PDF superior TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

We have also born in mind the principles of representative- ness and balance [McEnery and Wilson 1996; Biber et al. 1998: 251–253] most specialists in corpus linguistics care about. In addi- tion, it was our conscious decision to include only edited and print- ed texts in prose. As with the other sub-corpora, first editions have been used whenever possible and this addresses mainly the issue of availability. Otherwise, and taking for granted that language change can be observed within 30-year periods (Kytö et al. 2000: 92], texts published within a thirty-year span from the first publica- tion date were selected.
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TítuloPronouns as stance markers in the Coruña Corpus : an analysis of the CETA, CEPhiT and CHET

TítuloPronouns as stance markers in the Coruña Corpus : an analysis of the CETA, CEPhiT and CHET

However, this difference may be also due to the evolution of discursive patterns over time, and for this reason I will analyse each discipline in the two centuries separately. As Figure 5 shows, the frequency with which authors use first person pronominal forms decreases in Astronomy texts (in CETA, 1,951 instances for the 18th and 1,771 for the 19th century) and in History texts (in CHET, 1,184 for the 18th and only 338 for the 19th century). Those authors who write about Philosophy, however, exhibit a different approach, and their use of first person pronouns does not decrease, but rather increases slightly (from 3,463 to 3,915 uses in CEPhiT). This may be due to the influence of the discipline itself and its contents. The late Modern period was heavily influenced by Berkeley, who defended the idea that objects only existed in as much as the self could perceive them, and by Kant, whose transcendental idealism also reinforced the notion of the self and the way in which the mind directly knows only ideas. The Romantic movement may also have had some influence on the writing style of many of these authors, who were not so thoroughly subject to the standards of the observational sciences.
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TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

span covered by the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (henceforth CC). All samples will be extracted from different sub-corpora of CC, namely, CETA (Corpus of English Texts on Astronomy) (Moskowich et al, 2012), CEPhiT (Corpus of English Philosophy Text, forthcoming), CELiST (Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts) and CHET (Corpus of History English Texts). Given that women writers in this period mainly devoted themselves to the creation of fictional works, the number of samples written by female authors in these corpora is not very high but it reflects eighteenth- and nineteenth-century scientific reality accurately. Since we will be working with samples from different corpora devoted each to a particular scientific discipline, we will use this as one of the variables in the analysis. Disciplinary conventions might exert an influence on how the author communicates science. The second variable will be time. To this respect we will present and compare our results per century, considering that, as could be expected, the findings will point to an evolution towards detachment, mainly in texts. Finally, the text-type or genre to which the text belongs, that is, generic conventions, could also determine the final writing.
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TítuloLexical Richness in Modern Writers: evidence from the Corpus of History English Texts

TítuloLexical Richness in Modern Writers: evidence from the Corpus of History English Texts

The specific kind of vocabulary found in a text may also be illuminating, and thus we will turn to this now, going from those samples containing the greater number of different types to those with the smaller. In 1857, Sewell wrote a textbook on the history of Greece, and mentioned in the preface that her intention was to provide children with an easy and understandable history of Greece. The genre, then, may have demanded a relatively greater than average use of repetition, and thus less variety. It seems that this might explain why her sample is the least rich lexically. In fact, the thirty three most frequently repeated words which she uses are function words such as the, to, of and and. The frequency list generated by the Coruña Corpus Tool shows that the most frequent content words are Athens (39 tokens), Cyrus (38 tokens), Athenians (34 tokens) and Alcibiades (33 tokens), all proper names. The text may thus reflect not only the constraints of subject matter, but also of the readership and pedagogical tendencies of a time where history was conceived of as a succession of deeds carried out by particular individuals rather than a conjunction of social or economic forces and their interpretation. In fact, although we have seen above that Sewell’s hapax legomena are the lowest, these include very “exotic” items such as Aeolis as well as very common ones such as weak, repeat, buy, leave and stone. Also, there are few types ranging from 2 to 4 tokens, which seems to indicate that her vocabulary is also less varied than that of the other authors considered.
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18th century scientific writing: A study of make complex predicates in the Coruña Corpus

18th century scientific writing: A study of make complex predicates in the Coruña Corpus

This first classification of the texts was made taking into account extralin- guistic information included in the work. For instance, Gibson’s text (1720), as he mentions in the preface, was written as an easy guide for farriers. The part analysed contains the anatomy of the horse clearly explained. The author him- self after criticising the works of Signior the Ruini and Mr. Snype, the late far- rier of Charles II, says: “we have in our Anatomical Part, wholly study’d the Benefict of such as are unacquainted with the Subject, having describ’d all the Parts of a Horse […] in as short as concise Manner as possible”. His intentions are recognised at the end of this preface, as well, when he explains: “we judged necessary to render it more intelligible and useful”. Likewise, Edwards (1743) and Donovan (1794) include in their prefaces useful comments. Edwards, refer- ring to the errors the reader could find in the book, speaks about the capacity of the potential “common” reader of the book to correct them. Donovan, calling his book a “pocket assistant”, directly mentions the addressee of his writing, an “unexperienced” collector. It is evident then, that besides the general instruc- tions given for beginners, the text is addressed to a popular reader.
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TítuloOn how "the motion of the stars" changed the language of science : a corpus based study of deverbal nominalizations in astronomy texts from 1700 to 1900

TítuloOn how "the motion of the stars" changed the language of science : a corpus based study of deverbal nominalizations in astronomy texts from 1700 to 1900

Corpus-based Studies in English) at the University of A Coruña. The main area of study of this group falls within the category of language variation and history of the English language and the common methodology for all members joins together traditional philological knowledge with new technologies. From 2003 to 2010 the group received funding to carry out the compilation of this project and, although the compilation of some of the sucorpora is still ongoing, the CETA subcorpus –the one used for this study– has already been published and others are ready for publication. In order to give coherence to the project and to widen the scope of the studies related to the corpus, the interests of the group have spread to cover other fields of knowledge. Thus, and as the result of the collaboration with the Information Retrieval Lab team at the Department of Computer Science at the University of A Coruña, a tool for retrieving information from the corpus (CCT) was designed. On the other hand, to understand better the scientific discourse produced by women, some of the members of the group are currently working on a project about women scientists from 1700 and 1930. The main aim of this project is to raise awareness about the contribution made by women to the field of science, not only as writers but also as assistants, editors, translators, illustrators and collectors, which were in many cases the only professions allowed to them (Crespo, Puente, Bello & Lojo 2012).
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TítuloNoun formation in the scientific register of late modern english : a corpus based approach

TítuloNoun formation in the scientific register of late modern english : a corpus based approach

Thus, the time span selected follows unambiguous motives. In general, the late Modern English period is characterised by antagonistic tendencies regarding language. A movement that purported the customary use of Latin in scientific texts coexisted with another that suggested that disseminating knowledge in the vernacular would undoubtedly reach a wider audience. Also, to make matters worse a third movement intended to create a universal scientific language from scratch. Though the date for the vernacularisation of science has been set as early as 1375 (Taavitsainen & Pahta 2004), it is nonetheless certain that we cannot talk about an outburst of texts written in English until the turn of the seventeenth century, with a consolidation in the eighteenth, since even the most important promoters of the scientific revolution published their works in Latin in the first place (Bacon’s Novum Organum, Newton’s Principia). In sum, the eighteenth century seems, therefore, a fairly reasonable moment in the history of the English language to begin an approach to the morphological devices employed in the period to coin new linguistic elements. We must bear in mind, however, that changes happening in the eighteenth century are not likely to be largely observed until the following century, especially those closer to the turn of the century. Future studies using the nineteenth century section of the Coruña Corpus will definitely address this issue.
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TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

Among the many definitions found in the literature, some appear to be looser, or more “flexible” than others. For instance, early definitions of corpus by Leech include “a source of systematically retrievable data and…a testbed for linguistic hypotheses” (1991: 9), focusing on its serviceability in research, or, otherwise, “a helluva lot of texts, stored in a computer” (1992: 106), referring to its actual shape and content. Kilgarriff & Grefenstette (2003: 334) also emphasise the practical side of corpora, stating that “[a] corpus is a collection of texts when considered as an object of language or literary study” (in Saldanha 2009: 2). From this definition, any collection of texts can be considered a corpus when used in linguistic or literary research. On the other end of the scale, Sinclair (1994: 14) defines corpus as “a collection of pieces of language that are selected and ordered according to explicit linguistic criteria in order to be used as a sample of the language”, while McEnery & Wilson (1996: 24) characterise it as “[a] finite-sized body of machine-readable texts sampled in order to be maximally representative of the language variety under consideration”. Biber et al. (1998: 4), in turn, list four main characteristics of a “corpus approach”: it is empirical, in that it analyses the actual patterns of language use in natural texts; the collection of natural texts has to be large and principled; computers are used in its analysis; and this analysis combines quantitative and qualitative techniques. All in all, despite the flexibility of the term, there seems to be a general consensus among corpus linguists (Biber 1993; McEnery & Wilson 1996; Martí & Castellón 2000; Tognini-Bonelly 2001; Baker 2002; Bowker & Pearson 2002; McEnery 2003; Taavitsainen 2005) that a corpus, rather than being a mere collection of electronic texts, has to be compiled according to certain criteria. These include size, representativeness, balance and time-span, as well as register selection and research scope.
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TítuloWriting Science, Compiling Science: The Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloWriting Science, Compiling Science: The Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

The Coruña Corpus: A Collection of Samples for the Historical Study of English Scientific Writing is a project on which the MUSTE Group has been working since 2003 in the University of A Coruña (Spain). It has been designed as a tool for the study of language change in English scientific writing in general as well as within the different scientific disciplines. Its purpose is to facilitate investigation at all linguistic levels, though, in principle, phonology is not included among our intended research topics. A rough definition of our corpus would say it contains English scientific texts other than medical produced between 1600 and 1900. In order to retrieve information from the compiled data, we decided to create a corpus management tool. Loosely speaking the Coruña Corpus Tool (CCT) is an Information Retrieval (IR) system where the indexed textual repository is the set of compiled documents that constitutes the CC.
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TítuloMuStE: the Dimensions of Linguistic Research at UDC

TítuloMuStE: the Dimensions of Linguistic Research at UDC

lled collocations in Mel’čuk’s (1994) terminology— were dealt with in Lareo and Esteve (2008) and Lareo (2009) or conditional structures were delved into by Puente-Cas- telo and Monaco (2013) or Puente-Castelo (2016). Our interest for the socio-historical dimension of the English language has recently grown into several and gra- dual forays into the wide field of discourse analysis. In those we have studied written texts from various discur- sive perspectives such as stance, persuasion, abstraction, involvement, modality and women’s scientific writing. The triggering effect of all this was the creation of what has been and still is MuStE’s flagship, the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC for short). Designed to be a generic or specific corpusas opposed to a gene- ral corpus—, it is now well known and respected within the academic community. An electronic corpus is not a mere juxtaposition of textsas sometimes understood in the field of literary studies. It is not a simple bunch of scanned images either as these formats cannot possibly be read and processed by a computer. On the contrary, the same as Biber (1993), Meyer (2002) and Crystal (2003), we agree that a corpus should be briefly defined as a “principled” collection of machine-readable texts. The truth is that the idea of creating a corpus, a speciali- sed one focusing on scientific English, first arose in 2003 when some members of the MuStE group were awarded funding from the University of A Coruña to explore the historical background of English as the language of scien- ce. We soon realised that the compilation of a corpus of scientific texts from the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- turies would fill a gap in the field of English historical linguistics. At that moment, we had the examples of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (Rissanen et al. 1991) and the Lampeter Corpus of English Tracts (Schmied et al, 1999). In Helsinki, Prof. Taavitsainen and her colleagues were working on the compilation of MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts) and we thought our corpus would complement theirs in the history of scientific English as, initially, the Helsinki project was intended to cover the Middle Ages and the early Modern period, focusing on medical texts.
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Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Previous research (Crespo and Moskowich 2016; Moskowich 2017) has shown that both subject matter and communicative format or genre exert a great influence on linguistic choice. The genres included in the CC cover different degrees of formality and proximity to the oral register. Thus, we find samples extracted from Lectures, Dialogues, and Letters (speech-based genres) and others such as Textbooks, Treatises, or Travelogues, which are typically written to be read. We have analyzed the behavior of perhaps and possibly separately, since although the OED gives a very similar meaning for both, which might imply similar kinds of use, the results for the previous variables have led us to prefer a separate analysis, this as a means of seeing whether they would also behave differently or not here. Thus, the adverb perhaps was taken first, and a search was made for all those instances in which it was accompanied by modal verbs in the 12 different genres represented in our material. Figure 6 illustrates the very varied distribution that we found. On the one hand, Essay (2.19 nf) and Lecture (1.45 nf) are the two formats that contain the highest number of occurrences of perhaps when accompanied by a modal verb. It is to be noted that both formats are close to orality, in that lectures are conceived of as pieces of writing to be read out, and essays were originally the reports of the public demonstrations of experiments. Such characteristics of these formats may explain the preference for an adverb of Germanic origin such as perhaps. On the other hand, from the 12 genres, four contained no instances of these constructions, this being the case with Dictionary, Catalogue, Travelogue, and Biography. Curiously, these are discipline-specific genres, in that Biography and Travelogue are exclusive to the History corpus, and Catalogue has thus far only been found in the Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts (under compilation). Meanwhile, Dictionary—a format that can also be found in other disciplines—is represented here by a sample in CETA (Astronomy). It is also true that although the form and function of both Catalogue and Dictionary do not seem to be likely to contain structures such as those we are dealing with, the other two (Travelogue and Biography) might indeed be expected to contain some instances precisely because of their nature.
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Beginning and Evolution of the #MeToo Movement as Seen though Critical  Discourse Analysis and its Effect on the Shift of Power in the  Hollywood Industry as a Result

Beginning and Evolution of the #MeToo Movement as Seen though Critical Discourse Analysis and its Effect on the Shift of Power in the Hollywood Industry as a Result

ourselves and being ourselves, for owning our experiences, our bodies, and our lives.’. Reese Witherspoon narrates her own experience as a survivor of sexual assault saying ‘I wish I could tell you that was an isolated incident in my career, but sadly, it wasn’t. I have had multiple experiences of harassment and sexual assault, and I don’t speak about them very often, but after hearing all the stories these past few days and hearing these brave women speak up tonight, the things that we’re kind of told to sweep under the rug and not talk about, it’s made me want to speak up.’. Frances McDormand urged all the female nominees in every category at The Oscars 2018 to stand up to deliver an important message about discrimination saying ‘Loor aeound, ladies and gentlemen, because we all have stories to tell and projects we need financed. Don’t talk to us about it at the parties tonight. Invite us to your office in a couple of days, or you can come to ours, whatever suits you best, and we’ll tell you all about them. I have to words to leave with you tonight, ladies and gentlemen: inclusion rider.’
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51 Lee mas

The discursive construction of responsibility : strategies used by political and military witnesses in public hearings

The discursive construction of responsibility : strategies used by political and military witnesses in public hearings

SIR RODERIC LYNE: I would just like to ask one final question to wrap up this legal chapter, and this is really -- you were in the position, ultimately, where you had to give this determination. You had to go through with the action, Lord Goldsmith was preparing with the assistance of Christopher Greenwood for the possibility of legal challenge. He knew that he had taken a decision that some others, many others, perhaps, were arguing with and were going to argue with, and he had put something to you that was described as a reasonable case, but, nevertheless, not one that he would have confidently put before a court. You then you had to decide whether you were convinced that this was a strong enough legal basis to take a very serious action of participating in a full-scale invasion of another country. How convinced were you, at this point, that you had a strong legal case for doing what you did? RT HON TONY BLAIR: I would put it in this way. What I needed to know from him was, in the end, was he going to say this was lawful? He had to come to conclusion in the end, and I was a lawyer myself, I wrote many, many opinions for clients, and they tend to be, on the one hand on the other hand, but you come to a conclusion in the end and he had to come to that conclusion. Incidentally, I think he wasn't alone in international law in coming to that conclusion, for very obvious reasons, because, as I say, if you read the words in 1441 it is pretty clear this was Saddam's last chance. So that was what he had to do. He did it. As I say, anybody who knows Peter knows he would not have done it unless he believed in it and thought it was the correct thing to do, and that was -- for us and for our armed forces, that was sufficient. In his answer turn, Blair reformulates the focus of the question so that it is no longer about his assessment of the legality of the war but Lord Goldsmith´s. In this way, the witness shifts responsibility to the former General Attorney by representing him as the source of legal basis for the war and ultimately responsible for it. This case also illustrates an emblematic feature of Blair´s transformative answers, namely, the use of metapragmatic frames, such as I would put it in this way. This mechanism which may sound explanatory functions to restrict information. Their cumulative effect is the projection of an almost arrogant and paternalist attitude bordering on smugness.
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152 Lee mas

Open Journal Systems

Open Journal Systems

The insights provided by this paper regarding the cross-linguistic differences in the expression of evaluative judgements of relevance can be applied to the field of translation practice and cross-cultural communication. Even if most journalistic opinion discourse is not usually translated, the way ideology and cultural issues are manifested through linguistic choices in a particular language may cross the boundaries of a particular genre or text type. This study also highlights the interdisciplinarity of studies in linguistics, depicting a continuum from (lexical) contrastive analysis to discourse analysis by pointing out aspects such as the interaction between writer and reader (persuasion), the sense of self of the writer (authorial stance) and the cultural context of production and reception of a text (English and Spanish societies), which could be exploited in future research.
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UPM system for the translation task

UPM system for the translation task

For development and test sets, the same actions were carried out, but now, special characters were not deleted, but separated in tokens, i.e., a blank space was introduced between special characters and adjacent words. For instance, “la bolsa de Praga , al principio del martes comercial , reaccionó inmediatamente a la caída del lunes cuando descendió aproximadamente a un 6 % .”

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Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

As already mentioned (Moskowich, 2011) the CC is intended to complement other corpora which share with it their diachronic nature and their specificity. Similar computerised corpora include ARCHER, The Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts, Middle English Medical Texts (MEMT) and The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. From a chronological perspective, all sub-corpora included in the Coruña Corpus cover a gap of 160 years after the scope of the Lampeter Corpus, (1640-1740). As for domain, CEPhiT (and all the parts of CC) is more specific than the Lampeter Corpus, which represents Science in general, and also more specific than the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts, which was not conceived of as a ‘specific’ corpus. From the point of view of the content, although both CC and ARCHER contain samples of scientific writing, they do not collide either since the latter has material extracted from the Philosophical Transactions whereas the former offers a representation of longer formats and different genres. Our aim in building the sub-corpus described here is that it will allow scholars to explore the negotiation of knowledge between authors and audience as well as to study the changing conventions as presented in different linguistic strategies.
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On the origin and history of the English prepositional type a-hunting: a corpus-based study

On the origin and history of the English prepositional type a-hunting: a corpus-based study

Jespersen shows a combination of the two above-mentioned theories (A Modera English Grammar IV168-69): in a first formulation, he asserted that the progressive tenses "seem to have[r]

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Exploring the level of specialisation of a corpus of scientific texts and students’ perceptions and needs in an ESP context

Exploring the level of specialisation of a corpus of scientific texts and students’ perceptions and needs in an ESP context

These are some of the main reasons why it was deemed especially relevant to analyse the degree of specialisation of the scientific texts that would be eventually read and analysed in the ESP and EAP classroom context. There are two main ways of addressing the degree of specialisation (Ciapuscio & Kugel 2002; Edo-Marzà 2011: 298). Firstly, some authors refer to a “sharp line” or “clear-cut boundary” which allows for “a fast and easy distinction between general and specialised language” (Edo-Marzà 2011: 298). This distinction would be mainly based on “the specificity of the topics dealt with, addressers and addressees and communicative situations” (Edo-Marzà 2011: 298). In contrast, other authors mention that there is a continuum and that “the difference between general and specific is a matter of degree” (Cabré 1993, 1999; Edo-Marzà 2011: 298). The approach which has been adopted in this specific study coincides with the second perspective, and in particular with the three levels mentioned by Cabré, i.e. highly specialised, specialised and fairly specialised. Therefore, measuring the degree of specialisation was one of the initial priorities in order to present students with a broader variety of resources and different levels of complexity. In order to measure specialisation, lexical richness and variation (Edo-Marzà 2011) as well as function, genre and tenor relationship (Edo-Marzà 2011; Vargas-Sierra 2005) were taken into consideration.
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Compiling and Using a Specialized Corpus: The Use of Since in Medical English Language

Compiling and Using a Specialized Corpus: The Use of Since in Medical English Language

I decided to study this specific particle due to its complexity as it can have three different functions: preposition and adverb denoting time, and conjunction expressing the reasons for something. Considering as no study regarding the use of since, in the general or specialized language, was found, it was felt that a corpus research may provide a clear, less intuitive insight into the use of since. Corpora can offer high benefits compared to other type of resources related to the study of the language such as dictionaries, grammars or natives speaker’s intuition, since corpora are based in real language. The use of corpora can compliment other resources dealing with the study of language. One of the most common criticisms of dictionaries is that they provide little contextual or usage information. However, nowadays examples of use based on corpora are increasingly being included in language resources such as online grammars and dictionaries, in which size is not a problem.
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51 Lee mas

A study of the English postposition ago in the speech of adult native speakers in advanced EFL recordings

A study of the English postposition ago in the speech of adult native speakers in advanced EFL recordings

(a) the number of instances of nuclear ago in transcription, although somewhat significant, does not seem to represent such a serious issue as was previously thought on the basis of the frequency with which the researcher heard ago as nuclear in the volunteers’ spoken English, the single most important factor which triggered this piece of research. This undoubtedly suggests that further study including a comparison of student recordings with their own predictions when transcribing might throw more light into the researcher’s perceived discrepancy. Perhaps the extra time at their disposal when predicting nucleus placement in transcription allows students to weigh up all the words in a group against each other in terms of semantic load and thus shy away from accenting ago as often as they would do in speech, where real time production leaves little room for weighing up possibilities.
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