PDF superior The use of suplementary materials in ESL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of suplementary materials in ESL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of suplementary materials in ESL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

According to Gower et al. (2005) supplementary materials are divided in two groups: Published and Authentic materials; the first one refers to the textbook and video, while authentic materials refer to anything that you can hear or read. For example: newspaper, magazines, poems, menus, etc; therefore, the use of both materials have an important role in the process of learning because they will facilitate the teacher to assist the students in acquiring new vocabulary, grammar structure, establish new concepts by making the class more interesting; consequently, the pupils will get better comprehension.
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The Use of Supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The Use of Supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

Furthermore, in order to engage adolescents in the learning process many techniques have been proposed by various experts. Some authors recommend techniques such as: scaffolding, games, case studies, demonstrations, dramatization, fishbowl, jigsaws, brainstorming, role play, storytelling, mnemonics; „metaphors, analogy, simile‟; „ Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rap ‟, “Reciprocal Teaching – Think, Pair, Share, and simulations between many others. (Eitington, 2002; Schreiner, 2009; Wolfe, 2001). Following, it will be presented a briefly explanation of what each one of them treats about.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

It is a common belief that children are more successful L2 learners than adults, but the evidence for this is actually surprisingly equivocal. One reason for the apparent inconsistency in research findings is that some studies define relative “success” as the initial rate or learning (where, contrary to popular belief, older learners have an advantage); while, other studies define it as ultimate achievement (where learners who are introduced to the L2 in childhood indeed do appear to have an edge). Also some studies define “success” in terms of how close the learner´s pronunciation is to native speaker´s, others in terms of how closely a learner approximates native grammaticality judgments, and still others in terms of fluency or functional competence. It is very important to keep evaluative criteria clearly in mind; while, judging conflicting claims.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

Detailed analysis of the videotaped behavior indicated that MPAL helped improve collaboration in elementary school level EFL learners and promotes their reading motivation with the scaffoldings provided by MPAL; students could read themselves or receive online help without their group leaders; thus, they demonstrated a higher level of concentration on reading tasks, particularly the low- and medium- ability students; meanwhile, with the traditional method the students in the control group tended to pay attention to learning activities during the first half of the two-lesson reading activities only; subsequently, they were easily distracted, and their attention decreased as the activities progressed.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The English language teaching and learning in a foreign country is a subject matter that has worried teachers through the times because of the complexity and adversity of the components that make up this kind of work. On one side the socio-cultural component, which plays a very important role due to the educational and historical context in which foreign languages are taught and learnt are decisive when taking decisions about teaching. On the other hand, success of the teaching- learning process depends on the selection of the bibliographical component and finally, the third basic element is the methodological one, in which in our opinion is the most important, in order to be effective there is a need to take into consideration a variety of aspects such as: the method used, the resources applied, and the techniques that collaboratively go together for a successful teaching-learning process.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

Considering a variety of learning styles and abilities, the teacher used pictures, white board, handouts, flash cards, workbooks and songs. Also she included notes and other activities with a strong focus on multiple intelligences (Those activities benefited students with affinities and preferences to specific intelligences and related to their learning styles. This is, students were engaged in activities involving motor skills (Kinesthetic intelligences); students also responded to visual images representations and they were good at creating images (Visual). Those students with a strong auditory intelligence were stimulated when the teacher pronounced the new vocabulary and listening to music. The listening classroom practice could be influenced by the use of foreign language songs. The music was used by the teacher especially for those students who can develop their musical and linguistic intelligence by listening to songs and stimulate their learning.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

Saville (2006) on distinguishing ages directed related to language learning wonders why some learners are more successful than others. But when emphasizing on age differences, she claims that perhaps the greatest difference between adults and children hinges in that, the former ones come to lessons with a long history of learning experience and a rich social context, which allow them to express their opinions about how the teaching-learning process should be carried out. They also take advantage of their successful and failing experiences. Whereas children suffer from the lack of background, despite the fact that some of them practice more than adults and get a better level of
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary material in EFL classes plays a vital role to achieve a successful learning and motivated classes. Dash (2007) explains that didactic materials can create a real meaning of the words and join abstract concepts with concrete experiences. There are a wide variety of aids to choose but the selection and application imply a crucial decision for teachers due to some aspects must be taken into account. In this section, some topics related to this will be analyzed; teaching a foreign language, learner differences, learning styles, teaching techniques and contexts, the role of supplementary material as well as a preview of theoretical studies.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

Woolfolk (2007) stated; the way a person approaches learning and studying is his or her learning style. One theme that unites most of the styles is the differences between deep and surface approaches to processing information in learning situations. (Snow, Corno, & Jackson, 1996). Individuals who have a deep-processing approach see the learning activities as a means for understanding some underlying concepts or meanings. They tend to learn for the sake of learning and are less concerned about how their performance is evaluated, so motivation plays a role as well. Students who take a surface-processing approach focus on memorizing the learning materials, not understanding them. These students tend to be motivated by rewards, grades, external standards, and the desire to be evaluated positively by others, Of course, the situation can encourage deep or surface processing, but there is evidence that individuals have tendencies to approach learning situations in characteristic ways (Biggs, 2001; Coffield, Moseley, Hall, & Eccestone, 2004; Pintrich & Schrauben, 1992; Tait & En- twistle, 1998).
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

After concluding the activity, she asked everyone to repeat after her several times the following phrases with the corresponding answers like where they live, how the family members are, why they are famous, and what did they like to do. The third observed class had as topic my best friend. The objective was to develop intensive and extensive reading, speaking, listening, and writing skills the teacher copied a list of linking words, notes and details about best friend, questions like who’s your best friend? How old is he/she? What does he/she look like? Is he/she good at sports, art, etc? Does he/she have a pet/a collection? What’s
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

students’ general learning strategy prior to the instruction. The same survey was carried out at the end of the semester to examine whether there was any change of learning strategy as a result of the supplementary materials implementation. Through analysis of the different tables and groups researchers found that three types of strategies were developed and maintained as preferred choice for EG group, where they found confidence in their learning process to promote learning outcomes. Generally speaking, CG did not reflect more strategy use compared to EG where purposed designed supplementary materials components were implemented in the teaching and an increase of strategy was identified. This also might indicate that certain types of strategy use are crucial factors contributing to successful learning in listening and Speaking class (i.e., there was a noticeable increase in “learning with others” in EE). To achieve effective learning outcomes on listening and speaking course, “learning with others” might be a useful alternative s trategy when the mother tongue cannot be available in a foreign instructor’s class. Instructors
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The use of supplementary materials in ESOL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of supplementary materials in ESOL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The development of technology and market growth has brought to light several urges for people to try to expand their communicational skills. Savignon (2002) manifests that in the scope of teaching English as a second language; the precept that language is studied for the exchange of information has highlighted the new and innovative manner to instruct the language. In the same sense, Mangubhai, Marland, Dashwood & Son (2004) report that to endorse communication in EFL contexts, teachers should promote classrooms tasks and exercises that rely on spontaneity and student trial-and-error incursions, support negotiation of meaning between students and students and teacher, use of authentic materials, create an interactive atmosphere not markedly formal to encourage risk-taking and endorse student independence paying minimum attention on language form with consequent low importance on error correction and grammar rule explanations.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: A comparative analysis of public and private high schools

It is quite known that there are differences in the way that children, adolescents, and adults learn. For instance, children acquire the language naturally, and by playing and laughing, and obeying commands or instructions (TPR: total physical response). Warring (2008) suggests that a teacher has to bear in mind that it is very important to make classes enjoyable while teaching to children under five. Concerning adolescents, the method still works; the only aspect to consider is the level of fun used during the lesson since it will lead to lose class control if it is not managed properly. Humor is the characteristic that makes lessons laughable but humor in the English classroom has more than just the effect to induce laughter. It brings together a chain-reaction by increasing the motivation of learners, self-esteem, and self-confidence, which creates a positive classroom atmosphere for a smooth acquisition of the language Warring (2008) stresses the importance of maintaining engaging classes. He mentions that if at early age students dislike English, this behavior will continue, as they grow older. It means that we will have a less dedicated student. It is obvious that at any age, a student will enjoy
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools.

On the other hand, in the private high school the teacher limited the use of the supplementary material to the white board, dialogues and flash cards. This differs to the teachers’ opinion stated on the survey , where she says that supplementary material motivates the students to learn English because illustrations, flash cards, videos enlightens minds, and is interesting. According to Cunningsworth (1984, p.63), “ motivation is a major factor in language-learning success. We should look for material that has variety and pace, is of genuine interest to the learners and contains learning activities that will appeal to them”. With this in mind , it was observed that the teacher form this class did not use much material to motivate and facilitate the students ’ learning, and contrary to this, she seemed comfortable only using the book and work book.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL classes: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

materials used in this grade were the whiteboard, songs, dialogues, and objects. The whiteboard was the mostly used materials with a frequency of 5 times that represents 55.6%. Songs and objects were used once that is 11.1%. Finally, dialogues were used twice and it represents 22.2%. The teacher in this grade argued that materials are important to add interaction to the teaching process but she used mainly the board. She did not give any reason for her choice but apparently the board was frequently used because it is a resource that does not require any previous preparation such as selection of resources, colors, etc. Even though the board was used correctly in almost all classes students did not seem motivated and they prefer other resources such as flashcards, pictures, videos, or movies. In fact, students showed better attitudes in those classes where the teacher used songs and objects.
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The Use of Supplementary Materials in EFL Classes: A Comparative Analysis of Public and Private High Schools

The Use of Supplementary Materials in EFL Classes: A Comparative Analysis of Public and Private High Schools

personal information with information previously given. In this class the teacher wrote down on the board personal information of two exchange students, including name, nationality, age, preferences, hobbies, etc. afterwards students had to look, at this information to write a paragraph about each one of this students, like this: My name is Alhi, I am fifteen years old and I am from India. I enjoy playing the violin and listening music, in my free time I practice with a band, etc. The material was not used in a motivating or attractive way;the activity was not challenging for students, and as a result, students finished the task earlier than planned producing indiscipline in class, so we can say that the material was not appropriately usedfor students’ age (13) or level and neither pertinent accor ding to the class’ objective , although when referring to quality it was in good
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

Sangolqui, near Quito, which worked with about fifty students among boys and girls with low economic resources. The high number of students made difficult the learning process, as teachers could not manage the group generating indiscipline, disorder and unmotivated learners. The school was not provided with the necessary aids to help students to learn better, not even with tape recorders or cd players that are basic and very important in the acquisition of a foreign language. The data collection methods that were used in this study included quantitative (post survey for the teachers and for students) and
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

After greeting her students, the best way to begin the first class for this topic was with the animals, rocks, fruits and plants that the teacher and students had brought in to the class. She held the objects one by one up for all the students to be able to see them and asked questions such as do you know what this is?, Where can we find this? What function does it have in nature? Does it help us in any way? And do you think it breathes or needs to eat to be able to survive? While she kept asking these questions, she would pass the object they were
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

In the fourth class the word cards were used to practice again some vocabularies regarding the topic “Review of Units 1 - 4” whose objective was to prepare the students for a test. I think that the use of this supplementary material was basic in this class because the students had a new opportunity to practice the different vocabulary blocks learned during the firs term. In other words, the teacher made a compilation of all the vocabulary blocks taught during the last four units o f the student’s book. According to this aspect, Moreira (1998 p. 21) stated “…good visual aids ar e not just used once, but again and again, and can be shared by different teachers….”. In addition, the teache r’s purpose was to recall and practice pronunciation, meaning and spelling of each word again. Even if the quantity of the word cards was a little excessive, the students did no have any trouble because somebody always remembered the meaning of each word. After all, the activity was helpful to review the vocabulary and prepare the students for the test.
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The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

The use of supplementary materials in EFL clases: a comparative analysis of public and private high schools

Second category, the new which include the Audio/ Visual resources, these are the electrical and electronic materials which have been acquired and implemented few years ago. The first one is the OHP (Over Head Projector) which is an audiovisual material that is used to project information onto a screen, white wall or white board, so the audience focuses attention on it; the next is the audio player, and this is used very often in the EFL classes to complete listening activities, listen to stories, songs, interviews and dialogues, so it stimulate students to work into the classroom and practice the activities at home, too; the others are video player and the video camera, these are a combination of pictures and sounds, where the language is presented in a complete and communicative situation. Thus, students are able to infer meanings according to the context. Also, it is important to know that teachers must be careful to select the best films; in other words, they must choose a film according to the students´ age, level, interest and knowledge.
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