PDF superior The quality of democracy in Latin America (Reseñas)

The quality of democracy in Latin America (Reseñas)

The quality of democracy in Latin America (Reseñas)

diicultades si las motivaciones y los canales institucionales hechos especíicos en la dei- nición no están ligados explícitamente con el contexto social que los rodea” (p. 5). Por consiguiente, ellos prestan atención a meca- nismos y procedimientos que van más allá de las instituciones formales. No obstante, dos condiciones que dan notoriedad a América Latina, su excluyente estructura social e in- tratables desigualdades económicas, no reci- ben la misma importancia que la democracia procesal. Esto, sin embargo, se equilibra con las conclusiones a las que arriban algunos de los estudios de caso, donde esas condiciones juegan un rol en cómo se maniiestan la par- ticipación y la respuesta a la voluntad popu- lar. Así, el capítulo sobre Chile concluye, en parte, que la presente mala distribución del ingreso es una de las razones por las cuales la calidad de la democracia en ese país, a pe- sar de ser alta, no alcanza niveles óptimos. Además, los capítulos dedicados a México y Brasil mencionan que los más pudientes son usualmente los que más participan, aña- diéndose las diferencias étnicas, raciales y de género en este último caso. Levine y Molina no se oponen a la eliminación de la pobreza extrema y de las desigualdades, pero en aras de no caer en trampas ideológicas ellos no la consideran necesaria para una democracia de calidad del modo en que sí ven necesario el reforzamiento de los mecanismos existentes de responsabilidad pública. De hecho, ellos aseveran que “las diferencias socioeconómi- cas no se traducen automáticamente en dife- rencias en educación, información o recursos políticos” (p. 14) y añaden que los gobiernos pueden implementar políticas que reduzcan las desigualdades políticas aún en condiciones de desigualdad socioeconómica. Si esto es así, ¿qué utilidad puede tener el reforzamiento de los mecanismos de responsabilidad públi- ca y el que se fomente la igualdad política si
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The two waves of financial liberalization in Latin America

The two waves of financial liberalization in Latin America

these policies were undertaken may have played a “signalling” role that encouraged capital inflows, but there is strong evidence that most capital (perhaps with the exception of FDI) flowed to LA in response to decreases in the expected rates of return in the main international markets. In the second place, the performance of LA economies during the eighties is not a relevant basis on which to evaluate the experience in the nineties, since it represented, to a large extent, the unsuccessful attempts by LA countries to overcome the constraints posed by their high debt burden and credit rationing. Thus, though in this paper we are emphasizing the negative aspects of globalization, we are not arguing that the “lost decade” was preferable to the nineties. Rather, one of the lessons of the painful experience of the eighties is that policy makers should strive to preserve fluid access to the international financial markets. The experience in the nineties, in turn, shows that, to minimize the risks it poses, integration in the global economy must be carefully implemented, both in terms of speed and depth.
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Polyarchies and the (Un)Rule of Law in Latin America

Polyarchies and the (Un)Rule of Law in Latin America

Furthermore, in the present context of Latin America the type of justification of the rule of law one prefers is likely to make a big difference in terms of the policies that might be advocated. In particular, there is the danger derived from the fact that nowadays legal and judicial reforms (and the international and domestic funding allocated to support them) are strongly oriented toward the perceived interests of the dominant sectors (basically domestic and international commercial law, some aspects of civil law, and the more purely repressive aspects of criminal law) 70 . This may be useful for fomenting investment, but it tends to produce a "dualistic development of the justice system," centered on those aspects "that concern the modernizing sectors of the economic elite in matters of an economic, business or financial nature... [while] other areas of litigation and access to justice main remain untouched, corrupted and persistently lacking in infrastructure and resources.” 71 For societies that are profoundly unequal, these trends may very well reinforce the exclusion of many from the rule of law, while further exaggerating the advantages that the privileged enjoy, by means of laws and courts enhanced in their direct interest. In contrast, the substantive justification of the rule of law I am
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Forest landscape restoration in the drylands of Latin  America

Forest landscape restoration in the drylands of Latin America

To understand the context and examine the potential for restoration, we conducted socioeconomic research in the different study areas through the use of participatory rural appraisal techniques, questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. This enabled current forest uses to be identified, and attitudes to restoration to be explored. Results indicated that awareness of the importance of native plant species of dryland forests varies considerably among regions, and even among different communities within the same region. In Paso de Ovejas in Central Veracruz, Mexico, for example, results from socioeconomic research documented 76 tree species with one or more categories of use, whereas in the Upper Mixtec Region in Oaxaca, Mexico, all 112 native local plant species were recognized as useful by at least some of the interviewees (del Castillo et al. 2011). However, in Central Chile very few of the sclerophyll forest species traditionally used as sources of medicine, food, and fiber were cited in the interviews conducted with local people. These results suggest that current knowledge of tree species in this region is limited, and has apparently been lost (del Castillo et al. 2011).
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The impact of biotechnology in Latin America social engagement

The impact of biotechnology in Latin America social engagement

Por parte del ámbito médico, la preocupa- ción principal sigue siendo el consentimiento informado, no como instrumento para modifi- car la práctica clínica sino como un medio de protección jurídica. La discusión y la aplica- ción del consentimiento informado es uno de los puntos cruciales para superar el paternalismo médico e introducir el respeto a la autonomía del paciente en su relación con el médico, pero esto parece quedar relegado a un segundo plano. Uno de los grandes retos de la Bioética Clínica para el continente es la redistribución de los limitados recursos, que limita a los equipos médicos a situaciones de precariedad y les imposibilita elaborar discu- siones de nuevas problemáticas. Otro de los temas importantes es el acceso a fármacos: en Latinoamérica se está dando acceso a los fa- cultativos pero no a los tratamientos. Existe una imposibilidad crónica por gran parte de la po- blación de acceder a la compra de los medica- mentos. Para enmarcar bien el problema, es in- teresante apreciar cuál es, a grandes rasgos, el panorama de salud en algunos países del conti- nente(21). Tasa de mortalidad infantil 10 veces superior, esperanza de vida de 10 años menos e incremento del 400% en el número de casos de SIDA o tuberculosis entre algunos países y Ca- nadá, lo cual refleja que el gran problema de la bioética clínica es la generalización de su ac-
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The individualist legacy in Latin America

The individualist legacy in Latin America

Anyone who visits a market fair among the Indian communities of the Andes, southern Mexico, or Guatemala will detect a powerful spirit of trade among peoples who in many ways remain remote from the mainstream of Western culture. One has only to see how peasants have parceled out 60 percent of the land collectivized by agrarian reform in Peru to recognize the heritage of ancient times, when the commu- nities used to parcel out the land among the families and individuals who subse- quently became its owners. Notable, too, are the arts of pottery and weaving, which Indians practice with as much ingenuity today as in centuries long past and strive to place in the local or international market. So among the Indians who came to be organized in vast empires under the Aztecs and the Incas, and in powerful city-states in the case of the Mayas, the spirit of the individual was not dead. Imperial power did much to coerce that spirit into subservience, but it did not eliminate the continuation of that spirit as an element of the cultural heritage.
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Poverty, vulnerability and quality of life in Latin America. Challenges for bioethics

Poverty, vulnerability and quality of life in Latin America. Challenges for bioethics

verdadera ‘ciudadanía social’, con una visión in- tegradora de los distintos ámbitos del saber que confluyen en el ámbito de la bioética”(45). Efectiva aplicación de los derechos humanos Con fundamentos en esta ética dialógica, pero más allá de esa reducción de las asimetrías de los interlocutores, parte de la ética y de la bioética la- tinoamericana se ha centrado en dos temas: cómo conseguir una efectiva aplicación de los derechos humanos, especialmente el derecho a la vida y el derecho a la asistencia justa en salud, y cómo con- seguirlo en una región donde son muy numerosas las personas vulnerables y las que ya han sido vul- neradas en algunos de sus derechos más funda- mentales, tanto por la pobreza y falta de desarro- llo social y económico, como por la marginación y exclusión étnica o social.
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Social Media in Latin America

Social Media in Latin America

A ComScore study showed that when Hugo Chavez joined Twitter in April 2010, the Venezuelan audience for the site increased by 4.8% over the span of just a few months,5 not including the number of people that connected via their cell phones or via public computers like those used in Internet cafés. The Brazilian presidential campaign of 2010 was also a race on social networks during which Dilma Roussef, elected president in 2010, engaged the services of the web agency who advised President Barack Obama during his 2008 campaign. The day she ap- peared on national television for a country-wide discourse, messages peaked at 90,000 messages during one day.
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2016 Arango et al  Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America

2016 Arango et al. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America

According to results on questions about the types of populations worked with for assessment and diagnosis (e.g., learning disabilities, ADHD, and mental retar- dation), it appears that many individuals working in the area of neuropsychology commonly assess children. In spite of the studies developed during the past two decades to validate and standardize neuropsychological tests in various countries in Latin America (Arango- Lasprilla et al., 2015), the current limited amount of assessment instruments developed directly in Latin America represents a major obstacle for the professional practice of neuropsychology. Currently there are a few normative studies with “classical” neuropsychological instruments [e.g., Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examin- ation, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Token Test, (Ardila & Rosselli, 1994; Pineda et al., 2000; Rosselli & Ardila, 1991)]; and frequently these studies are published in local journals with limited dissemination across countries. Furthermore, the sociocultural con- ditions across different countries within Latin America are not the same; thus the applicability of these instru- ments is questionable and raises concerns. For instance,
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The rise and fall of income inequality in Latin America

The rise and fall of income inequality in Latin America

The rising trend in inequality came to a halt in the early 2000s. Since then, there seems to be a declining trend. In fact, the forces driving inequality down might have started to act in the late 1990s, but in several countries remained hidden by the highly unequalizing macroeconomic crises of the turn of the century. The decline in inequality in the 2000s has been significant in most countries, both in statistical sense and in economic magnitude. Inequality has fallen in high inequality countries (Brazil) and low inequality -by Latin American standards- countries (Argentina); in countries governed by different political models (Bolivia/Venezuela; Brazil/Chile; Mexico/Peru); in countries with an universalistic social policy (Argentina and Chile) and in countries with a traditionally exclusionary state (Bolivia and El Salvador). This widespread decline in inequality is remarkable for a region that has traditionally witnessed high and persistent -and often rising- levels of inequality. Contrary to what some observers may think, it is not just the growth dividend from the commodity boom. Inequality has declined both in fast growing countries and slow growing countries, and countries recovering from crisis. In fact, the longest periods for which the decline could be documented correspond to Brazil and Mexico, two countries whose growth rates were rather slow.
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University Paradiplomacy: The Internationalization of Higher Education in Latin America

University Paradiplomacy: The Internationalization of Higher Education in Latin America

En este sentido, Berliner (1997) ofreció una definición de cuatro formas de asociación: trabajo en red, coordinación, cooperación y colaboración en ella caracterizó el trabajo en red como un intercambio muy in- formal de información, con una participación mínima de los demás. La coordinación es un poco más formal porque involucra a más personas, con un intercambio de ideas y algo de acceso a servicios y productos, pero las organizaciones siguen trabajando de manera independiente. El siguiente nivel, que se refiere a la coope- ración, es una relación formal con organizaciones que trabajan juntas pero que aún conservan su autonomía. Aunque los esfuerzos de la universidad autónoma de Nuevo León han sido de importancia, es necesario seguir fomentando la movilidad estudiantil y los convenios de cooperación, pues no se presenta un flujo constante de los mismos, como se puede apreciar en la siguiente tabla:
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The gender impact of social security reform in Latin America

The gender impact of social security reform in Latin America

The state helps finance this system in three ways. First, for each day of work it pays a flat “social quota” (SQ) to each account. The SQ was initially equal to 5.5 percent of one daily minimum wage, which was then 2.2 percent of the average wage. Since it was supposed to be price-indexed, this percentage will decline, as wages rise faster than prices over time. (It is also possible that ad hoc political decisions will lead to increases in the SQ, as happened to the MPG in Chile). The SQ is designed to increase the accounts of low-income workers and their incentives to join the system. It is financed out of general revenues. Second, workers are guaranteed a minimum pension, initially equal to the minimum wage (40 percent of the average wage) indexed to inflation—providing they contribute for a total of 25 years. Third, although the new system is mandatory for new workers, those who were already in the labor force when the reforms were made can opt back into the old system upon retirement. In this paper we focus on new workers who are not entitled to this opt-back provision.
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Spatial concentration in Latin America and the role of institutions

Spatial concentration in Latin America and the role of institutions

ABSTRACT: Spatial concentration in Latin America, especially in the southern cone, reaches high levels in all dimensions. Despite significant economic growth in the last two decades, trade openness, the return to democratic regimes and re- ductions in the Gini coefficients the primacy indexes of most Latin American coun- tries remain relatively constant and among the highest in the world. This situation challenges most regional and urban economics theories that predict a reduction in spatial concentration as development proceeds, after an initial period of concen- tration. Furthermore, Latin American countries could be trapped in processes of agglomeration without growth. The objective of this article is twofold: first, we describe some characteristics of spatial concentration and its persistence in Latin America with special emphasis in the case of Chile; and second, we propose future research lines related to the need of rebalancing Latin American spatial economies focusing on the importance of institutions as an explanation of the persistence of spatial concentration.
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Guidance and counseling in Latin America . General considerations about the criteria of coherence, cooperation and quality

Guidance and counseling in Latin America . General considerations about the criteria of coherence, cooperation and quality

The main conclusion formulated about this topic of Guidance and Counseling in Latin America is related to the fact that, according to the criteria of Coherence, Cooperation and Quality, combined and sustained efforts have been made to meet these criteria. With reference to the coherence criteria, there are serious proposals concerning the establishment of a guiding and counseling system initiated in the elementary school and that, through a accompanying process, can reach the higher education level, even trying to assist the young people in getting their first job. In the same way, a founding theoretical structure is trying to be developed and reinforced, which can establish, articulate and apply the basic theoretical principles for Guidance and Counseling to get a better pertinence sense with the Latin American reality.
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A technology transfer strategy based on the dynamics of the generation of intellectual property in Latin-America

A technology transfer strategy based on the dynamics of the generation of intellectual property in Latin-America

The proposal for the creation of patent management models based on Latin American cases, such as that defined by López et al. (2009) is interesting and must be considered, especially with regard to the initial processes for evaluating ideas and projects with probabilities of obtaining intellectual protection on the part of university researchers. López et al. (2009) propose evaluating ideas based on capacities to identify technological information, technological surveillance and technical advisement in the specific definition of technologies, among others. The following processes proposed by this same author, such as the possibility of having sponsors or partners, are activities typical of a TTO in order to achieve good patent management. Also within this process, the definition of commitments and responsibilities through contracts with researchers and interested external agencies will be vital to achieve the applied research results, as proposed by this author. In the last stages of his model, the exploitation of patents through licensing forms part of the good management of intellectual property of the higher education universities. However, the implementation of a model such as that defined by López et al. (2009) is not enough when the institutions do not have an organizational culture focused on the generation of research ideas and the support and incentives to implement them are very scarce ( Friedman & Silberman, 2003), as is commonplace in the Latin American context.
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The impact of IFRS on financial report quality in Latin America and the Caribbean Juan Camilo Cardona Montoya

The impact of IFRS on financial report quality in Latin America and the Caribbean Juan Camilo Cardona Montoya

El modelo básico de Jones (1991), se basa en la magnitud absoluta de los ajustes por devengo discrecionales o anormales bajo un análisis de corte transversal (the magnitude of cross- sectional absolute discretionary accruals). Este indicador se basa en la estimación de ajustes por devengo discrecionales, donde son definidos como el resultado de los ajustes por devengo totales observados menos la estimación de los ajustes por devengo normales (no discrecionales) a través del modelo de Jones (1991), es decir, los ajustes por devengo discrecionales son los residuos de la regresión. Dichos componentes, discrecional y no discrecional se determinan a través de cinco (5) modelos de ajustes por devengo discrecionales, los cuales son comúnmente utilizados en investigaciones previas, sin embargo es poco frecuente que todos estos modelos sean utilizados conjuntamente en una misma investigación: el modelo básico de Jones, el modelo de Jones modificado, el modelo de Jones adaptado, el modelo de Jones modificado con el ratio de valor en libros sobre valor de mercado del patrimonio (book to market ratio) y el Cash Flow operativo, y el modelo de Jones modificado con el ROA del año corriente (Dechow et al., 2003; Dechow et al., 1995; Kothari et al., 2005; Larcker y Richardson, 2004). Se espera que a menor magnitud absoluta de los ajustes por devengo discrecionales, menor es el nivel de manipulación del resultado, lo que es lo mismo, mayor calidad contable.
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Democracy and e-Participation in Latin America and the Caribbean

Democracy and e-Participation in Latin America and the Caribbean

Christiana Soares De Freitas Atualmente é Professora Adjunta  IV do Programa de Pós‐Graduação da  Faculdade de Direito (FD) e do Curso de Graduação do Departamento de Gestão de Políticas Públicas  da  Faculdade  de  Economia,  Administração  e  Ciências  Contábeis  (FACE)  da  Universidade  de  Brasilia  (UnB). É  membro fundador e  pesquisadora  do Instituto Nacional  de Ciência  e Tecnologia em  Demo‐ cracia Digital (INCT.DD). É Coordenadora do eixo de Pesquisa sobre Direitos Humanos na Internet (Di‐ reitos Digitais)  do Centro  de  Política  Digital  para América  Latina  (Latam  Digital).  É  pesquisadora  do  Grupo  de  Investigación  en  Gobierno,  Administración  y  Políticas  Públicas  (GIGAPP)  frei‐ tas.christiana@gmail.com.  Victor Cardoso. Graduated in Public Policy Management  at the Universi‐ ty of Brasília. Currently  studying Information Technology at the Academy of  Information Technology  of Melbourne, Australia. Focus on data analysis and management. Also part of the research group on  State,  Regulation,  Internet  and  Society (GERIS) of  the  University of Brasilia (UnB).  Has  experience in  public  sector  innovation  analysis;  legislative  consultations  dealing  directly  with  the  relationship  be‐ tween State  and  Private  Sector.  e‐mail:  victorcardoso92@gmail.com  .  Soraya Zacarias  Drumond  de  Andrade  Master  in  Public  Health  from  the  Oswaldo  Cruz Foundation,  Specialist  in Project  Manage‐ ment and Health Management at ESAD, graduated in Public Policy Management at UnB and in Inter‐ national  Relations  from  IESB.  Science  and  Technology  Analyst  currently  assigned  to  the  Executive  Secretariat of the Ministry of Health. Researcher at the Research Group on State, Regulation, Internet  and  Society  (GERIS).  Has  experience  in  public  sector  innovation,  knowledge  management,  people  management  by  skills,  organizational  design  and  analysis,  international  cooperation  and  public  Health. Sorayazd.andrade@gmail.com. 
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The impact of IFRS on financial report quality in Latin America and the Caribbean

The impact of IFRS on financial report quality in Latin America and the Caribbean

In general, the majority of multi-country studies on accounting quality based on the use of IFRS correspond to countries from the European Union. Said studies are applied to the companies that participate in the markets of these countries, from which diverse results concerning the effects of the implementation of said standards in the level of earnings management are obtained. Studies like the ones directed by Chen, Tang, Jiang and Lin (2010) (using the Jones model and its subsequent modifications indicated to this date) and by Zeghal, Chtourou and Fourati (2012) (using the model by Dechow et al., 1995, between the years 2001 to 2007), both applied to 15 European countries, indicate that accounting quality increases given the decrease in the magnitude of the discretionary accruals during the periods after the implementation of said standards. Additionally, Aussenegg, Inwinkl and Schneider (2008) apply the same study to 17 European countries under the model proposed by Dechow et al. (1995) and incorporating some variations. Although their results indicate a decrease in the level of earnings management, the findings suggest that said level of management does not significantly vary for those countries with an English (United Kingdom and Ireland) and Scandinavian (Northern countries) influence, given that before the obligatory implementation of the IFRS, these countries reported a lower earnings management with regard to the other European countries.
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The Legacies of Judicial Instability in Latin America

The Legacies of Judicial Instability in Latin America

The notion of ―enduring rivalries‖ in international affairs constitutes a classic example of the first group of explanations (Gartzke and Simon 1999). Scholars typically argue that, as far as the conditions that originated the first militarized dispute remain unchanged, war is likely to recur (Goertz and Diehl 1993). For example, if the preferences of international actors and their power relations remain the same, rational players will return to the same equilibrium behavior. Structuralist scholars similarly argue that if system structures do not change, the same outcomes are likely to re-appear over time (Deutsch and Singer 1964). Explaining the recurrence of civil wars, Walter claims that ―civilians are not going to transform themselves from shopkeepers back into soldiers unless the conditions that exist at any given point in time encourage this transformation‖ (Walter 2004: 374, italics in original).
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Introduction (about the international conference on "The quality of education in Latin America and the Caribbean")

Introduction (about the international conference on "The quality of education in Latin America and the Caribbean")

The main obj ective of the conference was to examine quality of education in the region, the determinants of learning, policy and program evaluation, and the impact of quality of educati[r]

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