in the context of translation studies

tive to remain at the exclusive consideration of the target texts in the target microsystems, without passing the border of the social, political or cultural effects that they produce, wouldn’t be valid. When the documentary images of the Nuremberg trial are viewed and the Nazis can be seen listening on their headphones to the prosecutors accusations and to the allegations of their law- yers, translation can be perceived as an activity that is fundamentally deter- mining the lives of individuals and peoples and, of course, of international justice. We do not know whether interpreters that were in Nuremberg booths did their work according to the canons set today by translation theory. We do know that their work was considered valid and that it was effective enough for war criminals to be sentenced and to pay for their crimes. Consideration of these historical facts has more significance than the critical analysis of the adequacy of the final text of an English Quixote and its model. The fact that in England Mein Kampf continues to be reprinted or that the film Harry Potter creates a political problem that demanded a Catalan version in Catalonia, is informing us that translation can cost or save lives, improve them, com- plicate them or worsen them. And here the importance of translation lies. When sociologists, historians, the nations and the world realize that without weighting and valuating the interlingual and intercultural communication process which precedes or accompanies any historical episode —e.g.Pizarro meeting Atahualpa—, we cannot explain the history of the past; when they realize that without translation, without translators, given the present situa- tion, despite the babelic lingua franca on the planet —let’s hope that it lasts and is not erased by the voracity of the Anglophone Koiné—, we could not live and maybe not even co-exist, then perhaps all those receivers and users of
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Song Lyrics Translation in Dubbing: The Spanish Versions of the Beauty and the Beast Soundtrack

Song Lyrics Translation in Dubbing: The Spanish Versions of the Beauty and the Beast Soundtrack

Before getting into discussion, the film scenes in which the songs appear 4 will be also examined in order to detect those fragments that may impose restrictions over the translation —basically in connection with phonetic and kinesic synchrony. Furthermore, the translations will be analyzed against the other criteria: naturalness, singability and sense. Concerning sense, although Franzon (2008) asserts that “an assessment of the fidelity of a singable translation should be based not so much on word-by-word comparison, but on contextual appropriateness,” it will sometimes be necessary to refer to a specific fragment and the type of technique used for translating it. When this happens, we will use the categorization of translation techniques used in AVT proposed by Martí Ferriol (see Figure 1), which he groups around the translation methods distinguished by Hurtado (2001): the literal method and the interpretative-communicative method. All the song lyrics of our corpus are related to the plot and therefore demand certain fidelity to sense. Thus, we predict that under these conditions, the translation techniques that will predominate will be those included by Ferriol under the scope of the interpretative-communicative method, which indeed he considers the most suitable method for dubbing (2006, p. 42).
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An anti interleukin 2 receptor drug attenuates thelper 1 lymphocytes mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin induced uveitis

An anti interleukin 2 receptor drug attenuates thelper 1 lymphocytes mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin induced uveitis

In the present work, we were interested in the possible effect of Daclizumab, a humanized mononuclear antibody directed against high-affinity interleukin-2 (IL-2R), on ocular inflammation, more precisely in acute anterior uveitis, by using a well-known EIU model. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 subtype that binds to the Tac epitope on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor a-chain (CD25) and, effectively blocks the formation of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor [14]. Interaction of IL-2 with this receptor is required for the clonal expansion and continued viability of activated T-cells, which means that so, IL- 2Ra is expressed on activated T cells, but not on resting T-cells or B-cells, NK cells and monocytes. Indeed, IL-2 is a cytokine produced by and acting on T-lymphocytes with complex actions. So, IL-2 augments the immune responses mediated by conven- tional T-cells [14,15]. On the one hand, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) depend on IL-2, so IL-2 is critical for peripheral tolerance. On the other hand, IL-2 augments the immune responses mediated by conventional T-cells [14,15].
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La traducción de referentes culturales en series de humor: análisis de la serie Modern Family

La traducción de referentes culturales en series de humor: análisis de la serie Modern Family

El humor es traducible pero eso no quiere decir que no sea complejo, tomaremos como ejemplo los chistes, que son uno de los modos en los que producimos y recibimos el humor. Chiste es todo aquello cuya intención final sea causar un efecto humorístico y solo tiene gracia si lo entendemos, por ello el humor es una cuestión de efectos. Un chiste no tiene el mismo efecto en todas las personas, ya sea por carencia de conocimientos o por tener diferentes gustos humorísticos (Martínez Sierra, 2008: 116). Sin embargo, los recursos necesarios para producir una situación cómica no son los mismos en todas las lenguas, ya que un chiste puede contener ciertos rasgos lingüísticos y elementos socioculturales tan específicos que harán que el éxito de dicho chiste no esté asegurado más allá de esa comunidad (Chiaro, 1992: 78). Por esta razón, los traductores no se van a enfrentar únicamente a los problemas propios de la transferencia lingüística para traducir chistes.
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Infoentretenimiento satírico en México: el caso de Brozo, el Payaso Tenebroso

Infoentretenimiento satírico en México: el caso de Brozo, el Payaso Tenebroso

and gave it a melodramatic approach, with scandal and sexual intrigue (p. 115). Convoy (2002) says that the journalistic tabloid media often adopts a Carnival tone to cling to its authority as the voice of the people, doing mimicry of transgression. These media say they are on the side of the common man against power, but in reality, as media institutions, they belong to the structure of the capitalist elite. Thus, media tabloids commercialize Carnival impulses by transforming them into consumerism. The case of Brozo exists within this tension. On the one hand, it has been an influential agent of criticism against social and political elites during the democratic transition after 71 years of censorship and control of the monolithic and authoritarian PRI system. In the midst of an institutionalized corruption, in which journalists have served to power, Brozo has been part of the democratic anxiety to manifest criticism to power in the public discourse. Operating in the tradition of the Carnival jester, this clown has also achieved critical impunity in an environment ruled by violence against journalists (whether by public officials or organized crime). On the other hand, Brozo’s Carnivalesque impunity exists within the limits of the Televisa media hegemony. Although it would be useful to have an analysis of detailed content to evaluate if there are substantial changes or not in its coverage before and after joining Televisa, it is evident that its critical discourse operates within commercial capitalist structure frames from the media giant. How much does this affect or not his specific treatment of political power is also a pertinent question to illuminate the borders of freedom of expression in the media and democracy in Mexico.
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Papel de la risa y el humor en la enseñanza y aprendizaje: Explicaciones neurofisiológicas - The role of laughter and humor in teaching and learning: neurophysiological explanations

Papel de la risa y el humor en la enseñanza y aprendizaje: Explicaciones neurofisiológicas - The role of laughter and humor in teaching and learning: neurophysiological explanations

Responder a la pregunta planteada en el título ¿Cuál es el papel de la risa y el humor en la enseñanza y aprendizaje? dando explicaciones desde las neurociencias y la neurofisiología es una tarea por demás ambiciosa si se toma en cuenta que las investigaciones empíricas de este tipo no han llegado a profundizar, específicamente, en la relación entre ambas. Últimamente con el fomento de la neuropedagogía, el estudio neurofisiológico de las emociones y su relación con la enseñanza en la escuela y el aula de clase se está fortaleciendo y tomando un ineludible impulso. Es en este contexto, en el que hay innumerables posibilidades de aplicación de las neurociencias en la educación, que se seleccionó el humor y la risa como tema de revisión e investigación. Asimismo es valiosa información para quienes están interesados en enriquecer integralmente a cada uno de sus estudiantes y así lograr un sentido de vida en el trabajo educativo que realizan. En esta revisión se definen los conceptos de risa, humor, sentido del humor, se analizan reportes de investigación sobre la neurofisiología de la risa y el humor, se presentan las teorías clásicas y recientes que explican la risa y el humor en los humanos e investigaciones actuales sobre el uso de la risa en el aula de clase. Aunque la evidencia observada en la convivencia escolar y en la práctica educa- tiva señalan que la risa y el humor es una estrategia pedagógica que sirve para facilitar los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, se propone reunir información que verifique esta hipótesis desde un enfoque neurocientífico.
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Validación y clasificación de la Escala de Creencias de los Padres de recién nacidos prematuros

Validación y clasificación de la Escala de Creencias de los Padres de recién nacidos prematuros

Hospitalization of the premature newborn baby in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a significant source of maternal stress, due to factors that interfere with the mother-infant interaction and affect the family dynamics, altering the parental role and interfering with the parental care capacity. This study aimed to describe the process of translation, cultural adaptation, psychometric validation and categorization of the scores of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Parental Belief Scale (NICU: PBS) for Brazilian Portuguese, with parents of hospitalized premature children. This is a methodological validation study with the following steps: translation, back-translation, analysis of the judges committee, pre-test, reexamination of scores and evaluation of psychometric properties. The construct validity was verified in a total sample of 99 fathers and/or mothers of preterm infants by confirmatory and exploratory factorial analysis. The content validity performed by the judges’ committee was adequate, with 90 % agreement for the translation and Kappa of .71. The test-retest obtained an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of .98 and Cronbach's Alpha of .92. In the exploratory factor analysis a structure with three factors was found: trust in the parental role, parent-child interaction and parental knowledge, which explained 56 % of the variance. The parents' Beliefs Scale obtained satisfactory content and reliability, and it was adequate for the application with parents of hospitalized pre-term infants.
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Language and culture

Language and culture

The boat leaving Zambuango for Sabah contained a number of people armed with sub-machine guns, and my host arranged for me to be met by guards with high-powered rifles. The amount of illegal imports between the Philippines and Sabah was enormous, and I frankly cannot think of a part of the world that seems less open to the Prince of Peace than the scores of tiny islands where fast ships mock the international harbours and the smugglers’ hide-outs, but there are some exceptional people who nevertheless try to make the Gospel a reality in a place more like hell than heaven, and even to translate it into the indigenous languages for local people to understand.
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The effect of sex and humor in the Iowa Gambling Task : a behavioral and electrophysiological study

The effect of sex and humor in the Iowa Gambling Task : a behavioral and electrophysiological study

Based on the evidence discussed earlier, we carried out a previous study in which we evaluated the performance on the IGT (traditional Bechara’s gambling performance and Expectancy valence model (EVM)) along with the brain correlates of cognitive control (men and women event-related potentials (ERPs) amplitude differences). Our analysis found that the commonly reported performance differences between men and women cancelled each other out under the humor condition (Hc), as women improved their performance and men worsened it. Analysis of amplitude of the ERPs indicated that men under the Hc worsened their ability to detect early environmental changes (lower amplitudes of the N2 component under Hc) when compared to men under NHc, which we interpreted as an impairment in the memory/learning of the task. Second, we found evidence that women under the Hc improved their ability to allocate attentional resources in IGT (higher amplitude of p3b component under Hc) when compared to NHc, which we interpreted as an advantage when using attention to change decisions from inefficient to more efficient ones. These results ultimately suggest that men - when under the non-humor condition- may use their automatic emotion regulation and therefore they can probably obtain with lower cognitive effort higher IGT performances. Nevertheless, the use of humor may impair their performance because they will require an additional cognitive effort to process humor, which may compete for cognitive resources with IGT. Conversely, for women – when under non-humor condition- they require to use cognitive resources for emotion regulation, demanding more cognitive effort to solve IGT. But, when under humor, the qualitative transformation into positive of emotion is facilitated and therefore they can probably obtain higher IGT performances with lower cognitive effort.
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A new approach to the use of translation in the teaching of L2

A new approach to the use of translation in the teaching of L2

Thus the teacher must have prepared his/her class carefully to meet his/her students' needs and expectations (and to avoid feeling exposed, in the case of those teachers who might not [r]

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Tracing context in the discourse of the media: features of language-in-use in the British press

Tracing context in the discourse of the media: features of language-in-use in the British press

a set of news reports from the British national newspapers The Times and The Sun, it is examined the association between the situational variables field, tenor and mode and predictable[r]

20 Lee mas

Application of Hellison's responsibility model in South Korea: a multiple case study of "at risk" middle school students in Physical Education

Application of Hellison's responsibility model in South Korea: a multiple case study of "at risk" middle school students in Physical Education

pebbles at the kids in front of me. But then Level One came to my mind and I didn’t do it”. Another example was recorded in Jin’s field notes. Jin observed that Park often teased a particular boy in her class, calling him “Gorilla” at the beginning of the semester. However, as the concept of respect was repeatedly emphasized through various Level One teaching strategies, she came to stop teasing the boy. In his field notes, Jin described an informal conversation with Park in which they discussed this change. She had told Jin, “I realized making fun of someone’s appearance is not alright to do because my appearance could be different from others’ and if someone teased me about the way I look, it would hurt my feelings so bad” (Jin’s Field Notes). By the end of the TPSR unit, Jin stated in his field notes that all six case study participants were misbehaving less frequently than they did prior to implementation of the model. He noted, “They became more patient, self-controlled, and accepting and more likely to look for a peaceful resolution to a conflict”. For example, at the beginning of the semester, when Jang was practicing soccer with other students, he used to insult students whose skills were not as good as his. However, as the semester proceeded, he showed more respect for others. When interviewed after a soccer game, he said:
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Philosophical Culture of Laughter and the Psychology of Humor

Philosophical Culture of Laughter and the Psychology of Humor

Laughter, according to Likhachev [18], vio- lates and destroys the entire sign system, exis- ting in the world of culture. The sense of the old Russian parodies consisted in destroying the meaning and ordering of the signs, ma- king them senseless, giving them an unexpec- tedly irregular meaning, creatinga disodered world, a world without a system, anabsurd world. The purpose of the parody was the destruction of the sign system of this society and the creation of an absurd world in all res- pects – the world of “anticulture”, via special intonation, facial expressions, gestures, beha- vior, conventional clothing and makeup. The- se signs were used to give the work another meaning, which was absent in the parodied object-the laughing meaning.
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TítuloThe uses of humor in Native American and Chicano/a cultures:an alternative study of their literature, cinema and video games

TítuloThe uses of humor in Native American and Chicano/a cultures:an alternative study of their literature, cinema and video games

Para comprender las manifestaciones artísticas de chicanos/as y nativos/as americanos/as examinaré no solo sus producciones de narrativa y poesía, sino también películas y videojuegos. Cabe subrayar que he diseñado un corpus lo más equilibrado posible: estudio el mismo número de textos de ambas comunidades étnicas, de hombres y de mujeres, de autores conocidos y de noveles. Las dos obras de prosa incluidas en esta tesis son la novela The Light People (1994), del autor nativo americano Gordon Henry, y el libro How to Be a Chicana Role Model (2000), de la chicana Michele Serros. Además, se estudian dos colecciones de poesía: When My Brother Was an Aztec (2012), de la escritora nativa americana Natalie Diaz, y Hustle (2014), del chicano David Tomas Martinez. También se analizan el clásico de cine nativo americano Smoke Signals (1999), del director Chris Eyre y el guionista Sherman Alexie, y la película de temática chicana Quinceañera: Echo Park (2006), de los directores Richard Glatzer y Wash Westmoreland y que cuenta con chicanos/as en el reparto. Finalmente, se tratan dos videojuegos, debido al potencial narrativo de este medio más joven y cada vez más popular: Never Alone (2014), fruto de la estrecha colaboración entre nativos/as de Alaska y profesionales de la industria lúdica, y Guacamelee! (2013), un polémico juego sobre la cultura mexicana. Este corpus multidisciplinar permite evitar una clasificación rígida de comunidades y obras en categorías separadas e inconexas.
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(In)Decorous Mirth: Phillips's 1687 Translation of Don Quijote and the Social Function of Humor

(In)Decorous Mirth: Phillips's 1687 Translation of Don Quijote and the Social Function of Humor

strife that marked English society in the period also had its effect on contemporary literary pro- duction, with the decorum-dominated poetics of neoclassicists like Dryden coexisting with the libertine poetry of John Wilmot, the 2nd Earl of Rochester, and the erotic satire of Restoration comedy, works which reflect the production of what Kevin Sharpe calls “texts of a new politics of pleasure” (2007: 27). The joyful emphasis on pleasure, the erotic and even the obscene that marked this literary culture was the result of the rapid reversals in the political sphere. As Julia Marciari Alexander and Catharine MacLeod describe, “after the repressions of the interreg- num and the uncertainties and poverty of the exiled court, there was an appetite for exuber- ance, indulgence, and transgression” (2007: xiv). Rochester, along with Charles ii himself, has been seen as the principal English representa- tive of this “new world of appetite and interest” (Sharpe, 2007: 26), a phenomenon which David Foxon argues was in fact a part ofthe Europe- wide emergence of ‘libertinism’ as a fashionable and pervasive mode of thought whose freedom related to religion, politics, and society as well as to sexual life” (1966: 49). Dale Underwood suggests that the aims and consequences of this libertinism has often been downplayed, at least in terms of any serious ends. For Underwood, Restoration drama has typically been viewed as “a verbally brilliant yet essentially casual, topical, and uncomplicated body of plays…concerned solely with the surface manners of a small and specialized segment of Restoration society… characterized by witty cynicism and sexual
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