The man sat up inthe snow for a moment and struggled for calmness. Then he pulled on his mittens, by means of his teeth, and got upon his feet. He glanced down at first in order to assure himself that he was really standing up, for the absence of sensation in his feet left him unrelated to the earth. His erect position in itself started to drive the webs of suspicion from the dog's mind; and when he spoke peremptorily, with the sound of whip-lashes in his voice, the dog rendered its customary allegiance and came to him. As it came within reaching distance, the man lost his control. His arms flashed out to the dog, and he experienced genuine surprise when he discovered that his hands could not clutch, that there was neither bend nor feeling inthe fingers. He had forgotten for the moment that they were frozen and that they were freezing more and more. All this happened quickly, and before the animal could get away, he encircled its body with his arms. He sat down inthe snow, and in this fashion held the dog, while it snarled and whined and struggled.
Ingles en el Magisterio fiscal, a través del examen Test ofEnglishas a Foreign Language – Internet Based Test (TOEFL iBT)”. In addition, inthe articles 1 and 2 of this normative indicates that English Educators from public schools who belonged to the Fiscal Magisterium should be trained in linguistic competences during the term 2012-2013 through an intensive online and face- to-face training program, in order to raise teacher’s English level of proficiency to get B2 based on Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR). Therefore, it pointed out the improvement oftheTeaching-Learning approach and student’s learning achievements, the same as to promote the culture of continuous training intheEnglish area and articulate theEnglish teacher proficient standards inthe curriculum guidelines. Another strategy applied for the government was the program GO TEACHER that was designed with the purpose to train teachers overseas. The SENESCYT, the department that is in charge ofthe high level of education in Ecuador, signed an agreement with the State University of Kansas to make possible the teacher get the scholarship to study inthe United States new strategies to teach English. The main goal for this program was to increase theEnglish Teachers’ level of proficiency to B1 or B2, at the same time to improve the methodology and strategies to teach English. In 2012, a new National English curriculum design was launched based on the Communicative-Functional Language Approach and CEFR which is administrated by a newly formed English section within the ministry to enhance the quality ofEnglishLanguage learning where the guidelines disposed English optional for Grades 2-7 and mandatory for Grade 8. The purposed was that students from secondary achieved a minimum of B1 and on that way to build up learners’ competence in listening, speaking, reading and writing. But from 2016-2017 will be compulsory from Grade 2° which indicates that students from secondary should reach B2 stated by UNESCO Institute of Statistics (as cited in British Council & Education Intelligence, 2015).
Bilingual Colombia has its foundations of professional development programs on the results ofthe administration the QPT (Quick Placement Test), an instrument promoted by ESOL Cambridge examinations to assess thelanguage proficiency of teachers. The test administration protocol and analysis of this massive testing strategy are not available to the academic community, but the Ministry of Education openly states that the majority ofEnglish teachers in Colombia do not have thelanguage level required to teach Englishas they are placed at the A1 and A2 levels ofthe CEF (Cely, 2007). That all Colombian teachers ofEnglish achieve the desired B2 level is a major target for the government. In fact, the Ministry has determined that there is a desirable number of hours of teacher development activities to attain that level. When universities are invited to propose some in-service and professional development programs, local educational authorities often ask if these institutions can guarantee that all teachers will achieve the B2 level, how long it will take the teachers to do so, and if we can make it happen faster.
This undergraduate dissertation is divided into the following sections: section 2 deals with some general notions on bilingualism with a focus on the interaction between the L1 and the L2 in order to illustrate the acquisition context ofthe participants in this experimental study; section 3 deals with the linguistic account of articles inEnglish and Spanish; section 4 presents a summary ofthe previous works that have been done on the acquisition of articles. The methodology used to carry out the experimental study is presented in section 5, which also includes the description ofthe predictions that guide this study based on data collection (e.g. test design, participants’ profile). Section 6 presents the results ofthe data analysis taking into account the initial predictions. Finally, the conclusion in section 7 discusses the main points.
language classes offered at the university. Learners were unhappy on the whole and find theEnglish courses of no benefit. Motivation, then, seems to be an important point in our role in helping students to learn thelanguage. This exploratory study, also, investigates the perceptions through interviewing students and surveying teachers and the results were that students mentioned that teachers should motivate them by choosing topics that interest students and not teachers, teachers have to design relevant and interesting activities, also that teachers should supply students with enough background information, i.e. reading materials, prior to a discussion so that students can support their arguments properly. Inthe case ofthe teachers, they are agreed that there are some problems that hinder students’
According to the level of students, teacher can show the video with subtitles inEnglish, in this way, the student can read and to listen the pronunciation at the same time. Yassaei (2012) says: “integrating videos into lessons creates enticing visuals and a special interactive environment inthe EFL/ESL class- room. TeachingEnglish through videos also allows teachers to be creative when designing language lessons” (p. 13). Teachers can use a video for many activities, the students can focus their attention in show that they really like, can train their listening, improve pronunciation as well, on their part, stu- dents can give opinions, create a possible ending of a short film, and create comics about the video.
Carter and Nuan state “Not giving enough wait-time for learners to process a question and formulate an answer is another reason for the lack of response from students” (2001, p.124). Besides recommending modifying questions so that students can understand them, the above authors assert that Englishlanguage teachers must provide students with extended wait-time to respond to questions and after errors are committed. Some ways to accomplish this are telling them beforehand what the lesson will be about, giving them time to compare their notes and rehearse their responses with others, and giving time for students to write their responses to the teacher’s questions. These techniques facilitate students’ correct responses, and so they feel less anxiety. As a result, teachers receive direct feedback on their instruction and reduce their fear that extra wait-time may slow down the flow ofthe lesson and cause disruptions.
In 2007, when Correa became the new president of Ecuador, the education in our country experienced some important changes. One ofthe first things he did was increase the number of mandatory English hours in public schools to five. His government also made some changes regarding teacher and student rights. For example, teachers now have to demonstrate a higher lever ofEnglishin order to teach. Every two years they have to take a TOEFL test and get a B2 level certificate or higher. The results ofthe test will affect their ability to find employment. Student’s rights have also changed in recent years, as well as their attitudes towards learning. When they get to school for the first time they think they will not fail the school year, which is learned the hard way, as most of them have a really hard time at the end ofthe school year, having to deal with most teachers to be given a second opportunity to pass.
Table 2 depicts a striking number of examinees who failed all three exercises. In fact, over half of all examinees (52.89%) were unable to pass even a single mode of interpreting at the minimum level of 70%, which was the cut-off score for all ofthe exercises: simultaneous, consecutive, and sight transla- tion in each direction (English to foreign language and foreign language to English). The number of no-pass examinees stands in notable contrast to all ofthe other categories. To be sure, exam failure by over half of all Spanish / English examinees is one ofthe salient features ofthe overall categorization ofthe test-takers, with a nationwide overall pass rate of 17.9% over the fifteen year period. While the reasons for such high levels of exam failure are beyond the scope of this article, the problem of how to mitigate the impact of high failure rates is addressed, that impact being twofold: first, failing examinees absorb staff time and court interpreter program (CIP) resources. Second, this excessive useof staff time, infrastructure and rating expenses are especially burdensome when the goal of identifying qualified court interpreters is sim- ply not being met.
JClic is a multimedia resource that consists of a set of computer applications that are used to perform different educational activities: puzzles, exercises, texts, etc. The activities are established within projects, so that the activities are part of a set. The predecessor of JClic is called Clic, which is a free multimedia application. It has been used by teachers from various countries as a tool for creating learning activities for their students since 1992. JClic and Clic were created by the Spanish pioneer Francesc Busquets i Burguera who was born in Barcelona in 1959. JClic was developed on the Java platform; it is an open source project and it works on different operating systems. In brief, JClic is a set of free software applications designed to create various types of educational activities. Thus, the Click area is a service ofthe Department of Education ofthe Generalitat of Catalonia aiming to support and promote theuseof these resources. Furthermore, it provides an open space for cooperation to promote the participation of all teachers who want to share this type ofteaching material created by the programme.
Implementation: At the beginning ofthe class the Weather responsible wears the medal and takes the Weather circle. The teacher calls the Weather responsible with a funny voice “Weeeeeather, weather, weatheeeeer”. The Weather sits next to the teacher or on the teacher’s lap. Teacher asks Wheater “What is this?” pointing to the Weather circle and the student answers “This is a circle”. The teacher says “Finger up” and put the finger up and the students repeat and then, students and teacher sing while they make a form circle with the finger “Circle, circle, circle” and teacher and students start to sing in a energetic way “What’s the weather like today? Like today? Like today? What’s the weather like today? Wheeen? Today, today, today”. The teacher asks the students “Is it sunny today? Yes, it is? Or No, it is not?” and the students answer. While the teacher is asking, the Weather responsible move the arrow pointing to the weather that the teacher is saying and the teacher makes this question until the correct weather. Then, the teacher says “Volunteers; someone who say STOP on (the correct weather)”, the Weather responsible choose the student and round the arrow until the other student say “stop” and the responsible asks “Is it (weather) today?” after the mate answer, if it is right, responsible congratulate the classmate. Finally, all the students sing “It’s a (sunny/cloudy/rainy/foggy/snowy), (hot/cold) day. (Sunny/cloudy/rainy/foggy/snowy), (hot/cold) day. It’s a (sunny/cloudy/rainy/foggy/snowy), (hot/cold) day. When? Today, today, today”.
and interferences that other expanding circle users produce, although, obviously, it may be worth doing so with certain learners and for very specific purposes, e.g. conference interpreters, or those about to engage in international negotiations with a given group of non-native speakers. Apart from that, another solution would be creating or finding a common core, which not only seems to be «impossible (...) for other language levels except for the phonological one» (Jenkins, 2000) but also appears to us as a time- consuming activity for two reasons: first, it would imply analysing large amounts of data (as present-day corpora such as VOICE try to do), which would have to be described in order to substantiate prescription, and hence attempt to standardize on the basis of such prescription. Furthermore, as Widdowson (2003: 106) puts it, «linguistic descriptions cannot automatically meet pedagogic requirement». Secondly, if a core were to be obtained, how different would it be from the native norms? Alternatively, efforts may continue to be made to proficiently teach the basic norms to learners worldwide to guarantee intelligibility at a global or international level.
Before keep on indicating the results obtained inthe survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses ofthe students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
Nowadays many people demand a teachingofEnglish whose main objective is communicative competence. Inthe 1950´s Noam Chomsky defined communicative competence as abilities and dispositions to understanding and acting. Later on, in 1970, Dell Hymes widened the concept by saying that communicative competence involves linguistics, sociolinguistics, discursive and strategic aspects. This concept has to do with verbal and pragmatic aspects oflanguage, but it does not take into consideration the process of meaning production. In 1980, Canale and Swain retook the aspects Dell Hymes dealt with and they considered communicative competence as a complex of competences that interact in daily communication. Communicative competence facilitates communication among people worldwide. The process of cooperation and friendship among countries, as well asthe process of globalization, are growing rapidly and, because of that, to have a good command of at least one international language becomes a basic competence inthe training of a professional. Hence the importance of developing reading comprehension skills as one ofthe basic components of communicative competence.
This sensation of something lacking is probably one ofthe most significant ones since it stands as a sort of explanation for the other feelings – although all feelings are interwoven –. The participants feel that not having the training to fulfill the task ofteachingthe target language is the cause ofthe difficulty. That lack affects their practices but at the same time gives hope to thinking that if they had the training they say is needed, that would make them feel better about their teaching practices. However, that concern about their practices does not mean they are ineffective teachers or they are not committed to what they do. The real concern is about how not being prepared for teachingEnglish may affect theteaching – learning process, which is not a responsibility that lies on the participants as such. In this regard, Usma’s analysis (2009) oflanguage and education policies in Colombia, especially that of Spanish – English bilingualism, may shed light on how the implementation of a language policy inthe country somehow has taken the teacher participants to perform a task that they are not fully prepared for. The participants express that there are gaps inthe guarantees that are needed for them to teach thelanguage; in this case, that could be interpreted as an apparent lack inthe pedagogical content knowledge intheteachingofthe subject – English – that Shulman (1986, 1987) addresses as one ofthe categories of teacher knowledge. This does not mean they lack general pedagogical
While the teacher is monitoring, and notices some errors in a student’s utterance he should take notes and avoid interrupting. This valuable information can be used as a reference to part from in order to give feedback afterwards (Jones, 2007). The feedback can be given in accuracy or communication. (Littlewood, 1981) illustrates an example of accuracy feedback: When a student says ‘what does you study?’ He might be informed by the teacher that the correct question is ‘what do you study?’ according to structural criteria. On the other hand, an example of a communication feedback is when the same question is answered ‘I’m a nurse.’ The student can know that the message was understood according to communicative criteria even though the structure is not correct.
IntheEnglishLanguage course with a second foreign language: French at the Universidad Central «Marta Abreu» de Las Villas, there are some limitations inthe basic and complementary bibliography ofthe subject EnglishLanguage II. The purpose of this research was to propose a Digital Library to systematize the bibliography to satisfy the students’ needs. The study was carried out from a qualitative methodology. The needs analysis allowed the selection and organization ofthe bibliography for the proposal. For the design ofthe Digital Library for EnglishLanguage II (DLELII) the Greenstone Digital Library Software was used. Specialists from the area ofEnglishLanguage and Scientific and Technological Information evaluated the proposal and agreed that it meets requirements such as bibliographic completeness, updating, variety of sources, easy accessibility which resulted in a valid proposal for the improvement oftheteaching and learning process ofthe subject.
As teachers, there is a constant need to evaluate and consequently act on various aspects of our teaching practice because we may feel there is a need to improve. In this respect, this investigation is an action-research project on dictionary useinthe classroom. Our aim is to explore ways of motivating, encouraging reflection and involving students in their learning process. At the same time we feel we can contribute to the development of learners’ autonomy. The process ofteaching any subject involves theuseof all resources available to achieve effective results. When dealing with teaching foreign languages, we have noticed that such a traditional and apparently well- known tool asthe dictionary is not very well-known or used efficiently by students, mainly because of poor knowledge about its contents and about the potential benefits of using a dictionary.