As a consequence, students' rôle in their learning, using strategies to plan, guide and evaluate their own learning, was good. They contributed actively to the development ofthe lessons and the advanced students helped their partners in the realization ofthe activities. They felt challenged by the exercises used to reproduce and use the new contents, so they felt themselves identified with their future work. Students evaluated themselves started fromthe self/peer evaluation. As new problems, the teacher realized that students presented some mistakes in the pronunciation of words, mainly in the irregular verbs in past and in the vocabulary used forthe different types of crimes, showing difficulties in the development ofthe speaking ability, chiefly in the attainment of fluency (too much hesitation ofthestudents sometimes broke down communication).
Recycling vocabulary continually throughout the class allows students to have a valuable opportunity to learn words on a variety of topics. It is a good idea for teachers to encourage their students to revise this vocabulary on a regular basis in order forstudents to take ownership of these words and to start to use them confidently (Budden, 2010). Activities for revising vocabulary learned in previous classes are acceptable according to thestudents; these activities help them to improve their learningprocess, they affirmed. The teacher said she practiced some activities for recycling vocabulary, for example: warm-ups, brainstorming, games, where the words are included, and also she declared that, a continuous practice helps to students do not misunderstand or confuse words. However, the researchers had observed that these activities were deficient because students did not remember the vocabulary and could not use them when talking. The activities could be excellent but if the teacher and students do not participate together, they will not work and the skills will not develop. Some activities could help to students remember the vocabulary, for instance the teacher could use a “vocabulary bag” with the words written in some strips of card, and at the beginning ofthe class each students takes a card and says something related with it, day by day students can bring sentences using an specific word, each student in different contexts.
showed that as in many countries, there is a lack of well trained ELT teachers. Those that are available, although having taught for more than 1 year proved to have poor educational skills. A number ofthe teachers that taught to the 4 th and 5 th grade students did not like the idea of having to teach to them, because they were not taught how to teach ESL to students at this age. The methodology was very poor and showed that many students worked individually and only used textbooks; proving that the EST process is very lacking. The evaluation process came from a very unfriendly aspect of evaluating the student’s achievement instead ofthe teacher’s
Technology can equip teachers to assess an individual student’s strengths and needs. Two main approaches to technology-supported assessment exist. One is a mastery learning approach tied to accountability systems. This enables teachers to benchmark students as they progress through a standards-based curriculum. The other assesses understanding which produces a picture of student thinking. Both approaches help establish a clear baseline from which teachers can then serve as coaches and focus on mastery of skills and knowledge, and align with current research on how people learn. Equip students with skills essential for work and life in a 21st century global society. Using technology forpurposes, such as writing, research and analysis—rather than simply drills and, and align with current research on how people learn. Steering students to the right mix of resources and projects that meet curricular requirements. Equip students with skills essential for work and life in a 21st century global society. Using technology forpurposes, such as writing, research and analysis—rather than simply drills and practice— can enhance student competencies that surpass the knowledge and skills typically measured in achievement tests. These competencies include problem solving, creativity, collaboration, data management and communication. Many employers find these skills lacking among today’s college graduates. Technology enables many innovative practices. For example, to aid classroom learning, schools.
The objects of investigation are characterized by having a high level of activity and enjoying cooperative games and competitive sports which make it easier forthe author to implement the system of activities. They may adopt extremes and fads in clothing, speech, handwriting and mannerisms and have a strong desire to assert individuality and independence. The objects feel unsure of their place in society and they a lso establish a personal moral code. This helps the author in having their respect and putting them in time and space. They ask many questions and want thoughtful answers so the author always needs to be prepared. They tend to develop strong interests, hobbies and collections, so they begin to think in their future roles, which is a great help forthe implementation ofthe system of activities. They can plan ahead and organize tasks with little or no guidance from adults. Some of them enjoy humor by telling jokes.
In question 12 we would like to comment on one minor characteristic which is nevertheless very important in class. It was also previously presented in the theoretical framework in point 2.5 of this paper. The teacher should know how to carefully choose the activity according to the knowledge ofthestudents so that they will not get frustrated or bored. Here, in the table for question 12 where it says: “What did you like most and least fromthe JClic programme?” we can realize that children put at first position difficult games and riddles because they do not like them. On the other hand, games and puzzles are on first place because they really appreciate these kind of activities. Thus, teachers should be careful on the activity that they choose.
25 The first week focused on providing thestudents with an overall introduction on the nature of descriptive paragraphs. The second week dealt with vocabulary learning strategies, since the vocabulary was pointed out by students as a major obstacle when undertaking the class. Finally, the last two weeks were devoted to the introduction and full practice using the guided writing format adapted from Harford (n.d.) (Appendix K). According to Tyner, guided writing might take place in “an instructional writing context and its aim is to teach the writing process through modeling, support, and practice” (as cited in Lan, 2011, p.149). Additionally Reid (1993) claims that today some ESL writing classes, particularly at the lower levels of language proficiency, successfully use guided writing techniques to build vocabulary, sentence structure knowledge, and self-confidence. As stated by Tyner (2004) guided writing may include “graphic organizers, charts, lists, or short written pieces and it proves to be a great venue for demonstrating writing processes” (p.19).
However, information gathered fromthe classroom observations showed that the majority ofthe teachers do not have enough space to develop the classroom activities comfortably, and discipline is not controlled adequately. For instance, some ofthe observed classrooms, with more than 40 students did not have enough space forthe teacher to walk around thestudents, in one of these classrooms the teacher had to conduct all the activities fromthe front ofthe class, without any chance to monitor thestudents‟ work. In another classroom, students had to mo ve to the library because the classroom assigned for them was too small for 36 students and it had only a very small window. On the other hand, the classrooms with less number ofthestudents had an adequate classroom space to work. Activities were adequately
Therefore, Thai teachers thought that teaching in large classes was difficult in several aspects such as the relationships of teachers and students, monitoring and giving feedback and assessment. However, teachers also suggested ways to deal with large classes. For example, teaching management should be well-planned and well- organized. Moreover, teaching in large classes may be suitable forteaching receptive skills such as reading and listening even though it is in appropriate for productive skills like speaking or writing which require more attention and interaction from teachers. If the school or universities cannot avoid teaching in large classes, they need to provide sessions where students can practice in small groups and consult with their teachers. With references to the results of this study, it is quite essential forthe executive administrators to understand teachers' attitudes and their beliefs as well as the nature of language learning and teaching. Also, teachers themselves may need to be trained in how to teach and manage in large classes.
My Project consists of involving ludic activities to encourage thelearningEnglishprocess in every classroom. We are sure that with this ludic activities and resources, students will change their behavior about English classes and the way they feel about English teachers, spark their interest to learn English creating a more dynamic class. Now students demand the best education ever from their teachers and for them to know how to handle hardware or programs that make their classes easier in listening, speaking, reading and writing; without dynamic classes or use ofthe internet, this job could be so difficult and other problems can be generated: lack of participation in class, lack of interest, absences in English classes, or worse than this, leaving the class rooms and disliking English classes, students not being productive in classes, loss of time, disorganization in classes, backed up planning classes and annual plans as well; and finally, we can see a few teachers not having enough elements to assess a group ofstudents because they were not present during the period of class, making them not fulfill their grades to the fullest due to the fact that they were absent, did not do any homework and did not take quizzes or exams adequately.
Vocabulary learning can be enhanced when the learner’s attention is directed consciously to vocabulary items or strategies. Given the mass of words potentially available to learners, there is no way they can learn them all. It would therefore be more useful to teach them strategies for dealing with unfamiliar words. If we wish students to continue learning efficiently after class and to be able to cope confidently without teacher support, then we should equip them with the skills to do so; directly instructing students in vocabulary learning strategies is recognised as a way to empower students to take control of and responsibility for their own learning. Some students already use strategies; however, they often do so unconsciously, and vocabulary learning strategies are more likely to be effective when their use is conscious and directed. . Thus, the aim here is not to teach a single set of strategies used by supposedly “good” learners or to exemplify supposedly “good” strategies. Rather, it is to help students, as unique individuals, become aware of their own strategy use and the range of potential strategies available forlearning vocabulary. In reading, vocabulary knowledge is essential to comprehending text. When students do not understand at least 90% ofthe words in a text, they do not adequately understand what they read. Unidad Educativa Combatientes de Tapi is located in the eastern part ofthe city. It is a public school; students attend during the morning. School population is 2 004 students. There are 1 251 boys, and 753 girls. 70% ofstudents come fromthe city; 10% of them come fromthe rural area, and 20% come from other city. There are 90 teachers. 28 are men and 62 are women.
100 As a consequence ofthe approaches and methods described, the techniques selected and the activities that have been consciously designed, I believe History can be a very useful way ofteaching and learningEnglish. Of course, its limitations are also taken into account as such activities cannot be prepared forstudents in their first year of secondary education, for their level and way of working is not yet the needed one. Bachillerato is the most appropriate period since students have enough autonomy and know better which methodology best adapt to their learningprocess. This autonomy will be enhanced thanks to the way activities are designed as they will have to be able to infer from historical documents using theEnglish they have learnt. Moreover, thanks to this use of History, they will not have the problem of not using English because they do not know what to say, as it may occur with certain topics that are not required in the curriculum. The use of important historical events, but in their simplest way, can help them to use English without being afraid of what to say. The reason for this is that, as it has been demonstrated, knowledge is not taken for granted and they face the lesson plan as if the events were new for them.
In addition, most educators believe that the best way to learn is by having students construct their own knowledge instead of having someone construct it for them. This is as well explained by the constructivist learning theory. This theory states that learning is an active processof creating meaning fromthe different experiences. In other words, students' prior knowledge comes from their past experiences, culture, and their environment. Besides, students will learn best by trying to make sense of something on their own with the teacher as a guide to help them along the way.
All the above leads us to conclude that thestudents who were disgnosed graduate with an ele- mentary command oftheEnglish language and this is not useful to understand or produce texts for speciic purposes. herefore, theEnglish language in this school, turns out to be an undevelo- ped tool to improve labor insertion and the employment opportunities ofthe graduates. In addition, the results ofthe open questions given to thestudents, teachers and teaching mana- gers (director) are unanimous in pointing out that English language is considered as a social tool, an essential linguistic competence to face the world of work and improve the labor insertion. At the same time, students expressed a frustration (discarding) feeling as they realize that they do not master the language, which becomes an important and exclusive tool for employment. Howe- ver, few students show interest in the diiculties that their learning implies. Besides, the course teachers and part ofthe administrative staf in the school consider that the level of proiciency ofthestudents should be basic (some of them are not certain) when they leave secondary school. Consequently, it is possible to demonstrate a disconnection between theEnglish language and employability, within the framework of technical training. here is also a lack of knowledge about the importance of technology transfer to acquire new knowledge, ideas, innovations or processes from other people and other countries, where English helps as a universal language. When the team of teachers face the results ofthe language diagnostic, they acknowledge the results and consider the willingness to collaborate, proposing changes so that the language is really a useful tool at the time of graduation. Some improvements are proposed: a) the addition new English contents for speciic purposes in connection with the diferent areas of specialty taught (Admi- nistration and Accounting); b) also add more hours per week, to deal with these contents, and c) apply a diagnostic test, which can be compared in the time to make decisions longitudinally. Due to the above, it is essential that the EMTP schools improve the way in which they help tech- nicians in the strengthening ofthe competences forthe employability ofthestudents. Specially, if their formative trajectory involves total or partial inancing to continue university studies or to enter the labor world. In this case, it is required to add diferentiated contents in theEnglish curriculum related to the technical-professional specialties, together with monitoring the impro- vement continuously up to the certiication ofthe proiciency level by the Chilean government. his is also a relevant issue for universities that train English teachers.
Regarding how to present texts to readers in a more interactive way to facilitate the reading comprehension process, there are important aspects to take into account. First, the VLO offers readers support when they interact with complex texts, by providing specialized glossary with clear definitions of words as well as visual illustrations through videos, games, visual tools, and helpful links. The inclusion of these kinds of interactive texts is considered a key part ofthe during the reading micro-period process, because students start to classify types of vocabulary or groups of words with a meaning that they have to learn as a whole. In this part, it is necessary to teach students that some words are joined with others and that the meanings can change in different ways, when they are non-isolated like compound words, phrasal verbs, verbs with prepositions, and others. The idea is to teach them to identify relevant words and ignore the irrelevant ones, as the scanning reading strategy, in order not to spend time, and get far fromthe real comprehension ofthe text following reading strategies.
the learners’ interest in the lesson . As such, the good design and elaboration of this supplementary material offered the teacher a vivid and tangible way ofteaching EFL. Dialogues During the third observed class, the lesson theme was language skills consolidation, and the objectives were as follows: to reinforce thestudents’ knowledge ofthe present tense, to practice listening, speaking, and pronunciation, and to consolidate vocabulary. In this class, using the dialogue, which was about ‘ Two F riends’ , was pertinent to the objectives ofthe lesson since it contained an interesting language input which was forthestudents a means of consolidating their language knowledge. That is to say, the dialogue, recorded on a CD, enabled the learners to get first involved in listening and at the same time initiate their involvement in practicing pronunciation of what they heard since the dialogue was played by parts. Second, the content of this supporting material offered the learners an opportunity to reinforce the language forms and vocabulary already known by them. Finally, the use ofthe dialogue was forthe pupils a starting point to talk a little about friendship (what the dialogue was about) so that they could practice their speaking. As such, this teaching aid helped the teacher accomplish the objectives ofthe lesson.
(Underhill, 2015). states two of reasons why learning a new language requires immersion are, the first, you learn to let your fears go and the second You become acquainted with the way the language is spoken in "real life." Students have felt satisfaction when they have taken part of speaking project, they express that with this type of activities help to them to improve their linguistics skills with each activity development
This research paper focuses on the development ofEnglish speaking skills to provide to the Educational community of Santa Elena a detailed analysis of metacognitive strategies and their uses in Englishlearning. Speaking is an essential factor in the acquisition of new language, the correct application of this oral skill represents an important requirement for getting good English communication according to the necessities of today’s society. The adequate application of metacognitive strategies as didactic tool allows the development of speaking skills inside the classroom. This work was based on quantitative and qualitative methodology. Also, it included inductive and deductive methods. These methods allowed collecting statistical data and valuable information in order to collect numerical and statistical data for searching conclusions and recommendations about the research. The purpose of this research is to serve as a guide for teachers in decision-making during theteachinglearningprocessoftheEnglish language and the development of oral skills through implementation of metacognitive strategies to Ninth Graders from “Escuela De Educación Básica Paquisha”, La Libertad, Santa Elena Province, 2015–2016.
18 Thespecific objective ofthe second semester English book (2012:7) is “to develop the student's communicative competence in a second language through the development ofthe four communicative skills of language: listening and reading; speaking and writing.” This book is divided into 4 blocks and each block contains a different number of units; for instance Block 1 has 3 units and Block 2 contains 5 units. Each unit consists of a large variety of topics and exercises with a mixture of instructions in both English and Spanish. The most recurrent exercise is to fill in the gaps emphasizing different topics. Also, we can find some readings with different topics as well and many charts referring to grammatical rules. All these exercises are accompanied with many images related to the topics.
Modern Europe is considered within such three strategic priorities (Moedas, 2015) as Open Innovation, Open Science, and Openness to the World. These three strategic priorities put a particular emphasis on the construction ofstudents’ scientific identity. The guiding research question is as follows: What is the relationship between students’ scientific identity and Englishfor Academic Purposes? Therefore, the aim ofthe present research is to analyse the scientific literature on the relationship between students’ scientific identity and Englishfor Academic Purposes underpinning elaboration of a new research question for further studies. The theoretical framing herein will discuss the construction of scientific identity via academic language. The meaning of such key concepts as scientific identity and role models is studied. Moreover, the study demonstrates how the key concepts are related to the idea ofEnglishfor Academic Purposes. The study demonstrates a logical chain: scientific identity → Englishfor Academic Purposes → role models → an empirical study within a multicultural environment → conclusions. Research methods include theoretical and empirical methods. Theoretical methods comprise analysis of theoretical sources and theoretical modelling. In the empirical study, explorative study was employed. Interpretative research paradigm was used. The empirical study carried out in August 2015 involved 22 engineering students at Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia. The results ofthe empirical study show that engineering students’ self-evaluation is ofthe low level. The findings ofthe research allow drawing the conclusion that use of role models in Englishfor Academic Purposes is an opportunity forthe construction ofstudents’ scientific identity. The novel contribution ofthe paper is revealed in the newly formulated research question. Directions of further research are proposed.