PDF superior TítuloA study on the distribution of the adjective in english scientific texts from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries

TítuloA study on the distribution of the adjective in english scientific texts from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries

TítuloA study on the distribution of the adjective in english scientific texts from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries

32 although until the nineteenth century these terms were not created, were all subsumed under Natural History (Hankins, 1985: 10). Another way of classifying science followed the Aristotelian tradition, which divided them into speculative or theoretical; practical; and artistic or productive, and within these, sciences in terms of subject, matter and method were also distinguished (Porter, 2003). Another way of grouping scientific knowledge is mentioned by Olby, Canton, Christie and Hodge (1996: 861), where “instead of Bacon’s natural divisions based on the fixed and universal character of the human mind, they introduce the notion of conventional, negotiated divisions”. Thomas Kuhn (1976) distinguishes between classical (mathematical) and experimental (Baconian) sciences. Classical sciences consisted of a natural cluster of five sciences: Astronomy, Harmonics, Mathematics, Optics, and Statics (or Mechanics). Experimental sciences included a range of empirical inquiries, some of which have been already commonly identified with well-known sciences, such as Chemistry, while others were phenomena for new systematic investigation, such as Electricity, Magnetism, and Heat. The creation of new scientific disciplines was, according to Hankins (1985), probably the most important contribution of the Enlightenment to the modernization of science, and was instigated by a desire of changing the views of nature and its study.
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TítuloMuStE: the Dimensions of Linguistic Research at UDC

TítuloMuStE: the Dimensions of Linguistic Research at UDC

lled collocations in Mel’čuk’s (1994) terminology— were dealt with in Lareo and Esteve (2008) and Lareo (2009) or conditional structures were delved into by Puente-Cas- telo and Monaco (2013) or Puente-Castelo (2016). Our interest for the socio-historical dimension of the English language has recently grown into several and gra- dual forays into the wide field of discourse analysis. In those we have studied written texts from various discur- sive perspectives such as stance, persuasion, abstraction, involvement, modality and women’s scientific writing. The triggering effect of all this was the creation of what has been and still is MuStE’s flagship, the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC for short). Designed to be a generic or specific corpus —as opposed to a gene- ral corpus—, it is now well known and respected within the academic community. An electronic corpus is not a mere juxtaposition of texts —as sometimes understood in the field of literary studies. It is not a simple bunch of scanned images either as these formats cannot possibly be read and processed by a computer. On the contrary, the same as Biber (1993), Meyer (2002) and Crystal (2003), we agree that a corpus should be briefly defined as a “principled” collection of machine-readable texts. The truth is that the idea of creating a corpus, a speciali- sed one focusing on scientific English, first arose in 2003 when some members of the MuStE group were awarded funding from the University of A Coruña to explore the historical background of English as the language of scien- ce. We soon realised that the compilation of a corpus of scientific texts from the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- turies would fill a gap in the field of English historical linguistics. At that moment, we had the examples of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (Rissanen et al. 1991) and the Lampeter Corpus of English Tracts (Schmied et al, 1999). In Helsinki, Prof. Taavitsainen and her colleagues were working on the compilation of MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts) and we thought our corpus would complement theirs in the history of scientific English as, initially, the Helsinki project was intended to cover the Middle Ages and the early Modern period, focusing on medical texts.
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TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

It is the aim of the current paper to examine late Modern English scientific texts in order to ascertain whether scientific writing was wholly vernacularised, as claimed by some, and to what extent not only isolated terms but also expres- sions of Greek and Latin origin are still to be found in scientific works of dif- ferent technical levels. A further goal here is to compare the behaviour of these forms in disciplines which today we would call hard or soft sciences. To this end, section two provides a short overview of the scientific and linguistic situation in the English-speaking world during the eighteenth century, and also sets out the initial working hypothesis for this study. Section three describes the material and methodology used, followed by a section presenting the findings of the analysis, both in general terms and in a more detailed way, offering a perspective on the kind of terms predominating in each of the disciplines analysed, plus their type and distribution. Finally, some conclusions will be presented.
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TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

In a more exaggerated way than eighteenth-century Philosophy, Life Sciences in the 1700s is mostly composed of treatises (>75%), suggesting this time again a connection between scientific discipline and genre (even though, as was mentioned earlier, it is probable that the definitive version of CELiST will have a different classification and a lesser proportion of treatises). Of the three scientific disciplines contemplated for our study, eighteenth-century Life Sciences appears to have the most formal, specialised frame of discourse, which seems to indicate that the topics listed above were treated with similar rigour and precision (at least, concerning genre conventions). Some diversity is nonetheless present, with two essays, one textbook and one letter. In the nineteenth century, treatises still occupy the main position, but cover now only half of the subcorpus, giving way to the didactic genres (lectures and textbooks), two letters and an article. As was noticed in previous studies (Atkinson 1999; Moskowich & Monaco 2014, 2016), it is likely that letters are used in the nineteenth-century part of CELiST as a carefully constructed genre which invites the reader to “observe” something (in this case, nature) from a so-called “personal” (i.e. the writer’s) view, often used by women writers. On the other hand, the emergence of the Textbook and the Lecture genres in the nineteenth century seems to suggest that, just like Philosophy, Life Sciences had a more theoretical character in the eighteenth century, whereas the need (or possibility) for using it as a means of instruction may have materialised later in the nineteenth century. The case of Astronomy, by contrast, is completely the opposite in that it was in the eighteenth century that the necessity of teaching seemed to be more apparent, considering the large number of textbooks (see Figures 3.2 and 3.3).
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La organizacin de los servicios de salud y su relacin con la utilizacin y acceso a las pruebas rpidas para la deteccin del VIH en las poblaciones clave en Morelos, Mxico

La organizacin de los servicios de salud y su relacin con la utilizacin y acceso a las pruebas rpidas para la deteccin del VIH en las poblaciones clave en Morelos, Mxico

I live in a small town. It’s hard for me to get to my appointments at the CAPASITS, because of the distance and my health. I have to transfer buses and, now, for example, I’m not working, spending money is a problem for me. There have been times where I’ve missed my appointments because I couldn’t get there in time. I think it’s necessary to have other clinics like the CAPASITS nearby, because the health center in my locality doesn’t have the medicine I need [interview 12: gay man]. The possibility of obtaining an early diagnosis is hampered by the referral of users to CAPASITS—albeit the availability of tests at all HCs and public hospitals; the bureaucratic barriers characterizing public health organization, and the lack of information among health workers:
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Application of contextualized study guides in the subject of english to improve the comprehension of written texts at literal level among high school students in second grade group “a” at serafín filomeno high school – moyobamba 2016

Application of contextualized study guides in the subject of english to improve the comprehension of written texts at literal level among high school students in second grade group “a” at serafín filomeno high school – moyobamba 2016

stage, letters are processed in parallel. Moreover, readers have been shown to use syntactic information to deal with ambiguous words. Kolers (1969) also mentioned higher level information is being used in word recognition, which may conflict with the direction of the bottom-up model. Thus, the bottom-up model was criticized because its view of reading comprehension is in a rigid, word-by-word fashion (Wang 1998). The criticisms also come from several pshycholinguistic such as Coady (1979). Lynch and Hudson (1991), and Goodman (1970). They argued that reading involves more than word perceptions. Lynch and Hudson (1991), for instance, pointed out that this model slows, the readers down in a way that they cannot comprehend larger language units. Therefore, a model that emphasized a process from higher- level comprehension came in.
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A new homolid crab, Zygastrocarcinus
				carolinasensis n. sp., from the Cretaceous (Campanian) of NE Mexico:
				implications for paleobiogeography

A new homolid crab, Zygastrocarcinus carolinasensis n. sp., from the Cretaceous (Campanian) of NE Mexico: implications for paleobiogeography

A new species of the homolid crab, Zygastrocarcinus carolinasensis n. sp., is reported from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Cam- panian) strata of Coahuila, NE Mexico. Only the anterior part of the ~8 mm wide carapace was preserved in addition to a part of the sternum (sternites 1-6). The sternum is the oldest figured example of a fossil homolid sternum, and also of the entire section of fossil Homoloida. The sternum seems to be similar to extant homolids in general outline, and to an earlier described Eocene homolid. Hitherto, Zygastrocarcinus spp. were only known from the northern part of the USA (Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota). Thus, the new species extends the geographic range of the genus during the Cretaceous to much of North America. Additionally, this is the second fossil homolid known from Mexico.
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The use of multivariate statistical analysis methods as an effective tool for investment attractiveness

The use of multivariate statistical analysis methods as an effective tool for investment attractiveness

Indeed, it is impossible to achieve the appropriate level of innovativeness of a competitive business in modern realities, without involving third-party innovative resources. On the other hand, the borrower is always exposed to credit risk in the form of the possibility of improper fulfillment of his obligations. In such cases, to assess the investment attractiveness of a particular borrower, the system of assessment indicators is used (the purpose of loan, its amount, the borrower’s reputation, the financial situation of his business, etc.). It is clear that subjectivity can appear during assessment, which must be neutralized.
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The Determinant Factors and the Costs of Schooling in Bolivia

The Determinant Factors and the Costs of Schooling in Bolivia

This study examines some aspects related to the costs and efficiency of the Bolivian school system, using extensive cross section data from the ECIEL Survey of 1975. Our fundamental interest in undertaking the study has been to test the following hypothesis (put in a simplified from): schooling and school resources are important in explaining academic achievement (as measured by suitable test scores) and over-age students (or their absence), whereas conditions of family background and environment are less relevant. If the above theory of school success stands up to our test, we shall further examine the particular impact on achievement of various school resources. 1 The estimation of educational production functions, using regression and
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Haciendas, ranchos and indian communities : new perspectives on the agrarian question and popular rebellion in Veracruz

Haciendas, ranchos and indian communities : new perspectives on the agrarian question and popular rebellion in Veracruz

My purpose here is to examine the major studies that have appeared over the past decade on the Veracruz agrarian question in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and show how [r]

42 Lee mas

Twenty nuclear DNA polymorphisms in a Moroccan population: a comparison with seven other human populations

Twenty nuclear DNA polymorphisms in a Moroccan population: a comparison with seven other human populations

On the relationship with other European populations and, in particular, with the Iberian Peninsula, the present data also indicate a substantial differentiation. The distance between the Moroccan population and any European population (average 0.045) is much higher than the distance among European populations (average 0.015). Concerning this question, previous genetic data and interpreta- tions are controversial (see, for instance, Arnaiz-Villena et al. 1999, and Comas et al. 2000). Our genetic distance analysis is concordant with the north-south differ- entiation evidenced by different kinds of genetic markers (classical, mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and Alu insertions). This differentiation has been interpreted as generated by parallel Neolithic waves along the two Mediterranean shores fol- lowed by a long period of isolation due to geographical and linguistic factors (Si- moni et al. 1999; Comas et al. 2000). In such a scenario, a certain degree of par- ticular differentiation should also be expected between North Africa and some European populations that have been traditionally interpreted as resulting from strong isolation, such as the Basques (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994). However, the 20 markers analyzed fail to reveal any singularity of Basques either in relation to other European populations (according to other data such as mtDNA [Bertranpetit et al. 1995] and Y-chromosome markers [Bosch et al. 1999]) or in relative com- parisons with North Africa.
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A descriptive analyisi of anglicism used in Ecadorean newspapers

A descriptive analyisi of anglicism used in Ecadorean newspapers

broad subject area focusing on different issues such as sounds, word formations, structures, meanings, and the relation between language and social context; moreover, there is an important topical division between the study of language structure (grammar) and the study of meaning (semantics and pragmatics),Grammar encompasses morphology, syntax and phonology. But, there are other fields than linguistics study including evolutionary linguistics, historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, language acquisition, discourse analysis, semiotics, literary theory, psychology, pathology, speech-language, informatics, computer science, philosophy, biology, human anatomy, neuroscience, sociology, anthropology, and acoustics.
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Unconventional English in a conventional setting: the genesis and joy of the New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English

Unconventional English in a conventional setting: the genesis and joy of the New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English

My best guess is that a drip drip drip of incremental growth will build an ever- expanding online NPDSUE database. Where that will leave the hardback is anybody’s guess. The wider debate on the future of the book continues elsewhere; no doubt you can read all about it on your Kindle™. As lexicographers, however, our primary attention must be given to the dictionary database. The form in which it is published, while of profound personal interest, is a professional matter for publishers. A question I had, and still have to, ask myself was to what purpose does a slang dictionary exist?, not what is the purpose of a slang dictionary? – the latter is just a question of definition. My answer to the philosophical enfolds the definite purpose: a dictionary of slang and unconventional English stands between generations as a gateway to learning, offering each new generation definitions of the old. For me Eric Partridge was the gatekeeper inviting me in. I hope he would agree. In whatever ways the next generations wish to consume a dictionary what should be of primary importance is the message not the medium. That established (to my satisfaction, at least), and the taxonomy in place, second-guessing the future becomes a simple assumption that things are the same as they ever were, only more so. Plus ça change plus c’est la même chose, I suppose.
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18th century scientific writing: A study of make complex predicates in the Coruña Corpus

18th century scientific writing: A study of make complex predicates in the Coruña Corpus

Following the criteria established for this study, collocations such as make way (three tokens), make an effort (one) make slave (three) make a digression (one) make a lather (one) make a journey (one) make a dish (one) make a haven (one) make an alteration (one) and make a dam (one token) were not included in our counts either because they cannot be considered CPs at the time the text was written, or because they are not CPs at all. Table 3 shows the results organised in the following way. The column labelled “Verb” includes the isomorphic and non-isomorphic related verbs. The numbers after the verb refer to the informa- tion found in the OED. Thus, the first number identifies the entry found in the OED, first window, and the one after the colon, the meaning given within the entry to be used instead of the CP. For instance, in the case of advance1:3, num- ber 1 refers to the first entry for the verb advance and 3 for the third meaning within the entry. The second, third and fourth columns show information taken from the OED, the meaning of the verb and the first and last evidence shown in this dictionary. The fifth column “#” includes the number of times this verb was used in our corpus. Finally, the last three columns refer to the noun involved in
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The discursive construction of the public and the private spheres in media debates: the case of television talk shows

The discursive construction of the public and the private spheres in media debates: the case of television talk shows

In this view, besides the cognitive dimensión, communication and discourse also manifest an interactional dimensión. In other words, they are collectively managed, negotiated, and even [r]

21 Lee mas

Former Slaves on the Move: The Plantation Household, the White House, and the Postwar South as Spaces of Transit in Elizabeth Keckley’s Behind the Scenes

Former Slaves on the Move: The Plantation Household, the White House, and the Postwar South as Spaces of Transit in Elizabeth Keckley’s Behind the Scenes

Slave narratives, which played a very specific social and political role within the African American community, became extremely popular in the nineteenth century. These stories, similar in pattern, helped their authors (re)create their identities as black individuals in order to “redefine their status within the human community” (Gates 1998: 2). Throughout their pages, they exposed black people’s spiritual and physical suffering, as well as the institutional violation of their fundamental rights as human beings, including the right to an education. By consistently giving the subtitle “Written by himself” to their narratives, those ex-slaves who became literate challenged stereotypes and defied the widespread belief that blacks were a “less developed” race because they did not master the written word. Thus, literacy enabled them not only to articulate their position in American society, but also triggered their desire to escape as soon as they discovered, through reading, that their bondage could not be justified. Additionally, in many instances literacy actually put slaves on the move thanks to the passes they forged, which helped them to avoid being returned to the plantation by slave catchers. As Douglass said, “I wished to learn how to write, as I might have the occasion to write my own pass” (Douglass 2003: 45-47). Given literacy’s central role in antebellum slave narratives 3 , most scholarly studies have focused mainly on this particular facet and other areas of strong interest such as language and the genre’s episodic pattern. More recent studies (Wesley, 1999; Cox, 2005; Stover, 2008; Smith, 2009) have suggested that the slaves’ flight towards the North may be more than a mere “journey toward freedom: a break away from the enslavement of one society and the break into the ‘better day’ of another” (Smith 1974:13). They are, rather, a crucial necessity for the author’s spiritual and textual development. As Cox points out, “travel defined their subversion […] in order to produce a slave narrative and create a textual identity, a slave had to travel […] travel was the necessary prelude to the publication of a narrative” (Cox 2005: 65, my emphasis). In fact, movement and transit can be found at the very roots of the peculiar institution itself: the first African slaves were shipped to the New World; they were often sold from one plantation to the other; and many attempted—and sometimes succeeded—in escaping to the North. Though many slaves lived and died on one plantation, a great many were subject to instability, moved from one place to another, from one master to another, from the cabin to the unknown liberty offered by the crossing of the Ohio River. Thus, the “slave narrative […] generated its own subgenre of travel writing” (Smith 2009: 197).
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The discursive construction of anti-European sentiment in the times.co.uk texts

The discursive construction of anti-European sentiment in the times.co.uk texts

This implies, in fact, that the discursive construction of anti-European sentiment present is all pervasive, whether we are dealing with opinión articles or more factual texts, creatin[r]

27 Lee mas

Diversity, threat, and conservation of reptiles from continental Ecuador

Diversity, threat, and conservation of reptiles from continental Ecuador

We identified parts of the northwestern slopes of the Andes, central-south Amazonian area, southwestern Andean slopes and adjacent lowlands, and the central Pacific coast as priority areas for the conservation of rep- tiles in continental Ecuador. These areas partially over- lap with some of the Marxan-defined areas reported by Lessman et al. (2014) based on 809 species of amphib- ians, birds, mammals, and plants; and Cuesta et al. (2015) based on 753 species of amphibians, birds, rep- tiles (118 species), and plants. Thus, in addition to iden- tifying those areas that are priorities for the conservation of reptiles, our study also supports the conservation of general areas that would benefit a larger number of ani- mals and plants in continental Ecuador. Unfortunately, some of these areas are severely threatened. For example, Tapia-Armijos et al. (2015) reported that ~46% of south- ern Ecuador’s original forests had been converted into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types by 2008. Similarly, deforestation and extinction in western Ecuador has long been documented (Dodson and Gentry 1991). In conclusion, our study provides further evidence demanding the establishment of protected areas in cer- tain regions of continental Ecuador that remain unpro- tected and under anthropogenic threat.
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SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF FLORAL REWARDS WITHIN THE CAPITULA: THE CASE OF Hyalis argentea (ASTERACEAE) - Sociedad Argentina de Botánica

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF FLORAL REWARDS WITHIN THE CAPITULA: THE CASE OF Hyalis argentea (ASTERACEAE) - Sociedad Argentina de Botánica

As rewards usually cannot be directly perceived by pollinators, flowers are informative structures with visual and olfactory advertising signals that generally reveal the amount and quality of rewards offered. Usually larger flowers offer more nectar (e.g. Blarer et al., 2002; Fenster et al., 2006; Gómez et al., 2008), flowers with wider corollas have greater pollen production (Gómez et al., 2008) and flower scent can advertise on nectar quality and its specific location (von Helversená et al., 2000). A successful strategy for dealing with resource allocation to multiple functions relative to pollinator attraction, floral rewards, breeding, gamete protection and seed dispersal is that developed by the cosmopolitan Asteraceae family. Asteraceae species have flowers consolidated in capitula (inflorescences), which are very versatile structures that contain and protect reproductive organs. The capitulum is the pollinator attraction unit that balances morphological and physiological demands of the florets to improve reproduction (Jeffrey, 2009). Capitula are classified according to their morphology as homomorphic (discoid) and heteromorphic (radiate) containing only one or two morphologic type of florets, respectively (Mani & Saravanan, 1999). Moreover, capitula are also classified according to their sexuality as homogamous containing only perfect florets and heterogamous containing a combination of pistillate, staminate or sterile and perfect florets
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Escritura y lectura femeninas: género, bibliografía, caminos y tendencias

Escritura y lectura femeninas: género, bibliografía, caminos y tendencias

It should be noted that Gender studies do not saturate the entire amount of stu- dies and research that revolves around the theme of women’s reading: furthermore they could be related to the general framework of Cultural Studies. The bibliographical pa- norama on women’s reading, in fact, shows multiple perspectives with the application of different analytical methods, as well as an interest in many kinds of textual objects, from literature to painting, from visual arts to history, to cognitive science, and much more. In addition to the genealogic meaning it is possible to identify at least two other meanings of women’s reading: (i) the first, philological, where attention to gender is used to recons- truct the historical role of woman, (ii) the second, sociological, which reconstructs the network of cultural relations and real contexts of women’s reading, acting and existing as a gender difference. It would be incorrect to ascribe the sense of women’s reading only to the contributions of Gender Studies, because very often, results derived from the other two points of view not only provide knowledge and support for the theory of gender as textual genre, but also methods useful for research.
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