PDF superior The use of English literature in the teaching of English as a second language

The use of English literature in the teaching of English as a second language

The use of English literature in the teaching of English as a second language

The man sat up in the snow for a moment and struggled for calmness. Then he pulled on his mittens, by means of his teeth, and got upon his feet. He glanced down at first in order to assure himself that he was really standing up, for the absence of sensation in his feet left him unrelated to the earth. His erect position in itself started to drive the webs of suspicion from the dog's mind; and when he spoke peremptorily, with the sound of whip-lashes in his voice, the dog rendered its customary allegiance and came to him. As it came within reaching distance, the man lost his control. His arms flashed out to the dog, and he experienced genuine surprise when he discovered that his hands could not clutch, that there was neither bend nor feeling in the fingers. He had forgotten for the moment that they were frozen and that they were freezing more and more. All this happened quickly, and before the animal could get away, he encircled its body with his arms. He sat down in the snow, and in this fashion held the dog, while it snarled and whined and struggled.
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58 Lee mas

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ECUADOR

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ECUADOR

Ingles en el Magisterio fiscal, a través del examen Test of English as a Foreign Language – Internet Based Test (TOEFL iBT)”. In addition, in the articles 1 and 2 of this normative indicates that English Educators from public schools who belonged to the Fiscal Magisterium should be trained in linguistic competences during the term 2012-2013 through an intensive online and face- to-face training program, in order to raise teacher’s English level of proficiency to get B2 based on Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR). Therefore, it pointed out the improvement of the Teaching-Learning approach and student’s learning achievements, the same as to promote the culture of continuous training in the English area and articulate the English teacher proficient standards in the curriculum guidelines. Another strategy applied for the government was the program GO TEACHER that was designed with the purpose to train teachers overseas. The SENESCYT, the department that is in charge of the high level of education in Ecuador, signed an agreement with the State University of Kansas to make possible the teacher get the scholarship to study in the United States new strategies to teach English. The main goal for this program was to increase the English Teachers’ level of proficiency to B1 or B2, at the same time to improve the methodology and strategies to teach English. In 2012, a new National English curriculum design was launched based on the Communicative-Functional Language Approach and CEFR which is administrated by a newly formed English section within the ministry to enhance the quality of English Language learning where the guidelines disposed English optional for Grades 2-7 and mandatory for Grade 8. The purposed was that students from secondary achieved a minimum of B1 and on that way to build up learners’ competence in listening, speaking, reading and writing. But from 2016-2017 will be compulsory from Grade 2° which indicates that students from secondary should reach B2 stated by UNESCO Institute of Statistics (as cited in British Council & Education Intelligence, 2015).
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14 Lee mas

On alternative and additional certifications in english language teaching: the case of Colombian EFL teachers’ professional development

On alternative and additional certifications in english language teaching: the case of Colombian EFL teachers’ professional development

Bilingual Colombia has its foundations of professional development programs on the results of the administration the QPT (Quick Placement Test), an instrument promoted by ESOL Cambridge examinations to assess the language proficiency of teachers. The test administration protocol and analysis of this massive testing strategy are not available to the academic community, but the Ministry of Education openly states that the majority of English teachers in Colombia do not have the language level required to teach English as they are placed at the A1 and A2 levels of the CEF (Cely, 2007). That all Colombian teachers of English achieve the desired B2 level is a major target for the government. In fact, the Ministry has determined that there is a desirable number of hours of teacher development activities to attain that level. When universities are invited to propose some in-service and professional development programs, local educational authorities often ask if these institutions can guarantee that all teachers will achieve the B2 level, how long it will take the teachers to do so, and if we can make it happen faster.
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30 Lee mas

The use of articles in the acquisition of English and Spanish as second languages

The use of articles in the acquisition of English and Spanish as second languages

This undergraduate dissertation is divided into the following sections: section 2 deals with some general notions on bilingualism with a focus on the interaction between the L1 and the L2 in order to illustrate the acquisition context of the participants in this experimental study; section 3 deals with the linguistic account of articles in English and Spanish; section 4 presents a summary of the previous works that have been done on the acquisition of articles. The methodology used to carry out the experimental study is presented in section 5, which also includes the description of the predictions that guide this study based on data collection (e.g. test design, participants’ profile). Section 6 presents the results of the data analysis taking into account the initial predictions. Finally, the conclusion in section 7 discusses the main points.
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50 Lee mas

The analysis of the methodology used for the teaching of English as a second language in high schools in Loja city

The analysis of the methodology used for the teaching of English as a second language in high schools in Loja city

language classes offered at the university. Learners were unhappy on the whole and find the English courses of no benefit. Motivation, then, seems to be an important point in our role in helping students to learn the language. This exploratory study, also, investigates the perceptions through interviewing students and surveying teachers and the results were that students mentioned that teachers should motivate them by choosing topics that interest students and not teachers, teachers have to design relevant and interesting activities, also that teachers should supply students with enough background information, i.e. reading materials, prior to a discussion so that students can support their arguments properly. In the case of the teachers, they are agreed that there are some problems that hinder students’
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72 Lee mas

USE OF MULTIMODAL TOOLS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

USE OF MULTIMODAL TOOLS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

According to the level of students, teacher can show the video with subtitles in English, in this way, the student can read and to listen the pronunciation at the same time. Yassaei (2012) says: “integrating videos into lessons creates enticing visuals and a special interactive environment in the EFL/ESL class- room. Teaching English through videos also allows teachers to be creative when designing language lessons” (p. 13). Teachers can use a video for many activities, the students can focus their attention in show that they really like, can train their listening, improve pronunciation as well, on their part, stu- dents can give opinions, create a possible ending of a short film, and create comics about the video.
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16 Lee mas

A proposal for establishing a pilot intensive english program for graduate students at the University of Veracruz

A proposal for establishing a pilot intensive english program for graduate students at the University of Veracruz

Temperley, A Practical Guide to the Teaching of English, As a Second or Foreign Language, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978) , p. In the section on Teaching Structures, other t[r]

116 Lee mas

Teachers and Students’ perceptions of teaching and learning English as a second language in small classes

Teachers and Students’ perceptions of teaching and learning English as a second language in small classes

Carter and Nuan state “Not giving enough wait-time for learners to process a question and formulate an answer is another reason for the lack of response from students” (2001, p.124). Besides recommending modifying questions so that students can understand them, the above authors assert that English language teachers must provide students with extended wait-time to respond to questions and after errors are committed. Some ways to accomplish this are telling them beforehand what the lesson will be about, giving them time to compare their notes and rehearse their responses with others, and giving time for students to write their responses to the teacher’s questions. These techniques facilitate students’ correct responses, and so they feel less anxiety. As a result, teachers receive direct feedback on their instruction and reduce their fear that extra wait-time may slow down the flow of the lesson and cause disruptions.
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78 Lee mas

The Development of the English Language Teaching in the High Schools of Ecuador during the last two decades

The Development of the English Language Teaching in the High Schools of Ecuador during the last two decades

In 2007, when Correa became the new president of Ecuador, the education in our country experienced some important changes. One of the first things he did was increase the number of mandatory English hours in public schools to five. His government also made some changes regarding teacher and student rights. For example, teachers now have to demonstrate a higher lever of English in order to teach. Every two years they have to take a TOEFL test and get a B2 level certificate or higher. The results of the test will affect their ability to find employment. Student’s rights have also changed in recent years, as well as their attitudes towards learning. When they get to school for the first time they think they will not fail the school year, which is learned the hard way, as most of them have a really hard time at the end of the school year, having to deal with most teachers to be given a second opportunity to pass.
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11 Lee mas

Current dilemmas in court interpreting: improving quality and access through smarter testing and administration protocols

Current dilemmas in court interpreting: improving quality and access through smarter testing and administration protocols

Table 2 depicts a striking number of examinees who failed all three exercises. In fact, over half of all examinees (52.89%) were unable to pass even a single mode of interpreting at the minimum level of 70%, which was the cut-off score for all of the exercises: simultaneous, consecutive, and sight transla- tion in each direction (English to foreign language and foreign language to English). The number of no-pass examinees stands in notable contrast to all of the other categories. To be sure, exam failure by over half of all Spanish / English examinees is one of the salient features of the overall categorization of the test-takers, with a nationwide overall pass rate of 17.9% over the fifteen year period. While the reasons for such high levels of exam failure are beyond the scope of this article, the problem of how to mitigate the impact of high failure rates is addressed, that impact being twofold: first, failing examinees absorb staff time and court interpreter program (CIP) resources. Second, this excessive use of staff time, infrastructure and rating expenses are especially burdensome when the goal of identifying qualified court interpreters is sim- ply not being met.
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20 Lee mas

Roots of miscommunication

Roots of miscommunication

In other words do speakers of English as a second language organize the structure of their conversation differently from native English speakers and if so, is this due to the transfer [r]

13 Lee mas

The use of jclic in the english teaching-learning process

The use of jclic in the english teaching-learning process

JClic is a multimedia resource that consists of a set of computer applications that are used to perform different educational activities: puzzles, exercises, texts, etc. The activities are established within projects, so that the activities are part of a set. The predecessor of JClic is called Clic, which is a free multimedia application. It has been used by teachers from various countries as a tool for creating learning activities for their students since 1992. JClic and Clic were created by the Spanish pioneer Francesc Busquets i Burguera who was born in Barcelona in 1959. JClic was developed on the Java platform; it is an open source project and it works on different operating systems. In brief, JClic is a set of free software applications designed to create various types of educational activities. Thus, the Click area is a service of the Department of Education of the Generalitat of Catalonia aiming to support and promote the use of these resources. Furthermore, it provides an open space for cooperation to promote the participation of all teachers who want to share this type of teaching material created by the programme.
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57 Lee mas

The implementation of routines in early years for the acquisition of English as a second language

The implementation of routines in early years for the acquisition of English as a second language

Implementation: At the beginning of the class the Weather responsible wears the medal and takes the Weather circle. The teacher calls the Weather responsible with a funny voice “Weeeeeather, weather, weatheeeeer”. The Weather sits next to the teacher or on the teacher’s lap. Teacher asks Wheater “What is this?” pointing to the Weather circle and the student answers “This is a circle”. The teacher says “Finger up” and put the finger up and the students repeat and then, students and teacher sing while they make a form circle with the finger “Circle, circle, circle” and teacher and students start to sing in a energetic way “What’s the weather like today? Like today? Like today? What’s the weather like today? Wheeen? Today, today, today”. The teacher asks the students “Is it sunny today? Yes, it is? Or No, it is not?” and the students answer. While the teacher is asking, the Weather responsible move the arrow pointing to the weather that the teacher is saying and the teacher makes this question until the correct weather. Then, the teacher says “Volunteers; someone who say STOP on (the correct weather)”, the Weather responsible choose the student and round the arrow until the other student say “stop” and the responsible asks “Is it (weather) today?” after the mate answer, if it is right, responsible congratulate the classmate. Finally, all the students sing “It’s a (sunny/cloudy/rainy/foggy/snowy), (hot/cold) day. (Sunny/cloudy/rainy/foggy/snowy), (hot/cold) day. It’s a (sunny/cloudy/rainy/foggy/snowy), (hot/cold) day. When? Today, today, today”.
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46 Lee mas

Some reflections on the impact of globalisation in the teaching and learning of english in socalled "expanding circle" countries

Some reflections on the impact of globalisation in the teaching and learning of english in socalled "expanding circle" countries

and interferences that other expanding circle users produce, although, obviously, it may be worth doing so with certain learners and for very specific purposes, e.g. conference interpreters, or those about to engage in international negotiations with a given group of non-native speakers. Apart from that, another solution would be creating or finding a common core, which not only seems to be «impossible (...) for other language levels except for the phonological one» (Jenkins, 2000) but also appears to us as a time- consuming activity for two reasons: first, it would imply analysing large amounts of data (as present-day corpora such as VOICE try to do), which would have to be described in order to substantiate prescription, and hence attempt to standardize on the basis of such prescription. Furthermore, as Widdowson (2003: 106) puts it, «linguistic descriptions cannot automatically meet pedagogic requirement». Secondly, if a core were to be obtained, how different would it be from the native norms? Alternatively, efforts may continue to be made to proficiently teach the basic norms to learners worldwide to guarantee intelligibility at a global or international level.
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14 Lee mas

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Before keep on indicating the results obtained in the survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
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65 Lee mas

A task based Framework proposal for teaching reading comprehension at the Medical School

A task based Framework proposal for teaching reading comprehension at the Medical School

Nowadays many people demand a teaching of English whose main objective is communicative competence. In the 1950´s Noam Chomsky defined communicative competence as abilities and dispositions to understanding and acting. Later on, in 1970, Dell Hymes widened the concept by saying that communicative competence involves linguistics, sociolinguistics, discursive and strategic aspects. This concept has to do with verbal and pragmatic aspects of language, but it does not take into consideration the process of meaning production. In 1980, Canale and Swain retook the aspects Dell Hymes dealt with and they considered communicative competence as a complex of competences that interact in daily communication. Communicative competence facilitates communication among people worldwide. The process of cooperation and friendship among countries, as well as the process of globalization, are growing rapidly and, because of that, to have a good command of at least one international language becomes a basic competence in the training of a professional. Hence the importance of developing reading comprehension skills as one of the basic components of communicative competence.
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86 Lee mas

Narrativas de docentes de inglés no certificados: una reflexión pedagógica

Narrativas de docentes de inglés no certificados: una reflexión pedagógica

This sensation of something lacking is probably one of the most significant ones since it stands as a sort of explanation for the other feelings – although all feelings are interwoven –. The participants feel that not having the training to fulfill the task of teaching the target language is the cause of the difficulty. That lack affects their practices but at the same time gives hope to thinking that if they had the training they say is needed, that would make them feel better about their teaching practices. However, that concern about their practices does not mean they are ineffective teachers or they are not committed to what they do. The real concern is about how not being prepared for teaching English may affect the teaching – learning process, which is not a responsibility that lies on the participants as such. In this regard, Usma’s analysis (2009) of language and education policies in Colombia, especially that of Spanish – English bilingualism, may shed light on how the implementation of a language policy in the country somehow has taken the teacher participants to perform a task that they are not fully prepared for. The participants express that there are gaps in the guarantees that are needed for them to teach the language; in this case, that could be interpreted as an apparent lack in the pedagogical content knowledge in the teaching of the subject – English – that Shulman (1986, 1987) addresses as one of the categories of teacher knowledge. This does not mean they lack general pedagogical
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114 Lee mas

Awareness about the communicative language teaching principles by English teachers, participants of the Master’s Program Teaching English as a Foreign Language, at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, La Molina, Lima, 2016

Awareness about the communicative language teaching principles by English teachers, participants of the Master’s Program Teaching English as a Foreign Language, at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, La Molina, Lima, 2016

While the teacher is monitoring, and notices some errors in a student’s utterance he should take notes and avoid interrupting. This valuable information can be used as a reference to part from in order to give feedback afterwards (Jones, 2007). The feedback can be given in accuracy or communication. (Littlewood, 1981) illustrates an example of accuracy feedback: When a student says ‘what does you study?’ He might be informed by the teacher that the correct question is ‘what do you study?’ according to structural criteria. On the other hand, an example of a communication feedback is when the same question is answered ‘I’m a nurse.’ The student can know that the message was understood according to communicative criteria even though the structure is not correct.
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127 Lee mas

A digital library for English Language II  a tool for improving its bibliography

A digital library for English Language II a tool for improving its bibliography

In the English Language course with a second foreign language: French at the Universidad Central «Marta Abreu» de Las Villas, there are some limitations in the basic and complementary bibliography of the subject English Language II. The purpose of this research was to propose a Digital Library to systematize the bibliography to satisfy the students’ needs. The study was carried out from a qualitative methodology. The needs analysis allowed the selection and organization of the bibliography for the proposal. For the design of the Digital Library for English Language II (DLELII) the Greenstone Digital Library Software was used. Specialists from the area of English Language and Scientific and Technological Information evaluated the proposal and agreed that it meets requirements such as bibliographic completeness, updating, variety of sources, easy accessibility which resulted in a valid proposal for the improvement of the teaching and learning process of the subject.
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102 Lee mas

The effect of dictionary training in the teaching of English as a foreign language

The effect of dictionary training in the teaching of English as a foreign language

As teachers, there is a constant need to evaluate and consequently act on various aspects of our teaching practice because we may feel there is a need to improve. In this respect, this investigation is an action-research project on dictionary use in the classroom. Our aim is to explore ways of motivating, encouraging reflection and involving students in their learning process. At the same time we feel we can contribute to the development of learners’ autonomy. The process of teaching any subject involves the use of all resources available to achieve effective results. When dealing with teaching foreign languages, we have noticed that such a traditional and apparently well- known tool as the dictionary is not very well-known or used efficiently by students, mainly because of poor knowledge about its contents and about the potential benefits of using a dictionary.
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22 Lee mas

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