The data for the questionnaire was collected according to feedback from the students at An-Najah. The researcher asked the students an open – ended question about the effect of large classes on them. After gathering the data, the answers were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social which were considered as the study instrument by the researcher inthe form of a questionnaire. The researcher distributed the questionnaire to the sample study students (230 students). The questionnaire included two versions (Arabic and English). The subjects responded to the questionnaire in Arabic on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 2= disagree; 3=undecided; 4=agree; 5=strongly agree).The questionnaire contained 46 items and was divided into the following sections:1-Items (1-19) showed the instructional effects of large classes on non- English major EFL students. 2-Items (20-32) showed the psychological effects of large classes on non- English major EFL students. 3-Items (33-46) showed the social effects of large classes on non-English major EFL students.
There are many researchers and debaters about class size reductions who are skeptic when demonstrating the evidence for efficiency and educational improvement standards. Blatchford (2003) supports the idea that there is trouble when the number of students goes over 30. One ofthe best things in education is to have smaller classes which allow for a better quality of teaching andlearning. Furthermore, (Jerner & Loomis, 2007, p. 1, 2, 3) assert “ Smaller class sizes enable teachers to spend the t ime and energy needed to help each child succeed and enhance safety and discipline inthe classroom”. Although research tends to support the belief that small classes give optimal effects, not all studies on the subject reflect this affirmation; working in small-class- settings is not necessarily a synonym for increasing learning.
In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups inthe classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important in students when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
This research paper focuses on the development of English speaking skills to provide to the Educational community of Santa Elena a detailed analysis of metacognitive strategies and their uses in English learning. Speaking is an essential factor intheacquisitionof new language, the correct application of this oral skill represents an important requirement for getting good English communication according to the necessities of today’s society. The adequate application of metacognitive strategies as didactic tool allows the development of speaking skills inside the classroom. This work was based on quantitative and qualitative methodology. Also, it included inductive and deductive methods. These methods allowed collecting statistical data and valuable information in order to collect numerical and statistical data for searching conclusions and recommendations about the research. The purpose of this research is to serve as a guide for teachers in decision-making during the teaching learningprocessofthe English languageandthe development of oral skills through implementation of metacognitive strategies to Ninth Graders from “Escuela De Educación Básica Paquisha”, La Libertad, Santa Elena Province, 2015–2016.
CBLI is the last approach regarded before dealing with other topic. It focuses on providing content information through the target languageand using academic subjects to acquire the foreign language (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary, and Robbins, 1999; Richards et al., 2001). CBLI has many advantages in a foreign language class but two are especially relevant. The students are able to improve their language competence into specific areas of their interest andthe four language skills (speaking, writing, reading, and listening) are naturally joined (Brinton, 1989; Chamot et al., 1999).
Before keep on indicating the results obtained inthe survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses ofthe students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
There are some factors which can aggravate these attitudes,but the most important is the environment. Some ofthe students often go to the U.S.A., another group has relatives there, and others have lived inthe U.S. A.for a long time. Another situation is those students who have learnt English in some famous language schools, which gives them a high level inthe target language. However,this kind of school contributes to the cultural cringe problem, soit is important to develop some activities or strategies which can help to eliminate these attitudes and allow themto recover the interest in their own culture that they lostbecause they did not understand that thelearningof a foreign language is not the forgetting of their origins, their traditions or their people, but just a cultural interchange, where one can take the best from both cultures.
All ofthe interviewed students reported that they learn through the use of diverse activities which allow them to get a better learning with respect to the lessons. However, it was found during the survey that in some classes the space is not enough and it may be difficult for teachers to group students for the different activities. According to Baker and Westrup (2003), large classes pair work and group work needs careful planning to keep all the students involved inthe lesson an allow them to work with each other. Pair and group work gives all students lots of practice time. Larger groups can be more difficult to organize, so teacher can start with pair work. When students and teacher can organize and work in pair quickly and easy, teacher can go on to try a larger group work activity. These considerations are very important in larger classes because it will help teacher to organize group in a better way.
The results presented inthe chart indicate that a high percentage of students 40,29% consider that teachers do not have problems to remember all students’ names. But, taking into consideration those 26,86%, who show that the problem exists and those 11,94%, who have this problem, without forgetting those 20,89%, who indicate that the teacher sometimes remember their names. Therefore, this problem exists up to a certain degree because the students do not feel confident enough, which does not generate positive stimulus. About it McGregor, Cooper, Smith, and Robinson (2000) affirm that teachers must call their students by their names, which give students more confidence, more security. On the other hand, the authors express that teachers find certain difficulty to learn their students’ names, especially in large classes where the level of difficulty increases; therefore, teachers need to make a bigger effort and put into practice this statement because it helps to stimulate students.
This research “The influence of large classes inthe English language teaching- learningprocessin Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learningprocessin Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school inthe city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
The space is also a big concern when working with large classes; the more students are inthe class, the less space they will have to work in. Most ofthe participants ofthe study have shown agreement with how they are grouped to do something and how tasks are performed inthe available space in terms of easiness. 84.94% inthe first case just mentioned, and more than 80% inthe second case confirm that fact, which also means that the teachers are exerting a good management over the class. It is clearly visible that the group, partner and individual activities are the ones that fit situation ofthe classes surveyed here. Roger (1983) mentions some ways to optimize the classroom space by arranging the students’ desk in different forms, all meant to ease the class communication.
This particular way of bilingualism implies learning models. Domínguez‟ (2003) refers to two types of D/HH learning models; the monolingual andthe bilingual. The monolingual model aims the D/HH children to master the orally use ofthe hearing people´s language. On the other hand, the bilingual model aims the D/HH children to firstly acquire a language that can be developed naturally by them as the SL is, and during theprocess learn the majority language. At the same time, Dominguez (2003) stated how bilingualism can be seen through two different perspectives; the „successive bilingualism‟ which considers sign language as the mother tongue ofthe hearing impaired children and, therefore, the first one to be used to develop the different learning processes and after mastering the first language, D/HH students would be presented the oral languageof their community. The second perspective is the „simultaneous bilingualism‟ characterized by the presentation of both languages at the same time; hearing impaired children would be in contact with users of sign and oral language since childhood. It can be said that both the successive andthe simultaneous bilingualism are developed in Colombia due to the different physical, social and communicative implications inthelearningprocessof D/HH INSOR (2006).
and those without it. The research was carried out adopting the pre-posttest quasi experimental/control groups design. Two instruments were designed by the researcher and two research assistants. These instruments are namely Onuka Mathematics Achievement Test and Onuka English Language Achievement Test. The research was conducted on experimental and control groups. 280 students were involved inthe investigation. At the beginning of each lesson a short test ofthe knowledge gained inthe previous lesson was given. The scripts were collected and redistributed to the students after they had worked the solutions on the board, however, ensuring that no student got and marked his/her own paper. The teacher worked out the solutions on the board and then asked the student to randomly exchange their notebooks and mark strictly under his supervision with support ofthe research assistant. The results were organized and recorded at the end ofthe lesson. The teacher then proceeded to teach. The exercise lasted for eight weeks. A pre-test was given to each subject group (experimental and control) at the beginning ofthe investigation. At the end ofthe eight weeks, a post – test was administered to find out whether or not the treatment had had any effect on the students’
In this sense, the English area has as its purpose the achievement of communicative competence in a foreign language, which will allow the student to acquire information on the most recent and latest scientific and technological advances, whether digital or printed in English, as well as access to new information and communication technologies to broaden their cultural horizon. In addition, it is important to create the conditions and opportunities for the use of innovative methodologies that strengthen the student's autonomy inlearning other languages. Vivar M. (2014).
communicative events within language that is being produced, interpreted, and negotiated. These include level of formality, relationship between participants, and whether the interaction is public or intimate. Then the macrosocial context relates second languageacquisition to circumstances oflearning, referring to the formal learning that takes place in schools where learners have access to programs which give little opportunity for student to develop full communicative competence, and to broader dimensions such as: age, sex, ethnicity, education level, occupation, and economic status; these dimensions often influence the experiences learners have, how they are perceived by others, and what is expected from them. The members of different social categories, frequently, experience different learning conditions, and different attitudes or perceptions from within both native and target language communities.
Theprocessinthe use of scaffolding techniques such as visual aids (e.g., images, photographs), non-verbal language, language modelling, dialogues, contextualization, graphic organizers or questioning, among others, is complex as it should be graded depending on the learners’ prior knowledge (or the Zone of Proximal Development [ZPD] 1 ). In this sense, Cummins’ Quadrant (Cummins, 1996) is considered an effective tool to design CLIL units, lessons, and for materials adaptation, since it can aid alternatively scaffold cognitive and linguistic skills and it makes learners evolve from concrete to abstract thinking while gradually increasing the contents´ linguistic demands (Genís & Martín de Lama, 2013). According to Cummins (1996), learningand assessment tasks should progress so that learners advance towards the most cognitively demanding part ofthe quadrant (Figure 4). Simultaneously, the
Cooperative learning is one ofthe most widespread areas of research and practice education. This learning strategy has been applied to a broad variety of content areas at all levels. Cooperative learning is a pedagogical technique in which students work together in small, and mixed groups on a structured learning assignment with the aim of maximizing their own and each other's learning. Cooperative Learning. According to Hall in Arias & Naranjo reseach “Cooperative learning explores the benefits to work in large groups with heterogeneous learners. Larger groups are good because they provide more people for doing big tasks; they increase the variety of people in a group in terms of skill, personalities, background, and they reduce the number of groups for the teacher to monitor”. (Arias & Naranjo Garcia, 2013)
An organized presentation of vocabulary might contribute towards an organized knowledge, which is considered to be better for learning, retaining and accessing. Therefore, it is necessary to determine how much and which vocabulary should be contained in coursebooks or introduced during a whole school year. Only in this way can the programme be successful. The programme should be built upon both intensive and extensive rehearsal. The former refers to the number of times a word occurs in one didactic unit. The programme should promote the treatment of all target words with the same intensity. This means that all target words should receive the same degree of attention inthe textbook. The latter involves periodical recycling. That is to say, not only should target vocabulary be worked intensively for a short period of time, but it should also be revisited at certain points ofthelearningprocess.
There are two modalities to consider inthe collaborative approach. On the one hand, teachers from different areas of knowledge collaborate in order to offer learning tools to students. On the other hand, students work collaboratively inthe classroom to carry out the tasks proposed by the teacher. In both modalities, the roles ofthe teachers and students are different. Inthe first one, the teacher is central to thelearning activity, facilitating the interdisciplinary tasks to the passive students. The teacher’s role is more facilitative; to guide and channel the students in their learning. Inthe second, the teacher’s role is less active, helping the students but not interfering inthelearningprocess. We propose a third modality which combines these two, in which teachers and students collaborate inthe design and evaluation ofthe teaching-learning activities, thereby taking into account individual and group needs ofthe students (Carrió Pastor, 2006). Collaboration implies interaction among the different members ofthe group andthe different proposals should act as webs of knowledge that combine to offer unique results (Strijbos, Martens and Jochems, 2004: 403).