Saville (2006) on distinguishing ages directed related to language learning wonders why some learners are more successful than others. But when emphasizing on age differences, she claims that perhaps the greatest difference between adults and children hinges in that, the former ones come to lessons with a long history of learning experience and a rich social context, which allow them to express their opinions about how the teaching-learning process should be carried out. They also take advantage of their successful and failing experiences. Whereas children suffer from the lack of background, despite the fact that some of them practice more than adults and get a better level of
Lightbown & Spada (2006) suggests that making a comparison between the learning of children and adults, for example, results difficult since they are different groups of people and thus are not exposed to the same circumstances. In general, adults are more pressured to speak English from the very beginning in an accurate way, because they are usually exposed to situations that demand a more sophisticated language. Referring to this point, Durham (2010) states, “adults need to be able to relate learning to something in their life that means something to them… Therefore, adu lts tend to learn
In class two, the teacher used two types ofmaterials; one of them was the board. The topic was In Your Free Time andthe objective ofthe lesson was to review vocabulary related to daily activities. First, the teacher asked for some ideas about free time activities and wrote them on the board as the students spoke. Then, they did a task about taking notes, the answers of this task were written by the teacher on the board for everyone to compare. Also, the teacher wrote a pair of questions about favorite activities and allowed them some time to give the answers. After that, the teacher copied a table from the textbook on the board and modeled the task first, then the students had to write on their books the answers from the questions and finally the teacher completed the chart on the board to make sure everyone had the correct answers.
In this last class the theme was Things we like doing. The topic was The Simple Present Tense ( affirmative and negative ), like +ing. The objective was to identify the simple present tense structure in a short story. The students already knew the pertinent vocabulary for this lesson (hobbies and interests) The teacher started writing on the board two sentence containing this structure, through reading those sentences she made the students realize theuseof “ing”. Then without given a longer explanation she continued reading a short story about a girl with and unusual hobby. The instructions were to listen carefully to the reading paying attention to the given structure The story contained real facts about a 16 years old girl. After
Generally people call children to the learners who are between the ages from 2 to 12. Harmer (2009, p.14) says that children don t just focus on what is being taught, but also learn all sorts of other things at the same time, taking information from whatever is going on around then . In addition, Spratt, Pulverness, & Williams (2005, p.53) argues that children need to move, learn through experience, are not afraid of making mistakes or taking risks, and pay attention to meaning in language . That means for the teacher that the
Talking about learning styles, there are some conceptions and ideas about how people learn. For Cronin (2004), the way people process information is called learning style. Felder and Henriquez (1995 p.21) have a similar opinion; they argue that “learning style is the particular way through individuals acquire, retain, and retrieve information”. F urthermore, for them, people can acquire knowledge by seeing and hearing, reflecting and acting, logically and intuitively reasoning, memorizing and visualizing. Visual learners remember information by visualizing images, auditory learner would enjoy learning by listening to a song, chants and other activities which involves listening and repeating. Kinesthetic use all the senses to learn because they like being on movement and also touching things. The
Turning to the pedagogical overtones ofthe study, two implications can be drawn from this study. Firstly, to allot some part ofthe instruction time inEFLclasses using the media and other teaching aids is necessary if EFL teachers and learners wish to have better results. Secondly, one way to make students interested in learning new words is the usage of aids. This may give them a sense of achievement when they observe their progress and also find joy and fun when they realize they are not wasting their time in places they have to wait for a long time (using their flash cards). This would indicate that learning is a whole-life process and they should not limit themselves to their class time.
However, theuseofthe White board was not appropriate to the students’ age and English level, because they were confused, so they started to do other activities. Most of them confused the meaning of words andthe grammar rules ofthe Wh-Questions. It is supposed that these problems are carried from the primary school; however, the teacher didn’t do anything to moti vate students; as a result, the students did not feel enough motivated to follow the class on the white board. According to this situation, Stipek (2002) suggest: “that the interest increases when students feel competent”, so I think the teacher
Having chart 12 as the provider of results, it was observable that the frequency ofuseofsupplementary material was higher on theprivate school with 9 times in contrast with 8 times inthepublic school. Pictures, songs and documentaries with a 13% each, from the total ofuseofmaterialsinthepublic school, went over theprivate school which had a zero percent ofusein all of them. I think that this should be reasonable because the book ofthepublic school has a poor amount of explanations and exercises. Since the laboratory ofthe school has many of these materials, the teacher used them in her classes; while, the teacher oftheprivate school did not have any that was related to the topics he taught.
The English language teaching and learning in a foreign country is a subject matter that has worried teachers through the times because ofthe complexity and adversity ofthe components that make up this kind of work. On one side the socio-cultural component, which plays a very important role due to the educational and historical context in which foreign languages are taught and learnt are decisive when taking decisions about teaching. On the other hand, success ofthe teaching- learning process depends on the selection ofthe bibliographical component and finally, the third basic element is the methodological one, in which in our opinion is the most important, in order to be effective there is a need to take into consideration a variety of aspects such as: the method used, the resources applied, andthe techniques that collaboratively go together for a successful teaching-learning process.
This study was conducted in Nobol and Daule cities, during the last months in 2011 and first days in 2012. The first step was the development of this research andthe elaboration ofthe literature review. The search started looking for information on different types of resources such as books, journals, internet sites, magazines, etc. The most important information was summarized and included as part ofthe theoretical background. The second step was the development of this research in a publicand a privatehigh school. Thepublichigh school was diurnal and nocturnal, in this case the research was developed inthe nocturnal one; on the other hand, theprivatehigh school was diurnal and catholic. In both highschools six courses were chosen in total-three inthepublichigh school and three intheprivatehigh school. In each course five classes were observed, each class lasted 45 minutes. Because ofthe lack of time during the last school periods in 2011, only two classes were chosen for the third year in both institutions to develop this research. Therefore, a total of 24 classes were observed, 12 inpublichigh school and 12 intheprivatehigh school. Procedures
The third observed class had as topic ‘T hings that move ’ andthe teacher planned the lesson to teach students how to use prepositions of direction. The flashcards that the teacher used in this class showed images of different inventions and she used the vocabulary written on students’ textbook to ask them questions as for example: How does this object move? Students answered using prepositions of place according to the model sentences from their books as for example: the plane flies across the sky. The material was pertinent to the content because they showed images of things that move. In addition, the material was pertinent to the objective ofthe lesson because they graphically described the meaning of prepositions. Andthe material was appropriate to the students’ level and age because they completed correctly the sentences with the prepositions of direction on the book. The flashcards had a good quality because they were made of plastic coated card and they were of a good size (55x38cm). S tudents’ answers show ed that they liked the material and they
Considering that the topic ofthe class was “Past Continuous, the teacher took into consideration the students’ age to develop creative exercises which consisted in correcting sentences by using the correct form ofthe verb in present continuous. For this activity, the teacher wrote sentences that contained actions such as: Late last night, I was sleeping, when I heard a noise outside. They were watching TV, while their parents were resting. The teacher asked the students to give ideas to form other sentences by taking into consideration their free time; this activity encouraged the students to participate during the class because they had the opportunity to express their preferences by doing the exercise on the whiteboard.
demonstrated that learners are more involved inthe learning process. A third study was conducted by Bayri (2010) to investigate whether learners appreciate theuseof visual works of art inthe speaking classroom. The students were shown three paintings and two photos belonging to the Great Depression Era. The works of art were displayed on a big screen TV inthe video room of School of Foreign Languages. Throughout the activity the students were given background knowledge about the era, which acted as a socio-historical analysisofthe period. After the implementation ofthe activity, the students were given an open-ended questionnaire and interviewed in order to find out if they consider theuseof visual arts in speaking class to be authentic and motivating. Inthe second part there were three paintings and two photos which were the icons ofthe Great Depression Era inthe United States. Each participant analyzed and interpreted each work of art individually by expressing his own feelings and reactions. The students discussed each work of art, they listened to each other, but they never agreed or disagreed with each other’s idea. The students have been found out to
This study explores theuseofsupplementarymaterialsinEFLClasses. The purpose of this study was to determine which were the most frequent supplementarymaterials used by teachers. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used in order to ensure the best results. The Literature review was based on a wide-range of text references; classes were structurally observed and data was collected inthe observation matrixes. Moreover, surveys were administered to students and English teachers. Two highSchools, one publicand one private were chosen randomly to do the research inthe north ofthe city of Quito, Ecuador. The sample was a group of students from first, second, and third year as well as their teachers. As conclusion, it may be said that both schools used supplementary material. Inprivate school, supplementarymaterials were used slightly more often than inpublic education. Visual aids rated as most commonly used in both schools since teachers do not realize the importance ofuse different
Thesupplementary material is important because it teaches the students to learn by attractive activities, they provide ideas and tricks for instruction and learning. As a great quantity ofthe teachers feel that the textbook is an external syllabus that has been “imposed on students without any regard for their individual needs” (Yien, 1996) thesupplementarymaterials are vital because they are suitable for students' needs, they give the students motivation, enthusiasm and everything a basic text cannot provide. For this reason, the teacher must realize that the textbook is not the only tool inthe classroom; it may be the major tool, but there are other materials that may be used (Biemer, 1992). Materials that include video and audio tapes, computer software, visual aids and technology, have the role of persuading the students and clarifying the content andthe procedures of learning. They help the students to develop their speaking, listening, reading and writing skills. The choice of deductive or inductive learning, the function of memorization, theuseof creativity and problem solving, production and reception, are characteristics influenced by these materials (Brody, 2006).
The topic ofthe fourth class was „Healthy eating‟. The objec tives of this lesson were: to build on students‟ knowledge of adverbs of quantity; to review vocabulary related to the human body; and, to practice writing skills. First, the whiteboard was used to check whether students had completed correctly a crossword about human body parts, the teacher wrote the vocabulary and students marked all the words that they found. Next, the whiteboard was used to write some adverbs of quantity such as any, both, few, lots of, several, none, etc. andthe teacher wrote some examples such as Broccoli has lots of calcium to help our bones; he highlighted each adverb with red marker and explained its usage. Then, students came to the board to write their own sentences such as Both milk and broccoli are good for our bones.
materials are sources that complement teachers ’ tasks. He states that this kind of material can cover lacks that course books can not because sometimes course books do not always fulfill the class program thoroughly. In addition Kalim (2008) says that there are some materials that can be easily understood by students and that do not need teacher´s help like audio visual materials, computer aided learning, projector, multimedia etc. Kalim states that there are two types ofsupplementarymaterials used in classrooms, they are projected display material and non projected display materials. Things as photographs are examples of non projected display material but projected display materials, according to Kalim can be divided into two types: still picture with audio or without audio and motion pictures, which can be divided into audio visual and only visual.