Inthe first study, which focus was the impact of video inthe ESL classroom on students’ interest and motivation, two groups were established: a control group and a test group. All classes were comprised of 30 students who were chosen
randomly by the registrar´s office. Both groups managed the same materials, but the test group had a video component added to the teaching materials. The course consisted of fifteen 90-minute classes. The test group used a video component in eight classes which consisted of eight comedy sketches covering basic grammar patterns and functions. Both groups had the same instructor and followed the same curriculum, with the exception ofthesupplementary video component. They also had the same evaluation forms by tests and assignments. An identical questionnaire was distributed to the 120 students at the end ofthe term. The questionnaire had several statements regarding the students´ attitude towards the class and was applied to indicate the level of agreement or disagreement by selecting one response out of five possible responses. There was also a section where students could make any
In relation to variety, this study proposed to analyze and compare theuseof eighteen kinds ofsupplementarymaterials grouped in five main categories: visual, audio, audio- visual, realia and Online, in order to determine if there is variety ofuseof these materialsinEFLclasses. With this in mind, it can be observed in graph 2 that in both high schools thesupplementary material were limited to theuseofthe flash cards, pictures, handouts, posters, word cards, songs, dialogues, realia andof course, the white board that was the mostly used, leaving out theuseof audio-visual materialsand online resources. However, it is seen that the larger variety ofuseofsupplementary material was inthepublichighschool. This means that the teacher from this educational institution was more aware ofthe benefits of using supporting aids to reach the objective ofthe class as well as to help the learning process ofthe students.
according to the teacher, the topic ofthe lessons did not require to use those types ofmaterials.
10 th grades
The frequency ofsupplementarymaterials used in 10 th grade shows that teaching aids were used 6 times inthepublichighschooland 11 times intheprivatehighschool. Inthepublicschoolthe whiteboard was used 5 times that is 83.3% and dialogues were used once that is 16.7%. The whiteboard was mainly used though the teacher remarked that he preferred to utilize flashcards, pictures, and posters. He did not give any explanation to support those results but it was observed that the whiteboard was pertinent to the objective in almost all classes. Students commented that they preferred to learn by means of songs, pictures, flashcards, or any type of material that make theclasses more motivating.
This study explores theuseofsupplementarymaterialsinEFLClasses. The purpose of this study was to determine which were the most frequent supplementarymaterials used by teachers. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used in order to ensure the best results. The Literature review was based on a wide-range of text references; classes were structurally observed and data was collected inthe observation matrixes. Moreover, surveys were administered to students and English teachers. Two high Schools, one publicand one private were chosen randomly to do the research inthe north ofthe city of Quito, Ecuador. The sample was a group of students from first, second, and third year as well as their teachers. As conclusion, it may be said that both schools used supplementary material. Inprivateschool, supplementarymaterials were used slightly more often than inpublic education. Visual aids rated as most commonly used in both schools since teachers do not realize the importance ofuse different
The frequency ofuseofmaterialsinthe 3 rd year shows that thepublichighschool used flashcards once andthe whiteboard was used twice. Regarding theprivatehighschool, pictures, whiteboard and flipchart were used once
respectively. According to this, theprivatehighschool used more resources than thepublichighschool mainly because the teacher considered that it is important to take into account students’ learning styles. Supplementary material helps to understand the class and motivate to the students to participate, considering the correct useof each one. However, McIntyre (2009) reports that research done about theuseofsupplementarymaterialsin classrooms revealed that learners consider thematerials used by teachers as very effective tools for their learning process. According to those students, each time that teacher used teaching aids the pace of teaching flows fast but it was adequate. Moreover, the students knew exactly how to define the role of those materials applied inthe classroom
This study is about theuseofsupplementarymaterialsin English foreign language (EFL) classes with a comparativeanalysisofpublicandprivatehigh schools in Guayaquil. Its purpose is to find out whether or not teachers usesupplementarymaterials, and if they do, how pertinent, appropriate, and qualified they are. This research was conducted inprivateandpublichigh schools. It consisted of observing 30 EFLclasses from 1st, 2nd and 3 rd Senior years. This study was qualitative and quantitative approached. Data was collected through observation forms, questionnaires, and surveys. For theanalysisand interpretation of results, the qualitative analysis was done taking into consideration pertinence, appropriateness and quality of each type ofsupplementary material used. And quantitative analysis was done to determine and analyze the frequency ofsupplementarymaterials used inthe three observed courses.
Inthe second year oftheprivatehighschool, supplementarymaterials such as the whiteboard, handouts, dialogues, and songs were used to develop exercises for two learning styles that students of this year preferred in their EFLclasses.
The teacher used the visual style of learning the foreign language through theuseofthe whiteboard and handouts to allow students to understand easily vocabulary and grammar exposed on these materials, and he used the aural style of learning the foreign language through theuseof dialogues and songs to get students’ development of listening and speaking skills.; thus, the teacher taught his EFLclasses taking into account the different abilities, capabilities, and preferences of his students what allowed them to learn the foreign language using their own style. According to Candlin and Mercer ( 2001, p. 35) notes, “that a learning style has been used to describe an individual’s natural, habitual, and preferred way of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills”.
Theuseofsupplementarymaterials is of particular importance for Second and Foreign Language learners who frequently are not sufficiently motivated to learn English despite years of formal study. Consequently, this study “Theuseofsupplementary material inEFLclasses: A comparativeAnalysisof a Publicand a PrivateHighSchoolinthe city of Quito- Ecuador” is focused on the extra material used inthe classroom that is different from that which is part ofthe course book and workbook. The sample chosen for this research was the selection of 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd years which consisted of male gender class whose students were around 14 and 17 years old. It was also necessary to develop a survey which was conducted to collect data that was analyzed in order to evaluate the students’ and teachers’ opinions on using supplementarymaterials. Teachers are not willing to use them every day, because they consider the student book is enough andthe teachers must been
Theprivatehighschool used more audio visual and online materials than thepublichighschoolinthe second year of senior highschool.
The teacher from thepublichighschool, showed that extra material helped students to keep the attention and interest in learning a second language. The teacher mentioned that she would like to usethe Cd player andthe TV, but theschool has only one of these two supplementarymaterials for all the teachers. She said the learning styles depend on the class she is teaching and she also indicated that students prefer the TV because students can watch, listen and comment about the scenes. She thought that supplementarymaterials should be used in s 90 percent inclasses because students feel motivated to learn the language.
pedagogically because they break the routine and get learners involved in what they like, at the time that they permit them discover their real abilities and their skillfulness in a foreign language.
Dorph (2009) also states that when teaching a foreign language, extra materials can influence to have a practical English teaching learning process. The author considers that a learning process should involve action and movement, especially when teaching children. Dorph also argues that it is not a recommendable idea to have students sit for long periods of time, because they become bored, which results in an evident reluctance to doing their academic tasks. Thereby, she asserts that English language classroom should rather be a work-shop-like activity, in which learners feel self-confident and willing to work and show their true colors. This in turn, enables language teachers to
The white board was used with pertinence in relation with the topic and objective. Firstly, teacher wrote useful expressions inthe order in which they were used inthe conversation: love, hate, like, into, can’t stand etc. After she reviewed the grammar and listened to expressions with strong stress because students would practice the dialogue at the end ofthe class. The teacher focused on the pronunciation ofthe words and explained about the simple present ofthe verb like in affirmative, negative and Interrogative form through examples. After working with some new language, teacher wrote all these words in spare parts on the board. Then, teacher asked students to read the words out loud to make the original pattern or a variation such as “she likes to dance belly dancing”, etc.
Dash (2007) explains that didactic materials can create a real meaning ofthe words and join abstract concepts with concrete experiences. There are a wide variety of aids to choose but the selection and application imply a crucial decision for teachers due to some aspects must be taken into account. In this section, some topics related to this will be analyzed; teaching a foreign language, learner differences, learning styles, teaching techniques and contexts, the role ofsupplementary material as well as a preview of theoretical studies.
29 well as to five websites that the learners could use to practice their language skills on their own. Before the training session started, the students were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire in their native language. Then, the students were given two weeks to complete a series of homework activities using the websites presented after the training session. The students worked in pairs on the computers at the learning center. The activities included exercises on slang expressions, idioms, phrasal verbs and vocabulary as well as reading, writing and listening practice. Moreover, students were asked to join a discussion thread inthe student forums of Dave‟s ESL Café. They were also encouraged to play some ofthe language games found at the different sites. Two weeks after the training session, the students were asked to hand in their assignments and to complete an anonymous questionnaire concerning their perceptions ofthe experience.
The methodology was used when five students were chosen as they had a longer experience in studying literature and had all the texts and genres chosen for the program. Theuseof a questionnaire divided into two parts: the first section focused on responds´ demographic profile such as their grade, gender and socio-economic status. The second part used a five points Likert scale to gauge student´s attitude towards text selection and teaching methods. As a conclusion the data from this study suggested that students were generally satisfied with the short stories but were less enthusiastic about the poems and novels.
Woolfolk (2007, p. 124) explains the definition of learning styles:
“The way a person approaches learning and studying is his or her learning style.”
There are different learning styles that Bogod L. (1998) explains the characteristics ofthe learners. First, inthe visual learning, the learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. This kind of learners may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. Second, inthe audio learning, the students learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. And finally inthe tactile/kinesthetic learning the students learn through, moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands- on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them.
that presenting learners real objects motivates them and allow them to be creative when practicing the target language while Baldry (2010) refers to realia as a way to turn English classes into something
memorable for them. Realia can be used in almost any subject and ages. It is a way to save time when learners recognize immediately instead of having long explanations or using other techniques which can consume much more time. Theuseof realia promotes elicitation in students. Inthe case of adults, they are very receptive to this resource and find it refreshing. Bringing realia to the class could also be a tool to prompt conversation. They can be used in role-plays to obtain the most realistic situations or promote speaking activities.
They can also be aids such as maps and drawings. The audiovisuals can be grouped into the following categories, projected and non-projected.
In education, realia are objects from real life used in classroom instruction by teachers to improve students' understanding of other cultures and real life situations. InEFL terms refers to any real object we use to bring the class to life and vice verse, life to life. Every day, objects that surround us by relating them to language and looking at them in new ways. Munford (2008) agrees that “real objects make a connection between objects and authentic language materials: they provide current language on all topics imaginable and provide constant reinforcement of grammatical forms learned inthe classroom”. A foreign languageteacher often employs realia to strengthen students' associations between words for everyday objects andthe objects themselves. In many cases, these objects are part of an instructional kit which includes a manual and is thus considered as being part of a documentary whole by librarians. Realia is increasingly being utilized in new and interesting ways.
level of understanding ofthe students. The quality of this material was good;
the things written on the board were clear and easy to read.
In class 3, the topic was The Black Bull andthe objectives were to develop extensive and intensive listening skills and to re-tell stories. The first task was to read the instructions and look at the pictures inthe book, before reading the script about the story the teacher demonstrated the task with the given example from the textbook. The teacher read the legend andthe students had to match the information with the pictures in their books. After that, the teacher wrote the answers on the board about the sequence ofthe legend. Then she read the text again for the second part ofthe task that was about completing verbs in past. Finally the teacher copied the answers on the board for everyone to compare, they had to retell the story with these clues.
Inthe fourth class, the teacher used realia to explain about Occupations in order to develop the speakingskill about items people in different occupations use. To do that, the teacher gathered certain realia from the students, like: cell phone, make-up,lipsticks, calculators and mirrors to create sentences inthe simple present regarding how people use these objects in their jobs.For example, the teacher said the following sentence:„She is an architect, s he uses a calculator ‟ . Then, she asked the students to say oral sentences like the examples given, using occupations they were familiar with, such as „farmer‟, „driver‟, „artist‟, „policeman‟, „carpenter‟, and „secretary‟, combining them with the objects she collected from the students. It was also related to the content andthe objective ofthe class.
52 Learning Styles
Despite it is a teacher‟s task consider the different learning styles ofthe students in order to motivate them to learn the English language, the teacher of tenth grade did not consider the learning styles of her students since her classes were boring and not interesting. However, she should have focused on the following kind of learners in order to increase students participation: the visual-spatial learner who visualizes images to remember information, the physical-kinesthetic learner who learns best by using all the senses, sounds are very important to this kind of learner, the musical learner who responds to rhythm and likes activities which involve e music and songs, the interpersonal learner who likes to work with other people, andthe intrapersonal learner who prefers to work alone. In fact, according to the student‟s survey her students prefer to learn by using power point presentations, pictures, whiteboard, songs, movies, realia, and dialogues.