By analyzing what Huebener stated, we can assume that much ofthe TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) is heading to make students be able to scrutinize and understand English as a day-to-day means of effective communication. Moreover, there are additional academic necessities of learning English in a deeper sense when speaking about students within a CLICL system. This is an approach in which students acquire a second or foreign language whilst focusing on learning new, theoretical, academic or scientific knowledge or skills. For instance, this is the case of international students whose mother tongue is not English, but who are intending to study in an English-speaking country somewhere worldwide. Learner Differences
Lightbown & Spada (2006) suggests that making a comparison between the learning of children and adults, for example, results difficult since they are different groups of people and thus are not exposed to the same circumstances. In general, adults are more pressured to speak English from the very beginning in an accurate way, because they are usually exposed to situations that demand a more sophisticated language. Referring to this point, Durham (2010) states, “adults need to be able to relate learning to something in their life that means something to them… Therefore, adu lts tend to learn
This material was used in three ofthe five classes. Starting with the second class where the topic was My Family andthe objectives were to read for specific information, to present adjectives, to practice using a dictionary, and to present the modal Can. First of all, the students had to match some adjectives with the corresponding picture in their books, with this same vocabulary they had to find the meaning using a dictionary. After that, the teacher wrote the vocabulary on the board to check their answers and practice the pronunciation. Then, the students had to read a conversation that included theuseof can and they also practice pronunciation. Inthe next task, the teacher used the board to model an exercise where the students had to complete sentences with can in affirmative or negative form according to the context, when they completed the task the teacher wrote the answers on the board for everyone.
Our present research had as sample the students of eight, ninth, and tenth grades of two institutions, located in Loja, Ecuador. The students age range between twelve and fifteen years old. The students from thepublicschool were mainly from a low to a middle economic level, while students from privateschool come from middle to high economic level. The field research took place from January to February, 2011. The present research was done using the Qualitative and Quantitative methods; the collected data was explored, described, and compared. The techniques applied were reading, note-taking, surveys. In addition the collecting instruments were, data collection formats, observation formats, and charts. Also, the resources where the information was taken from were books, internet andthe didactic guide provided by the university.
However, in spite ofthe pertinence of this supporting material, it was observed that the whiteboard did not help the teacher in motivating the students to keep practicing sentences with used to since she asked them to copy the information that was on the board in their notebooks, plus a chart from the book; consequently, the students were bored and lost the interest inthe class. In this respect Bumpass (1963, p. 36) claims that “the learning of a foreign language involves master y of a skill through practice and participation” and with this in mind, the teacher could have used another supplementary material besides the white board, to give the students a variety of activities in order to encourage them to practice the language since the students at that age like to talk about themselves, and it was a good opportunity to let them describe the things they used to do inthe earliest years.
Inthe second class the white board was used with the same topic: “You can’t miss it”. The objective ofthe class was to introduce the prepositions of place. The teacher wrote the new vocabulary to explain when it is used; then, the teacher drew some squares to make a map ofthe city and to practice the prepositions of place; subsequently, the teacher asked the students the position of a specific building in reference with other specific place. The teacher had to be intuitive to ensure a successful learning ofthe topic. In this matter, Lewis (1990) supports this process with this statement “It is a mistake to believe that “a method” exists which can guarantee success. Every teacher knows
The topic ofthe first class was Daily, Leisure and Vacation activities, andthe objective was to talk about daily and leisure activities using the simple past. The teacher divided the whiteboard in two sections. Inthe left side she wrote Love to do andinthe other side she wrote Hate to do. Then, she asked students What do you like and hate to do on your free time? Some students raised their hands and went to the board to write some statements such as: watch TV, clean the house, go to the movie theater, do the laundry, etc. Then the teacher asked them to usethe information on the board to tell what they did inthe last weekend.
At the beginning ofthe class, the teacher made a practice with a game in which students were asked questions about their possessions and descriptions. The class was divided in two teams. There were two columns on the board, one for each team. Students took turns in order to write descriptions or possessions on the right column. The team that won (team 1) received an extra point. The game was pertinent for the students because it awoke the students’ senses at the time of acting and activating their knowledge ofthe words that they needed in order to play the game. After finishing this game, the teacher started to explain in detail the grammar structures.
Furthermore, in order to engage adolescents inthe learning process many techniques have been proposed by various experts. Some authors recommend techniques such as: scaffolding, games, case studies, demonstrations, dramatization, fishbowl, jigsaws, brainstorming, role play, storytelling, mnemonics; „metaphors, analogy, simile‟; „ Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rap ‟, “Reciprocal Teaching – Think, Pair, Share, and simulations between many others. (Eitington, 2002; Schreiner, 2009; Wolfe, 2001). Following, it will be presented a briefly explanation of what each one of them treats about.
students’ general learning strategy prior to the instruction. The same survey was carried out at the end ofthe semester to examine whether there was any change of learning strategy as a result ofthesupplementarymaterials implementation. Through analysisofthe different tables and groups researchers found that three types of strategies were developed and maintained as preferred choice for EG group, where they found confidence in their learning process to promote learning outcomes. Generally speaking, CG did not reflect more strategy use compared to EG where purposed designed supplementarymaterials components were implemented inthe teaching and an increase of strategy was identified. This also might indicate that certain types of strategy use are crucial factors contributing to successful learning in listening and Speaking class (i.e., there was a noticeable increase in “learning with others” in EE). To achieve effective learning outcomes on listening and speaking course, “learning with others” might be a useful alternative s trategy when the mother tongue cannot be available in a foreign instructor’s class. Instructors
Thesupplementary material is important because it teaches the students to learn by attractive activities, they provide ideas and tricks for instruction and learning. As a great quantity ofthe teachers feel that the textbook is an external syllabus that has been “imposed on students without any regard for their individual needs” (Yien, 1996) thesupplementarymaterials are vital because they are suitable for students' needs, they give the students motivation, enthusiasm and everything a basic text cannot provide. For this reason, the teacher must realize that the textbook is not the only tool inthe classroom; it may be the major tool, but there are other materials that may be used (Biemer, 1992). Materials that include video and audio tapes, computer software, visual aids and technology, have the role of persuading the students and clarifying the content andthe procedures of learning. They help the students to develop their speaking, listening, reading and writing skills. The choice of deductive or inductive learning, the function of memorization, theuseof creativity and problem solving, production and reception, are characteristics influenced by these materials (Brody, 2006).
Teaching not only consists on planning, decorating the classroom, using techniques, or dealing with students’ behaviors and feelings; it also implies theuseof adequate resources to make learning more interactive and permanent for learners. The authors that are going to be mentioned on the next lines, state that supplementarymaterials are those resources that add interactivity to the teaching process, and it is important that teachers know what thesupplementarymaterials are. In relation to this, Seven and Engin (2007, p.1) say, “ In education, visual and audio aids are those which have many effects and importance on providing learning permanent ”. Another definition is provided by Kumar (2004); he explains that supplementarymaterials are elements that teachers use to provide their students with opportunities for learning.
Kelsen (2007) & Goodwyn (2004) argue that incorporating a YouTube moment or any other instructional video clip into a lesson plan can greatly increase understanding as well as enjoyment during the learning process. Kress (2003) refers that, if an interactive white board with internet capabilities is not available, many video clips from the web can be downloaded and embedded in a power point presentation for classroom purposes. Teachers should be sure to prepare students before watching the clip by telling them what to expect or what to look for and then following up with discussion questions that attach into the lesson plan.
This study explores theuseofsupplementarymaterialsinEFLClasses. The purpose of this study was to determine which were the most frequent supplementarymaterials used by teachers. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used in order to ensure the best results. The Literature review was based on a wide-range of text references; classes were structurally observed and data was collected inthe observation matrixes. Moreover, surveys were administered to students and English teachers. Two high Schools, one publicand one private were chosen randomly to do the research inthe north ofthe city of Quito, Ecuador. The sample was a group of students from first, second, and third year as well as their teachers. As conclusion, it may be said that both schools used supplementary material. Inprivateschool, supplementarymaterials were used slightly more often than inpublic education. Visual aids rated as most commonly used in both schools since teachers do not realize the importance ofuse different
Turning to the pedagogical overtones ofthe study, two implications can be drawn from this study. Firstly, to allot some part ofthe instruction time inEFLclasses using the media and other teaching aids is necessary if EFL teachers and learners wish to have better results. Secondly, one way to make students interested in learning new words is the usage of aids. This may give them a sense of achievement when they observe their progress and also find joy and fun when they realize they are not wasting their time in places they have to wait for a long time (using their flash cards). This would indicate that learning is a whole-life process and they should not limit themselves to their class time.
Teachers ofthe ninth course showed concern about the different learning styles because they used some varied resources such as maps, charts, blackboard, dialogues, stories, and objects to achieve the goals oftheclasses. They did not usethe whiteboard only; they used materials related to the students’ different learning styles such as visual, musical and kinesthetic. The selection ofthe material according to learners’ preferences influenced their motivation for learning; they felt very well learning with those supplementarymaterials.
It is important to care about using videos properly. Teachers can be tempted to use them to spend some time or having fun, but there are many ways to work on them in order to get benefits for the students. Davies (2000) claims that before using videos teachers should have a clear purpose, not to having learners feel frustrated or bored. Gower, Phillips and Walters (2005) present videos as a good way for teaching grammatical and functional structures and a way to practice listening and speaking, too. They consider them useful to supplement coursebooks.
Hopefully, most textbooks used by schools today bring enough supplementary printed material that help teachers make their job more bearable and therefore more successful. Sacha (2006) states that teachers can make useof audio and video because they motivate the student’s attention. When using computers, teachers can open an immeasurable amount of opportunities to make learning more interesting. The Internet, for example, provides teachers with a huge amount of information and can be considered the link between native English speaking cultures through which students can gain a lot of practice with people from abroad without having to travel to English speaking countries. Unfortunately, it may also become a great obstacle since not all schools are equipped with technological advances. This study will benefit students and teachers and also will improve the educational system.
The second time the whiteboard was used was inthe lesson „A business plan‟ where the objective was to use simple present to describe a business plan. The whiteboard was used to copy an outline that students had to complete about a business plan, some ofthe information required was the following: name ofthe business, address, name ofthe owner, phone number, goals, market, competition, manager, number of employees, and timelines. Students read a text on the book and then the teacher invited them to think on a business idea to complete the outline that they copied from the board. After this, learners had to write a short essay about their business plan. Then, the teacher divided the board into two sections and invited two students to write their essays on the board as a model for the rest ofthe class. The whiteboard was pertinent to the topic because it was used to write main elements of a business plan. In addition, the whiteboard was pertinent to the objective ofthe lesson because it was used to model the type of essay that students had to write using the simple present.