The rest **of** the paper is organized as follows. **In** section 2, we recall the continuous **and** discrete **augmented** formulations proposed **in** [17] for problem (2.1). We develop a residual based a **posteriori** **error** **analysis** **and** show that the a **posteriori** **error** estimator is both reliable **and** efficient. Then, **in** section 3, we recall from [18] the **augmented** varia- tional **and** discrete schemes proposed **in** the case **of** non-homogeneous **Dirichlet** **boundary** **conditions**, **and** deduce **an** a **posteriori** **error** estimator **of** residual type which is shown to be both reliable **and** efficient. Finally, **in** section 4 we provide several numerical results that illustrate the performance **of** the **augmented** Galerkin schemes **and** confirm the theo- retical properties **of** the a **posteriori** **error** estimators introduced **in** this paper. Moreover, numerical experiments show that the adaptive algorithms based on these a **posteriori** **error** estimators are able to localize the singularities **and** large stress regions **of** the solutions.

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We develop **an** a **posteriori** **error** **analysis** **of** residual type **of** a stabilized **mixed** finite element method for Darcy flow. The stabilized **formulation** is obtained by adding to the standard dual- **mixed** approach suitable residual type terms arising from Darcy’s law **and** the mass conservation equation. We derive sufficient **conditions** on the stabilization parameters that guarantee that the **augmented** variational **formulation** **and** the corresponding Galerkin scheme are well-posed. Then, we obtain a simple a **posteriori** **error** estimator **and** prove that it is reliable **and** locally efficient. Finally, we provide several numerical experiments that illustrate the theoretical results **and** support the use **of** the corresponding adaptive algorithm **in** practice.

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The rest **of** the paper is organized as follows. **In** Section 2 we recall the main features **of** the **augmented** dual-**mixed** method introduced **in** [11, 13] for the **linear** **elasticity** problem **with** homogeneous **Dirichlet** **boundary** con- ditions. Then, we use the Ritz projection **of** the **error** to derive the new a **posteriori** **error** estimator **and** show that it is reliable **and** locally efficient. The extension to the case **of** non-homogeneous **Dirichlet** **boundary** condi- tions is developed **in** Section 3, where we first recall the dual-**mixed** method from [12, 13]. Finally, **in** Section 4 we provide several numerical experiments that illustrate the performance **of** the corresponding adaptive algorithms **and** support the theoretical results.

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We extend the applicability **of** the **augmented** dual-**mixed** method introduced recently **in** [4, 5] to the problem **of** **linear** **elasticity** **with** **mixed** **boundary** **conditions**. The method is based on the Hellinger–Reissner principle **and** the symmetry **of** the stress tensor is imposed **in** a weak sense. The Neuman **boundary** condition is prescribed **in** the finite element space. Then, suitable Galerkin least-squares type terms are added **in** order to obtain **an** **augmented** variational **formulation** which is coercive **in** the whole space. This allows to use any finite element subspaces to approximate the displacement, the Cauchy stress tensor **and** the rotation.

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Disintegratibility **of** the films was assessed by means **of** a disintegration test under lab-scale composting **conditions** according to the ISO 20200 standard, “Determination **of** the degree **of** disintegration **of** plastic materials under simulated composting **conditions** **in** a laboratory-scale test”. For the preparation **of** solid synthetic waste, 10% **of** activated mature compost (Vigorhumus H-00, purchased from Burás Profesional, S.A., Girona, Spain) was **mixed** **with** 30 wt. % rabbit food, 10 wt. % starch, 5 wt. %. sugar, 1wt. % urea, wt. 4% corn oil **and** 40wt. % sawdust. The water content **of** the substrate was around 55 wt. % **and** the aerobic **conditions** were guaranteed by gently mixing the compost **and** periodically adding water according to the standard requirements. The samples were cut from the films (10 x 10 x 0.1 mm 3 ) **and** buried inside plastic mesh bags to simplify their extraction **and** allow the contact **of** the compost **with** the specimens, **and** were incubated at 58ºC for 41 days. At different composting times samples were recovered for **analysis**, washed **with** distilled water, dried at 40ºC under vacuum for 24 h, **and** weighed. The degree **of** disintegration was calculated by normalising the sample weight, at different days **of** incubation, to the initial weight **with** Equation (3), where m i is the initial dry mass **of** the test material **and** m f is the dry mass **of** the test

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The use **of** B. bassiana as a mycoinsecticide is promising. From a biological point **of** view, this fungus can infect many pest insect species, inducing high mortality rates (Uma Devi et al., 2008). From the commercial perspective, spore mass production has been successfully achieved, **and** there are many companies offering products based on B. bassiana (Seema et al., 2013). Im- provements **in** the **formulation** that prolong the shelf life **of** the product using low cost materials will make mycoinsecticides more competitive, promoting eco-friendly solutions for pest control. This study proposes the use **of** highly available **and** low cost volcanic materials as carriers for the **formulation** **of** mycoinsecticides using the fungus B. bassiana. Two volcanic ashes **and** one zeolite mineral were selected, which are amorphous **and** crystalline aluminosilicates, respectively, **and** have a common volcanic origin. First, the capacity to enhance the conidial thermotolerance **of** these materials was evaluated **and** correlated **with** their hydric retention properties. From the results obtained, one **of** these materials was selected to test its capacity to maintain spore viability under different temperature **and** humidity **conditions**.

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The immunocompromised host: general concepts Pathogenesis and microbiology of infection in patients with… …neutropenia and mucositis …cell-mediated immunodeficiency …with mixed deficits [r]

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The foregoing procedure is carried out at the element level, **and** is strictly local: no crack continuity is enforced or crack exclusion zone deﬁned. This leads **in** many circumstances to locking after a certain crack growth. Such locking seems to be due to a bad prediction **of** the cracking direction **in** the element ahead **of** the pre-existing crack, as sketched **in** Fig. 6. To over- come this problem without introducing global algorithms (crack tracking **and** exclusion zones), a certain amount **of** crack adaptability within each element is merely introduced. The rationale behind the method is that the estimation **of** the prin- cipal directions **in** a triangular element is especially bad at crack initiation due to the high stress gradients **in** the crack tip zone where the new cracked element is usually located; after the crack grows further, the estimation **of** the principal stress directions ordinarily improves substantially. Therefore, the crack is allowed to adapt itself to the later variations **in** the prin- cipal stress direction while its opening is small. This crack adaptation is implemented very easily by stating that while the equivalent crack opening at any particular element is less than a threshold value w e th , the crack direction is recomputed

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Therefore, the model to interpolate flight radar tracks **in** a TMA **with** the best adjustment is **mixed** (**linear**-spline) segmentation **in** the horizontal plane **and** **linear** segmentation **in** the vertical profile to sim- plify the algorithms. This model will provide average errors between the actual **and** segmented track **of** less than 100 m (lateral 34 m, longitudinal 67 m **and** verti- cal 47 ft) which is appropriated **in** a terminal area where the minimum standard separation can be 3 nautical miles.

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As for non-ionic surfactant – based systems, Triton® X-100 (octyl-phenol ethoxylate) is one **of** the most used, however, alkyl-phenol ethoxylate surfactants such as this one have a limited biodegradability. Their metabolites **of** degradation have low solubility **and** are toxic, for example, nonylphenol has been proven to be **an** endocrine disrupter (Jobling & Sumpter, 1993). On the other hand, aliphatic fatty alcohol ethoxylates such as PEGDE (penta(ethylene glycol) dodecyl ether) are more environmentally friendly; for nanoparticle synthesis, the technical-grade options are usually chosen due to their lower cost. A special feature **of** non- ionic surfactant systems is the sensitivity **of** their hydrophilic-lipophilic properties to temperature, **and** although sometimes this characteristic is seen as a drawback, the possibility for phase-behavior tuning can be used as **an** advantage for the **formulation** **of** non-ionic microemulsions. **In** addition, nonionic surfactants have a great capacity **of** hydration by their ethoxylated (EO) units; hence, **an** appropriate selection **of** surfactant, oil **and** precursor salts/precipitating agent concentration, **in** combination **with** the rich structural behavior that such a system may display as a function **of** temperature, can lead to highly optimized formulations **in** terms **of** aqueous phase uptake **and** hence reactants loading. A good premise to this behavior is the enormous efficiency boost **in** the formation **of** middle phase microemulsions by the use **of** block copolymer surfactants reported by Strey et al. (Jakobs et al., 1999).

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This paper studies the numerical approximation **of** the **boundary** control for the wave equation **in** a square domain. It is known that the discrete **and** semi-discrete models ob- tained by discretizing the wave equation **with** the usual finite difference or finite element methods do not provide convergent sequences **of** approximations to the **boundary** control **of** the continuous wave equation, as the mesh size goes to zero (see [7, 14]). Here we introduce **and** analyze a new semi-discrete model based on the space discretization **of** the wave equa- tion using a **mixed** finite element method **with** two different basis functions for the position **and** velocity. The main theoretical result is a uniform observability inequality which allows us to construct a sequence **of** approximations converging to the minimal L 2 −norm control

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Viral hepatitis has been shown to be associated **with** various extrahepatic manifestations. These can be seen **in** both acute **and** chronic liver disease, may precede or follow overt liver disease. Aims **and** objects: To study the prevalence **of** extrahepatic manifestations **of** viral hepa- titis **and** follow the course **of** the disease **in** response to antiviral therapy whenever indicated. Methods: Pro- spectively 448 patients **of** viral hepatitis were evaluated for extrahepatic manifestations **and** patients **of** glomer- ulonephritis (GN), polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) **and** cryoglobulinemia were tested for viral markers. All pa- tients were investigated for liver **and** kidney function tests, hematological workup **and** viral markers such as HBsAg, HBeAg, Anti HBeAg, HCV RNA, IgM anti HAV **and** IgM anti HEV. Serum electrophoresis **and** kidney biopsies were done whenever indicated. **In** 10 cases **of** hepatitis B glomerulonephritis immunohis- tochemistry was done on kidney biopsies for demon- stration **of** hepatitis B surface **and** core antigen. Results: **Of** total 448 cases 181 (40.4%) had hepatitis B infection, 142 (31.6%) had hepatitis C infection, 86 (19.1%) hepa- titis E **and** 39 (8.7%) had hepatitis A infection. Extrahe- patic manifestations were seen **in** 29 (6.4%) cases **and** these were cases **of** GN, PAN, cryoglobulinemia, throm- bocytopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia **and** pan- creatitis. Patients **with** hepatitis A **with** extrahepatic manifestations showed complete recovery **in** both hepa- titis **and** extrahepatic manifestations. Six patients **with** PAN were treated **with** interferon **of** which 4 showed

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order reduction. The results against CPU time when integrating till time t = 1 are shown **in** Figure 3. The time required to calculate the exponential-type matrices has not been considered since those calculations are performed just at the very beginning, **and** the relative cost **of** that part would very much depend on the ﬁnal time **of** integration. The values **of** k **and** h which have been considered are the same as **in** Figure 1 **and**, as the **error** **in** space is negligible **with** respect to that **in** time, the values for the errors are practically the same as **in** that ﬁgure. It is clear that, for each value **of** k, avoiding order reduction implies a big reduction on the size **of** the **error** but a very small increase **in** computational time. Moreover, although it is not **an** aim **of** the paper to recommend any particular method, we have compared the results **with** the exponential quadrature rule which is based on interpolating F **in** (11) by a **linear** polynomial. When integrating (21) **with** the mentioned rule **and** the above space discretization, for which L h Q h ≡ 0,

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Here q v v ¢ is the Franck – Condon factor, which is given by the square **of** the overlap integral **of** the vibrational wave functions **of** the two electronic states involved **in** the transition. **In** this work we have used the Rydberg – Klein – Rees ( RKR ) method to determine the potential energy curves. From these potential energies, the rotationless vibrational wave functions — **and** hence q v v ¢ — are then obtained by solving the Schrö- dinger equation **with** the Numerov algorithm.

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Although many scientific efforts have been devoted to acknowledging the risks **of** digital technologies, the question **of** how computers could be used to improve people’s well-being has been much less explored. This was the main motivation for the development **of** a novel research area—Positive Technology—which aims at investigating how ICT-based applications **and** services can be used to foster positive growth **of** individuals, groups **and** institutions (Botella et al., 2012; Riva et al., 2012; Gaggioli et al., 2017). This area resulted from the convergence **of** two main trends. First, the emerging interest **in** the scientific understanding **of** **conditions** **and** processes that contribute to people happiness **and** well-being, chiefly represented by the fast-growing movement **of** Positive Psychology. The second trend was the increasing recognition, **in** the field **of** Human-Computer Interaction, **of** the central importance that human experience, values, **and** ethical concerns have **in** the design, development **and** use **of** interactive systems. The integration **of** these two perspectives has led to new questions **and** possibilities concerning how digital technologies could help shaping positive human functioning, strengths, personal empowerment at the individual level, **and** **of** groups **and** organizations, from a social/interpersonal point **of** view (Botella et al., 2012).

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presents significant differences **in** optical properties when compared to those **of** the individual constituents, leading to different impacts on solar radiation levels. This effect is assessed by estimating the direct radiative forcing ( D F) **of** these aerosols from solar flux models using the radiative parameters derived from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). These data reveal that, **in** oceanic **and** vegetative covers (surface albedo (SA) < 0.30), the aerosol effect at the top **of** atmosphere (TOA) is always cooling the Earth‐atmosphere system, regardless **of** the aerosol type. The obtained average values **of** DF range between −27 ± 15 Wm −2 (aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.55 mm, 0.3 ± 0.3) for mineral dust **mixed** **with** urban‐industrial aerosols, registered **in** the East Asia region, **and** − 34 ± 18 Wm −2 (AOD = 0.8 ± 0.4) for the mixture **of** the mineral dust **and** biomass burning particles, observed **in** the Central Africa region. **In** the intermediate SA range (0.30 – 0.50) the TOA radiative effect depends on the aerosol absorption properties. Thus, aerosols **with** single scattering albedo at 0.55 m m lower than ∼ 0.88 lead to a warming **of** the system, **with** D F **of** 10 ± 11 Wm −2 for the mixture **of** mineral dust **and** biomass burning. Cases **with** SA > 0.30 are not present **in** East Asia region. At the bottom **of** atmosphere (BOA) the maximum D F values are associated **with** the highest AOD levels obtained for the mixture **of** mineral dust **and** biomass burning aerosols ( − 130 ± 44 Wm − 2 **with** AOD = 0.8 ± 0.4 for SA < 0.30).

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surface deformation, for example), G(x,t) is a temporally peri- odic, spatially inhomogeneous forcing function, F represents nonlinear terms, ∇ 2 = ∂ x 2 + ∂ y 2 is the two-dimensional Lapla- cian operator, **and** γ is a dimensionless damping parameter. If no spatial dependence or nonlinear effects are considered, then Eq. (2) reduces to Mathieu’s equation (1) for G(t) = 2 + 2f cos(2t). Similar extensions **of** Mathieu’s equation (1) describing pattern forming systems were studied **in** Refs. [6–8] for the case **of** one-dimensional patterns **and** spatially uniform forcing. Note that, **in** the absence **of** damping, forcing **and** nonlinearity (γ = G = F = 0), Eq. (2) is a wave equation. Traveling wave solutions take the form exp { it + ik · x } **with** = k = |k|. This simple **linear** dispersion relation **in** the undamped unforced case differs from earlier models [6–8] **in** that the flat solution (k = 0) does not oscillate ( = 0). This feature is consistent **with** the gravity-capillary surface waves that we are most interested **in** describing, as is the wavenumber dependence **of** the damping term. The Zhang-Vi˜nals equations [16], for example, which approximate the Faraday system **in** the limit **of** weak damping **and** large depth, can be linearized to yield a set **of** damped Mathieu equations describing the evolution **of** each mode:

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Another interesting work regarding estimation **in** the errors **in** variables models is described **in** Cui et.al (2004) [8]. **In** this paper, the authors assume a **linear** **mixed** effects model **with** measurement **error** **in** the variables. The estimators for the fixed parameters, the covariance matrix **of** random effects **and** the variance for model **error** are found by the method **of** moments. These authors also proved from the theoretical point **of** view the asymptotic properties **of** the obtained estimators **in** their research. They do not discuss the prediction **of** random effect. The authors assert that the maximum likelihood estimators **and** the estimators **of** moments may lose the consistency property if they do not take into account **in** the model the measurement **error**.

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