The purpose of it was to discover how teachers could help
students Learn English through ESL websites from the Internet and how they perceived English Through these Teacher-selected websites.
It was conducted with 49 participants ranging the ages of 17-18 years 10 male and 39 female from a high-beginner level in Learning ability, they were divided in two groups, and given two weeks to complete a series of homework activities including exercises on slang expressions, idioms, phrasal verbs and vocabulary as well as reading, writing and listening practice. They were also encouraged to play some ofthe games found at different sites. At the beginning and at the end the participants filled questionnaires concerning their perceptions ofthe experience.
Chart number ten, shows the frequency ofuseofsupplementarymaterialsinthe six courses ofthepublicandtheprivatehighschools.
Both schools used supplementarymaterials, the difference was that the teacher from thepublic school used it in four ofthe five observed classes, that in terms of percentage it means that the 90% ofthe total of times in her five classes, not necessarily reflecting effectiveness oftheuseofthe blackboard; she used it only to take note of vocabulary, ignoring the many ways in which a board can be used, with no creativity ofsupplementary material. As perceived by the researchers, all this, attitude was the resultant of lack of knowledge or experience on the educational field ofthe teacher in charge of this course.
This research explores theuseofsupplementary material inEFL classes: a comparativeanalysisofpublicandprivatehighschools.
The general objective is to determine, to compare and to analyze thesupplementary material used in English classes. The research was developed in 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd year of Bachillerato through data collection, observation classes, observation about the material used in classes, survey´s teachers and survey´s students, qualitative and quantitative analysis, moreover books, internet and didactic guide show us how important thesupplementary material is used in classes. Through this research shows how thesupplementary material is used and it influences inthe learning process. Additionally, it showed that the most commonly used supplementarymaterialsin both institutions were visual materials. Inthepublichigh school thesupplementary material was used with originality and also it was used in relation to the level students´ knowledge. Also, in this research was observed how teachers have limitation intheuseofsupplementary material for this reason students were not motivated inthe teaching of second language.
This study is about theuseofsupplementarymaterialsin English foreign language (EFL) classes with a comparativeanalysisofpublicandprivatehighschoolsin Guayaquil. Its purpose is to find out whether or not teachers usesupplementarymaterials, and if they do, how pertinent, appropriate, and qualified they are. This research was conducted inprivateandpublichighschools. It consisted of observing 30 EFL classes from 1st, 2nd and 3 rd Senior years. This study was qualitative and quantitative approached. Data was collected through observation forms, questionnaires, and surveys. For theanalysisand interpretation of results, the qualitative analysis was done taking into consideration pertinence, appropriateness and quality of each type ofsupplementary material used. And quantitative analysis was done to determine and analyze the frequency ofsupplementarymaterials used inthe three observed courses.
Theuseofsupplementarymaterials is of particular importance for Second and Foreign Language learners who frequently are not sufficiently motivated to learn English despite years of formal study. Consequently, this study “Theuseofsupplementary material inEFL classes: A comparativeAnalysisof a Publicand a PrivateHigh School inthe city of Quito- Ecuador” is focused on the extra material used inthe classroom that is different from that which is part ofthe course book and workbook. The sample chosen for this research was the selection of 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd years which consisted of male gender class whose students were around 14 and 17 years old. It was also necessary to develop a survey which was conducted to collect data that was analyzed in order to evaluate the students’ and teachers’ opinions on using supplementarymaterials. Teachers are not willing to use them every day, because they consider the student book is enough andthe teachers must been
supplementary material attracted the students’ attention and interest because they worked with a lot of energy.
Inthe fourth class the word cards were used to practice again some vocabularies regarding the topic “Review of Units 1 - 4” whose objective was to prepare the students for a test. I think that theuseof this supplementary material was basic in this class because the students had a new opportunity to practice the different vocabulary blocks learned during the firs term. In other words, the teacher made a compilation of all the vocabulary blocks taught during the last four units o f the student’s book. According to this aspect, Moreira (1998 p. 21) stated “…good visual aids ar e not just used once, but again and again, and can be shared by different teachers….”. In addition, the teache r’s purpose was to recall and practice pronunciation, meaning and spelling of each word again. Even if the quantity ofthe word cards was a little excessive, the students did no have any trouble because somebody always remembered the meaning of each word. After all, the activity was helpful to review the vocabulary and prepare the students for the test.
These materials are useful to work with the visual/verbal learning style, because students who have this learning style learn better with visual presentations. Moreover, these materials could be used to describe and discuss with their partners inthe class. So the teacher used them inthe first class to talk about “Occupations”. Here the teacher used pictures to present the new topic. These materials had information about the different peoples’ occupations. First, the teacher showed the pictures to the students, described them using grammatical structures correctly while students were looking at the pictures and listening carefully. Next, the teacher asked questions about the pictures andthe students described them correctly. After knowing and understanding the topic, the students completed the activities in their workbooks. I can say that these materials were important in this class, because they contained information very related to the topic, which helped the students to memorize the new words and facilitated their learning.
working in centers with interactive whiteboardsto find an incentive and move beyond current ways of working.(Orr, 2008, 9, 2)
Another study that took place at Leon deGreiff public school in Bogotainvestigated abouthow theuseof music in English can promote and encourage tenth grade students’ oral production. When using songs, a successfully improvement in class was demonstrated through surveys, interviews, observations and notes that students showed some favorable attitudes like motivation, participation, cooperation, relaxation and self-confidence when speaking. It is important to say that teachers were privileged to develop action, research and innovative processes because since they had the population, the spaces andthe time every day, they had everything that was necessary to develop these processes in their schoolsin order to help change the difficult and routine school culture. Besides, it gave them insights into the way to work with songs and to have students speak about the meaning of those songs.
pedagogically because they break the routine and get learners involved in what they like, at the time that they permit them discover their real abilities and their skillfulness in a foreign language.
Dorph (2009) also states that when teaching a foreign language, extra materials can influence to have a practical English teaching learning process. The author considers that a learning process should involve action and movement, especially when teaching children. Dorph also argues that it is not a recommendable idea to have students sit for long periods of time, because they become bored, which results in an evident reluctance to doing their academic tasks. Thereby, she asserts that English language classroom should rather be a work-shop-like activity, in which learners feel self-confident and willing to work and show their true colors. This in turn, enables language teachers to
The white board was used with pertinence in relation with the topic and objective. Firstly, teacher wrote useful expressions inthe order in which they were used inthe conversation: love, hate, like, into, can’t stand etc. After she reviewed the grammar and listened to expressions with strong stress because students would practice the dialogue at the end ofthe class. The teacher focused on the pronunciation ofthe words and explained about the simple present ofthe verb like in affirmative, negative and Interrogative form through examples. After working with some new language, teacher wrote all these words in spare parts on the board. Then, teacher asked students to read the words out loud to make the original pattern or a variation such as “she likes to dance belly dancing”, etc.
Dash (2007) explains that didactic materials can create a real meaning ofthe words and join abstract concepts with concrete experiences. There are a wide variety of aids to choose but the selection and application imply a crucial decision for teachers due to some aspects must be taken into account. In this section, some topics related to this will be analyzed; teaching a foreign language, learner differences, learning styles, teaching techniques and contexts, the role ofsupplementary material as well as a preview of theoretical studies.
29 well as to five websites that the learners could use to practice their language skills on their own. Before the training session started, the students were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire in their native language. Then, the students were given two weeks to complete a series of homework activities using the websites presented after the training session. The students worked in pairs on the computers at the learning center. The activities included exercises on slang expressions, idioms, phrasal verbs and vocabulary as well as reading, writing and listening practice. Moreover, students were asked to join a discussion thread inthe student forums of Dave‟s ESL Café. They were also encouraged to play some ofthe language games found at the different sites. Two weeks after the training session, the students were asked to hand in their assignments and to complete an anonymous questionnaire concerning their perceptions ofthe experience.
The methodology was used when five students were chosen as they had a longer experience in studying literature and had all the texts and genres chosen for the program. Theuseof a questionnaire divided into two parts: the first section focused on responds´ demographic profile such as their grade, gender and socio-economic status. The second part used a five points Likert scale to gauge student´s attitude towards text selection and teaching methods. As a conclusion the data from this study suggested that students were generally satisfied with the short stories but were less enthusiastic about the poems and novels.
Woolfolk (2007, p. 124) explains the definition of learning styles:
“The way a person approaches learning and studying is his or her learning style.”
There are different learning styles that Bogod L. (1998) explains the characteristics ofthe learners. First, inthe visual learning, the learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. This kind of learners may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. Second, inthe audio learning, the students learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. And finally inthe tactile/kinesthetic learning the students learn through, moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands- on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them.
that presenting learners real objects motivates them and allow them to be creative when practicing the target language while Baldry (2010) refers to realia as a way to turn English classes into something
memorable for them. Realia can be used in almost any subject and ages. It is a way to save time when learners recognize immediately instead of having long explanations or using other techniques which can consume much more time. Theuseof realia promotes elicitation in students. Inthe case of adults, they are very receptive to this resource and find it refreshing. Bringing realia to the class could also be a tool to prompt conversation. They can be used in role-plays to obtain the most realistic situations or promote speaking activities.
They can also be aids such as maps and drawings. The audiovisuals can be grouped into the following categories, projected and non-projected.
In education, realia are objects from real life used in classroom instruction by teachers to improve students' understanding of other cultures and real life situations. InEFL terms refers to any real object we use to bring the class to life and vice verse, life to life. Every day, objects that surround us by relating them to language and looking at them in new ways. Munford (2008) agrees that “real objects make a connection between objects and authentic language materials: they provide current language on all topics imaginable and provide constant reinforcement of grammatical forms learned inthe classroom”. A foreign languageteacher often employs realia to strengthen students' associations between words for everyday objects andthe objects themselves. In many cases, these objects are part of an instructional kit which includes a manual and is thus considered as being part of a documentary whole by librarians. Realia is increasingly being utilized in new and interesting ways.
level of understanding ofthe students. The quality of this material was good;
the things written on the board were clear and easy to read.
In class 3, the topic was The Black Bull andthe objectives were to develop extensive and intensive listening skills and to re-tell stories. The first task was to read the instructions and look at the pictures inthe book, before reading the script about the story the teacher demonstrated the task with the given example from the textbook. The teacher read the legend andthe students had to match the information with the pictures in their books. After that, the teacher wrote the answers on the board about the sequence ofthe legend. Then she read the text again for the second part ofthe task that was about completing verbs in past. Finally the teacher copied the answers on the board for everyone to compare, they had to retell the story with these clues.
Inthe fourth class, the teacher used realia to explain about Occupations in order to develop the speakingskill about items people in different occupations use. To do that, the teacher gathered certain realia from the students, like: cell phone, make-up,lipsticks, calculators and mirrors to create sentences inthe simple present regarding how people use these objects in their jobs.For example, the teacher said the following sentence:„She is an architect, s he uses a calculator ‟ . Then, she asked the students to say oral sentences like the examples given, using occupations they were familiar with, such as „farmer‟, „driver‟, „artist‟, „policeman‟, „carpenter‟, and „secretary‟, combining them with the objects she collected from the students. It was also related to the content andthe objective ofthe class.
52 Learning Styles
Despite it is a teacher‟s task consider the different learning styles ofthe students in order to motivate them to learn the English language, the teacher of tenth grade did not consider the learning styles of her students since her classes were boring and not interesting. However, she should have focused on the following kind of learners in order to increase students participation: the visual-spatial learner who visualizes images to remember information, the physical-kinesthetic learner who learns best by using all the senses, sounds are very important to this kind of learner, the musical learner who responds to rhythm and likes activities which involve e music and songs, the interpersonal learner who likes to work with other people, andthe intrapersonal learner who prefers to work alone. In fact, according to the student‟s survey her students prefer to learn by using power point presentations, pictures, whiteboard, songs, movies, realia, and dialogues.
Teaching English in a foreign country has been a highly complex task through the years, this issue has worried many teachers because it involves a diversity of components. A very important aspectwhen taking decisions about teachingis the socio- cultural component, which hasa crucial roledue to the educationaland historical context in which foreign languages are taught and learnt. A second important aspect is theproper selection ofthe contents to be taught,on this relevant aspect relies the success ofthe teaching-learning process, and finally, the third component is the methodology used, which to be effective has to take into account the methodological procedure used, the resources applied, andthe techniques used, all of them together collaborate for the teaching- learning process to be successful;however, teachers do not work alone in this process; they rely on different kinds of resources and aids, which used appropriately, may work effectively and help achieve their objectives.