It lasted about two weeks, with 210 learners and 50 teachers ofthe English department from the first and second year of two different levels. The students were asked to fill in surveys to find a range of learner’s attitudes toward theuseof multimedia. All questions focused on the students’ general confidence in computers, their feelings about media and its use. The interviews for teachers focused on learning objectives, learning skills and strategies as well as their attitude and their adjustment in teaching method and style. After these two week surveys were oral interviews with teachers, administrators, technicians and multimedia teaching. The researchers had the answer to their question, because the study revealed unfamiliarity with computers among both learners and teachers.
presentations, like to work in a quiet room, andusethe same strategies to learn, too; however, they do not like written language texts. They learn and work better with films, videos, maps, charts and pictures or diagrams from the textbooks. And they usually use symbols, pictures and diagrams to translate some words and ideas. The third is the Tactile/Kinesthetic learning style where they learn better through the concrete manipulation and physical contact with the different materials. That is, they prefer hands-on activities, and like to use textbooks, flashcards, notes, highlighter pens, tables, cards, graphics and audio tapes to illustrate information because these materials allow them to remember the information easily. And sometimes, they use audio tapes to listen and memorize information while exercising.
Sangolqui, near Quito, which worked with about fifty students among boys and girls with low economic resources. Thehigh number of students made difficult the learning process, as teachers could not manage the group generating indiscipline, disorder and unmotivated learners. The school was not provided with the necessary aids to help students to learn better, not even with tape recorders or cd players that are basic and very important inthe acquisition of a foreign language. The data collection methods that were used in this study included quantitative (post survey for the teachers and for students) and
basic and interesting for the students because the content was about the life and work of four young and famous singers who are known by teenagers. In addition, this activity was related with the topic andthe student’s preferences; they also enjoyed of this reading. First, the task was to read the information, then the students had to answer with true or false the questions ofthe item A, and finally they had to choose and circle the right information among three options, in six exercises ofthe item B. In conclusion, this supplementary material was an important motivation for most ofthe students because they had the opportunity to read information which was interesting for them. Besides, they also solved the exercises without any trouble, and they could do it fast due to the fact that the content was short and easy for the students understanding.
This material was used in three ofthe five classes. Starting with the second class where the topic was My Family andthe objectives were to read for specific information, to present adjectives, to practice using a dictionary, and to present the modal Can. First of all, the students had to match some adjectives with the corresponding picture in their books, with this same vocabulary they had to find the meaning using a dictionary. After that, the teacher wrote the vocabulary on the board to check their answers and practice the pronunciation. Then, the students had to read a conversation that included theuseof can and they also practice pronunciation. Inthe next task, the teacher used the board to model an exercise where the students had to complete sentences with can in affirmative or negative form according to the context, when they completed the task the teacher wrote the answers on the board for everyone.
Spratt (2005), on the same topic continues telling us that the main objective ofSupplementary Material is to serve as a resource of reference, provide help, make items clear and cover some weak points and lacks of teaching when a foreign language or second language is taught. In addition to this statement, Muñoz M. & Constanza N. (2008) states,“ Two areas concerned with language teaching have to do with the selection anduseofsupplementarymaterials, andthe selection anduseof aids. These areas are important to be considered because both of them may affect the effectiveness ofthe teaching and learning process ” . An important detail that we -as language teachers- must keep in mind and implement in classto increase students interest as well as teacher care in taking decisions properly.
During the first observed class to these students in which the topic ofthe lesson was the second conditional, the white board was used with the aim of teaching the grammar structure of these sentences. As for pertinence, the teacher used the white board to write on the left side if clauses sentences: if + subject + past simple verb; and on the right side, the main clause sentences: subject + would + base verb, respectively, and then she wrote under each structure two examples and asked for volunteers to go to the board and write more sentences. In spite ofthe teachers’ effort to reinforce the students’ knowledge, the white board did not help her since the students were not able to create sentences without the teachers’ help; consequently she had to use Spanish to say some examples oftheuseof second conditional. As the way the teacher used the white board it can be said that it was not pertinent for this class since it did not help her to reach the objective.
Lightbown & Spada (2006) suggests that making a comparison between the learning of children and adults, for example, results difficult since they are different groups of people and thus are not exposed to the same circumstances. In general, adults are more pressured to speak English from the very beginning in an accurate way, because they are usually exposed to situations that demand a more sophisticated language. Referring to this point, Durham (2010) states, “adults need to be able to relate learning to something in their life that means something to them… Therefore, adu lts tend to learn
However, theuseofthe White board was not appropriate to the students’ age and English level, because they were confused, so they started to do other activities. Most of them confused the meaning of words andthe grammar rules ofthe Wh-Questions. It is supposed that these problems are carried from the primary school; however, the teacher didn’t do anything to moti vate students; as a result, the students did not feel enough motivated to follow the class on the white board. According to this situation, Stipek (2002) suggest: “that the interest increases when students feel competent”, so I think the teacher
At the beginning ofthe class, the teacher made a practice with a game in which students were asked questions about their possessions and descriptions. The class was divided in two teams. There were two columns on the board, one for each team. Students took turns in order to write descriptions or possessions on the right column. The team that won (team 1) received an extra point. The game was pertinent for the students because it awoke the students’ senses at the time of acting and activating their knowledge ofthe words that they needed in order to play the game. After finishing this game, the teacher started to explain in detail the grammar structures.
materials used in this grade were the whiteboard, songs, dialogues, and objects. The whiteboard was the mostly used materials with a frequency of 5 times that represents 55.6%. Songs and objects were used once that is 11.1%. Finally, dialogues were used twice and it represents 22.2%. The teacher in this grade argued that materials are important to add interaction to the teaching process but she used mainly the board. She did not give any reason for her choice but apparently the board was frequently used because it is a resource that does not require any previous preparation such as selection of resources, colors, etc. Even though the board was used correctly in almost all classes students did not seem motivated and they prefer other resources such as flashcards, pictures, videos, or movies. In fact, students showed better attitudes in those classes where the teacher used songs and objects.
Furthermore, in order to engage adolescents inthe learning process many techniques have been proposed by various experts. Some authors recommend techniques such as: scaffolding, games, case studies, demonstrations, dramatization, fishbowl, jigsaws, brainstorming, role play, storytelling, mnemonics; „metaphors, analogy, simile‟; „ Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rap ‟, “Reciprocal Teaching – Think, Pair, Share, and simulations between many others. (Eitington, 2002; Schreiner, 2009; Wolfe, 2001). Following, it will be presented a briefly explanation of what each one of them treats about.
After concluding the activity, she asked everyone to repeat after her several times the following phrases with the corresponding answers like where they live, how the family members are, why they are famous, and what did they like to do. The third observed class had as topic my best friend. The objective was to develop intensive and extensive reading, speaking, listening, and writing skills the teacher copied a list of linking words, notes and details about best friend, questions like who’s your best friend? How old is he/she? What does he/she look like? Is he/she good at sports, art, etc? Does he/she have a pet/a collection? What’s
the creation ofthe sentences. He took some time to explain again when a student made a mistake. After many correct sentences written with the support ofthe class, the teacher asked students to read the passage about Frankenstein and circle the gerunds. When the task was done, the teacher reviewed the correct answers with the students. At the end ofthe class, he approached to students encouraging them to participate and pass to the white board to write more examples related to their interests like, girlfriends, popular soccer teams, and others. He congratulated their right answers which made students felt confident. Brown (2000) mentions that: “one ofthe most important concerns ofthe secondary school teacher is to keep self-esteem high by avoiding embarrassment of students at all costs, affirming each the talent and strengths of each person, allowing mistakes and other errors to be accepted”. Despite this good way to support self -
Considering that the topic ofthe class was “Past Continuous, the teacher took into consideration the students’ age to develop creative exercises which consisted in correcting sentences by using the correct form ofthe verb in present continuous. For this activity, the teacher wrote sentences that contained actions such as: Late last night, I was sleeping, when I heard a noise outside. They were watching TV, while their parents were resting. The teacher asked the students to give ideas to form other sentences by taking into consideration their free time; this activity encouraged the students to participate during the class because they had the opportunity to express their preferences by doing the exercise on the whiteboard.
materials. It was done a documentary analysisof versions ofthe three programs. The interviews andthe focus group sessions were transcribed using standard orthography. González read the texts looking for common patterns and identifying meaningful units. Then the units were labeled and grouped to construct categories. She constructed the categories taking into account what the participants reported. Data were validated through participant triangulation and data triangulation, contrasting the opinions ofthe students, cooperating teachers andEFL teachers. The data analyzed reported some contradictory issues. Students seem to believe that they know enough about using materials; however, once they become teachers in real classrooms, they report it as one of their main professional needs. Inthe other hand, from the eighteen EFL teachers interviewed, eleven reported the need for more materials as one of their main professional needs.
Inthe second observed class after the motivation activity (song), the teacher used word cards with the base verb forms as a prior knowledge activity. She explained that to build up a present perfect structure they are going to usethe past participle form. She presented the set of cards corresponding to the past participle form, and displayed them on the board. Students were asked to repeat both forms after the teacher. The material was pertinent to the class objective because they introduced the past participle verbs form which is important to follow a pattern with a present perfect structure. The activity was also appropriate for the students level because they understand, what the teacher wanted them to know, and they evidence their knowledge writing some examples on the board.
The white board was used with pertinence in relation with the topic and objective. Firstly, teacher wrote useful expressions inthe order in which they were used inthe conversation: love, hate, like, into, can’t stand etc. After she reviewed the grammar and listened to expressions with strong stress because students would practice the dialogue at the end ofthe class. The teacher focused on the pronunciation ofthe words and explained about the simple present ofthe verb like in affirmative, negative and Interrogative form through examples. After working with some new language, teacher wrote all these words in spare parts on the board. Then, teacher asked students to read the words out loud to make the original pattern or a variation such as “she likes to dance belly dancing”, etc.
The topic ofthe first class was „Setting up a small business‟ andthe objective was to practice reading skills and to present and practice can and may to express possibility. The whiteboard was used to copy a table that students had to complete after reading a text inthe book. The table had three columns. Inthe first column, the teacher and students checked options for school leavers. Inthe second and third column they checked for advantages and disadvantages of study and setting up a small business after leaving school. After that, the teacher called students‟ attention to some sentences that he wrote on the board such as If you study at University you may get a good job, You can study and work at the same time. He wrote the modal verbs with red marker and explained theuseof each structure. Using the whiteboard in that way made it pertinent to the topic since it was used to write information related to the lesson. Similarly, the material was pertinent to the objectives because it was used to write details about the text that students read and to practice theuseof can and may.