PDF superior TítuloCETA in the context of the Coruña Corpus

TítuloCETA in the context of the Coruña Corpus

TítuloCETA in the context of the Coruña Corpus

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12 Lee mas

TítuloPronouns as stance markers in the Coruña Corpus : an analysis of the CETA, CEPhiT and CHET

TítuloPronouns as stance markers in the Coruña Corpus : an analysis of the CETA, CEPhiT and CHET

There are 7,377 such forms in the Philosophy texts, followed by 3,722 in Astronomy and only 1,522 in the texts on History (even though there are some samples here written in the first person, such as the travelogue by Elisabeth Justice11). Disciplinary variability can be observed, in that some disciplines seem to require a higher proportion of pronouns than others, this no doubt depending on the discourse patterns negotiated by the discourse (disciplinary) community. At the same time, the idea cited above from the University of North Carolina’s Writing Centre is not borne out, even for this period; indeed, this was shown in a previous study (Crespo and Moskowich, 2015) where we found very significant differences in the use of pronouns in Life Sciences, Astronomy and History; Life Sciences was the discipline with by far the highest frequency of use of first and second pronominal forms, followed at a considerable distance by Astronomy and History, where first and second person pronouns were almost absent. It was thought in that study that the low level of technicality in some of the Life Sciences samples (they are basic, introductory texts) might have provoked this difference; authors seeking to instruct were sympathetic to those readers who wanted learn, and this, we argued, was the reason for their frequent use of first and second person pronouns. Also in that study, History texts had a more detached style than the other samples. In the present study too, History is the discipline exhibiting the lowest numbers, and this perhaps leads us to consider it as the result of some sort of over-reaction. That is, disciplines that had a long and respected tradition such as Philosophy, or others, like Astronomy, which had been accepted as good examples of the observational sciences, did not have to prove their validity or that of their discourse. History or historiography, on the other hand, was heavily influenced by the Positivist ideas of Auguste Comte (1798-1857) throughout the 19th century, and the objective description of facts tended to be the primary concern of writers. Perhaps in order to be respected by other discourse communities, authors of history had to adopt the supposedly objective perspective that had been so successful in other fields.
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19 Lee mas

TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

Turning to genre or text-type, Figure 9 above indicates that those genres that could be seen as closer to orality are those which contain most uses of private verbs forms. These are letters (12.91), with textbooks and lectures almost at the same level (10.63 and 10.45, respectively). Treatises and articles include fewer of these forms, which might suggest that the discourse is somehow more detached here. Letters, as a more informal means of communication, even in the scientific realm, are more apt to be personalised. Lectures although written to be spoken, contain a lesser number of tokens and are still more structured and formal than letters; that is, however oral, they have to conform to somewhat fixed patterns, as they contain quite well-differentiated parts and rhetorical devices. Due to their didactic aim, textbooks could also be considered as a genre that needs to establish a close contact with the corresponding readership and, as such, resorts to the use of private verbs.
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13 Lee mas

TítuloLinking ideas in women's writing: evidence from the Coruña Corpus

TítuloLinking ideas in women's writing: evidence from the Coruña Corpus

Table 3 shows the relative frequencies for the genres represented in each century. Overall, the data indicates that Article (7.1 nf for the nineteenth century) is the genre where both features are most abundant, followed by Textbook (6.4 nf in the eighteenth century); at the other end of the scale we find Other (3.2 nf in the eighteenth century) and Lecture (5 nf in the nineteenth century). The reason for this may lie in the relative proximity of genres to the oral register. Articles and textbooks were written to be read, and involve a high-brow, formal register, whereas our sample of Other is a travelogue, a genre which shares some characteristics with diaries, thus making use of a more intimate, oral-like language. Similarly, lectures were intended to be spoken (Gómez-Guinovart and Pérez- Guerra, 2000) and in this sense are also closer to orality. Letters deserve special attention since they make frequent use of the features under survey (6.0 nf) and because the presence of conjuncts and adverbial subordinators in them is somehow unbalanced (with the latter appearing three times more often than the former). This may be due to the fact that these are not private letters but rather letters intended to be published, yet which were written with the aim of conforming to the supposed style of the genre. This, for example, may account for the lack of “therefores” and the abundance of “becauses” in these letters.
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15 Lee mas

18th century scientific writing: A study of make complex predicates in the Coruña Corpus

18th century scientific writing: A study of make complex predicates in the Coruña Corpus

Natural History could have been the more suitable label for texts written before the 19 th century; however, the same problem arose when we wanted to extend it to a long diachronic period. According to Shaw (1725), Natural His- tory was not seriously taken under consideration by scientists. In fact, he writes in the preface of Boyle’s philosophical works that it seemed “to lie under some disgrace, upon account of the small benefit that is presumed to arise from the study of it”. At the same time, this discipline, in its extent, is found by him to be a very large field. To refute this general opinion of uselessness, however, he includes in that volume Boyle’s foundations of natural history writings. Boyle (1725: 5–14) presents a guide to write the natural history of a country, explain- ing the essence of writing a natural history. Boyle understands this type of writ- ing as the minute description of every part or element of a topic. The natural history of a country, for instance, should include the description of the heavens, the air, the water (seas, rivers, currents, whirlpools) and the earth. The last topic will embrace reports on the soil and mountains, as well as on productions (trees, fruits, plants, minerals) and on inhabitants. The last ones should be fully described, i.e. their appearance, strength, diet, diseases, behaviour, etc.
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28 Lee mas

TítuloWriting Science, Compiling Science: The Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloWriting Science, Compiling Science: The Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

The Coruña Corpus: A Collection of Samples for the Historical Study of English Scientific Writing is a project on which the MUSTE Group has been working since 2003 in the University of A Coruña (Spain). It has been designed as a tool for the study of language change in English scientific writing in general as well as within the different scientific disciplines. Its purpose is to facilitate investigation at all linguistic levels, though, in principle, phonology is not included among our intended research topics. A rough definition of our corpus would say it contains English scientific texts other than medical produced between 1600 and 1900. In order to retrieve information from the compiled data, we decided to create a corpus management tool. Loosely speaking the Coruña Corpus Tool (CCT) is an Information Retrieval (IR) system where the indexed textual repository is the set of compiled documents that constitutes the CC.
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13 Lee mas

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

Both the changes occurring in science and those occurring, if not to language itself then at least to people’s conceptions of it, had an effect on its use. Latin had been the language of knowledge for a long time, but the transforma- tion of science also provoked its widespread abandonment in face of the use of vernaculars. Latin was no longer considered the lingua franca of science, yet somehow it managed to persist for a considerable time. With all these chang- ing attitudes to language as a vehicle for knowledge, our research question here is whether classical linguistic elements survived better in the Humanities or in other more observational, scientific disciplines. Looking at the evolution of scientific texts in English, it seems plausible to suppose that such lexical items and expressions would be more frequently found in the Natural, observational Sciences (an example of which is Life Sciences) than in the Humanities (the Philosophy texts used for this work). But is this in fact the case?
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17 Lee mas

TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

At the other end of the time-line, several events which were really important for the History of Science occurred around 1900, the last year covered by CHET [Alice Cooke, 1893 and Montagu Burrows, 1895]. Some of these events were the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thompson in 1896, the crisis of the grounds of me- chanical physics announced in this same year, Planck’s proposal of quantum mechanics, or Einstein’s publication of the Special Theo- ry of Relativity in 1905 [Moskowich and Crespo 2010; Moskowich 2011]. All these discoveries, as in the seventeenth century, were also accompanied by the need to change the discursive patterns of science announced by Thomas Huxley at the 1897 International Congress of Mathematics.
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10 Lee mas

Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

The era of Modern Science, beginning sometime in the seventeenth century (Valle, 1999; Hoskin, 1999; Beal, 2004), entailed certain changes related to the way in which knowledge was transmitted. Along history knowledge of all sorts, either theoretical or practical, has been classified according to different taxonomies and has been accordingly named and renamed in different ways. The term Philosophy is defined in the OED as “advanced knowledge or learning, to which the study of the seven liberal arts was regarded as preliminary in medieval universities”. As a subject of study, philosophy was variously subdivided at different times. Many universities adopted a threefold division into natural, moral, and metaphysical philosophy. Depending on the institutions, philosophy could also include other elements or subjects that were necessary for the degree of M.A. During the eighteenth century this use of the term declines (OED) and Natural Philosophy was soon replaced by others such as Biology in the following century.
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30 Lee mas

Situational-Context: A Unified View of Everything Involved at a Particular Situation

Situational-Context: A Unified View of Everything Involved at a Particular Situation

In this sense, there are different researchers focused on the identification of people’s context. Concretely, the authors of this paper have been working on the People as a Service (PeaaS) and the Internet of People (IoP) approaches. PeaaS [13] is a mobile-centric computing model to infer the context of smart- phones’ owners and generate their sociological profile. IoP [22] propose an infras- tructure and a manifesto for WoT systems that support this proactive adapta- tions. This manifesto indicates that the interactions between things and people must be social, must be personalized with the users profiles, must be predictable, and must be proactive and automatically triggered depending on the context.
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8 Lee mas

The discursive construction of responsibility : strategies used by political and military witnesses in public hearings

The discursive construction of responsibility : strategies used by political and military witnesses in public hearings

SIR RODERIC LYNE: I would just like to ask one final question to wrap up this legal chapter, and this is really -- you were in the position, ultimately, where you had to give this determination. You had to go through with the action, Lord Goldsmith was preparing with the assistance of Christopher Greenwood for the possibility of legal challenge. He knew that he had taken a decision that some others, many others, perhaps, were arguing with and were going to argue with, and he had put something to you that was described as a reasonable case, but, nevertheless, not one that he would have confidently put before a court. You then you had to decide whether you were convinced that this was a strong enough legal basis to take a very serious action of participating in a full-scale invasion of another country. How convinced were you, at this point, that you had a strong legal case for doing what you did? RT HON TONY BLAIR: I would put it in this way. What I needed to know from him was, in the end, was he going to say this was lawful? He had to come to conclusion in the end, and I was a lawyer myself, I wrote many, many opinions for clients, and they tend to be, on the one hand on the other hand, but you come to a conclusion in the end and he had to come to that conclusion. Incidentally, I think he wasn't alone in international law in coming to that conclusion, for very obvious reasons, because, as I say, if you read the words in 1441 it is pretty clear this was Saddam's last chance. So that was what he had to do. He did it. As I say, anybody who knows Peter knows he would not have done it unless he believed in it and thought it was the correct thing to do, and that was -- for us and for our armed forces, that was sufficient. In his answer turn, Blair reformulates the focus of the question so that it is no longer about his assessment of the legality of the war but Lord Goldsmith´s. In this way, the witness shifts responsibility to the former General Attorney by representing him as the source of legal basis for the war and ultimately responsible for it. This case also illustrates an emblematic feature of Blair´s transformative answers, namely, the use of metapragmatic frames, such as I would put it in this way. This mechanism which may sound explanatory functions to restrict information. Their cumulative effect is the projection of an almost arrogant and paternalist attitude bordering on smugness.
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152 Lee mas

Perception for networked robot systems

Perception for networked robot systems

We present a context-aware framework for network robot systems in indoor environments, consisting of context acquisition, its process, application, and the communication layer. In this framework, the decision-tree-based context reasoning algorithm is introduced to fulfil the task of object identification. Then, we describe two crucial contexts in the system: location and size of an object, both of which play a vital role in object identification. We first describe the map building algorithm to obtain the location information. Then, by analyzing the existing problems for robot map building and sensing limitations, we present the grid map building method based on ultrasonic sensors. Furthermore, we discuss the object detection algorithms for image processing. One visual recognition flow is introduced for robotic systems too. Finally, we take Arduino as the platform for the experiments and we verify implementation of the system in the last part of this manuscript.
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114 Lee mas

The use of circumlocution in the foreign language context

The use of circumlocution in the foreign language context

According to our results, the use of circumlocutions was broad in the foreign language context the study took place. Both the researcher and the subjects employed them to explain the meaning of unknown vocabulary items. In addition, the category of function was highly used in dealing with lexical difficulties. Our findings are consonant with other results (e.g. Bialystok, 1983; Yule and Tarone, 1990) showing that the strategies of function (The thing for pencils) and description (It’s a thing made of wood) are the most employed ones when learners do not know the appropriate word in the L2/FL. Other strategies, such as the use of superordinates (The cup) are also taken into account. The present study thus corroborates previous findings which show that learners make use of analytic strategies that select properties of the referent when facing unknown vocabulary. Nevertheless, this study suffers from a number of limitations, which are as follows: first, we did not carry out a pre-test in order to ascertain the strategic competence of our learners; second, there was no control group, which may have shed some light on the effectiveness of the tasks. A third limitation is the small sample size (six participants). Further limitations concern the gender of the participants, as we only had female learners, and the age of the subjects (teenagers); this means that we do not know how older or younger learners would have performed the tasks.
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9 Lee mas

Equilibrating the recognition of the minority Class in the imbalance context

Equilibrating the recognition of the minority Class in the imbalance context

Abstract: In pattern recognition, it is well known that the classifier performance depends on the classification rule and the complexities presented in the data sets (such as class overlapping, class imbalance, outliers, high-dimensional data sets among others). In this way, the issue of class imbalance is exhibited when one class is less represented with respect to the other classes. If the classifier is trained with imbalanced data sets, the natural tendency is to recognize the samples included in the majority class, ignoring the minority classes. This situation is not desirable because in real problems it is necessary to recognize the minority class more without sacrificing the precision of the majority class. In this work we analyze the behaviour of four classifiers taking into a count a relative balance among the accuracy classes.
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10 Lee mas

Usefulness of Z scoring models in the early detection of financial problems in bankrupt Spanish companies

Usefulness of Z scoring models in the early detection of financial problems in bankrupt Spanish companies

These high percentages have been observed over an interval of 11 years (2005-2015).Upon further analysis, we see in Table 2 that more than 70% of the companies in bankruptcy proceedings have a time delay of six to twelve years between the year in which both models detected possible financial problems and the declaration of bankruptcy by the companies. Only one-fifth of the companies experienced a delay of between one and three years. The results of both models are independent, and there is no relationship between them (Pearson’s Chi- square statistic has a value of 605.508, with a significance of 0.00, although 33.3% of the boxes have an expected value of less than 5).
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9 Lee mas

The representation of chivalry in The Knight's Tale

The representation of chivalry in The Knight's Tale

This is again a considerable departure from Boccaccio's versión, in which Arcite, with the identity of Pentheus, attempts at dissuading Palemón of the mistake of battling (cf. As in th[r]

13 Lee mas

The colour of rhetoric in the contemporary agora

The colour of rhetoric in the contemporary agora

Having a workable system for categorizing political rhetoric, we then separately classified each statement. Following this, we compared our classifications of the 84 items and explained our reasoning. Three outcomes were possible: we could have agreed on classifications of black, white, or grey for the same reasons; for different reasons; or disagreed on classifications. When the latter two occurred, it provided useful information for altering our definition of the classification so that we agreed on our classification for the same reason. This was a useful hermeneutic process that provided greater construct validity for our classification system. For example, the description of black rhetoric in some instances required knowledge about whether a statement was true or not if classified for the reason of being dishonest. Thus, in the example provided in Text 5 below, it was necessary to have the information, which was later admitted, that Senator Evans had lied. Importantly, after discussing our reasons for classification in disputed cases and making necessary alterations to the definition, we were able to achieve unanimity on determining whether a statement represented white, black, or grey rhetoric. From this body of material, we then selected 12 examples of various types of rhetoric for this paper.
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21 Lee mas

Chemoreception in the context of the general biology of ROS

Chemoreception in the context of the general biology of ROS

The subcellular location of several Nox members varies from isoform to isoform, and in some instances a given isoform (e.g., Nox 4) can have different locations (e.g., nucleus and endo- plasmic reticulum). Some isoforms exhibit constitutive activity and are regulated by intracellular second messengers including intracellular Ca 2+ (e.g., Nox5 and Duox1-2) and probably also Nox4 in chemoreceptor cells because while hypoxia activates ROS production, if the hypoxic stimulus is applied in conjunc- tion with Ca 2+ channel blockers the ROS-generated signals is drastically reduced (unpublished observation); this regulation makes conceivable that ROS generated by these enzymes could be important in cell signaling. The combination of second mes- senger regulation and the potentially restricted release of ROS into specific cell compartments would make ROS produced by these Nox members suitable modulators of transduction cas- cades. In this regard, there are two groups of recent data that deserve some comments. The first group of data was obtained by comparing responses in chemoreceptor cells from control and knockout mice for the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxi- dase (He et al., 2005). Mice CB chemoreceptor cell K + currents are in a large percentage sensitive to iberiotoxin, indicating that they are carried through maxi-K channels, although other Kv channels, some of them sensitive to hypoxia, have also been described in mice cells (Perez-Garcia et al., 2004). In control
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15 Lee mas

Open Journal Systems

Open Journal Systems

With regard to their position within the clause, adjectives expressing contents of relevance may occur in English as pre-modifiers of a head noun or as predicative adjectives following a linking verb. As verbal complements, adjectives of importance are found in a number of various grammatical patterns whose primary purpose is to evaluate (Hunston & Sinclair, 2000; Pérez Blanco, 2013). Thus, the entity being evaluated may be immediately contiguous to the evaluative adjective or occupy a number of different positions within a sentence or even cross the boundaries of the sentence. The object of the evaluation may be the referent of the adjacent noun, in the case of an attributive adjective (“…bad judgement can have important consequences”, EG1502T3) or the noun (phrase) in subject position, when the adjective is the complement of a linking verb (“effective monitoring of immigration is essential”, ED0511T1). Evaluation may also be aimed at a whole clause (It may be necessary to subordinate the rhetoric democracy for the Middle East to the need for a regional solution, EG0506T1).
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17 Lee mas

Dissonations of the modern reform of the World Monetary System in the aspect of global challenges

Dissonations of the modern reform of the World Monetary System in the aspect of global challenges

The assignment of the status of world currency to the Yuan by the Fund indicates the increasing role of China as one of the major developing countries in WMS. This reflects the multipolarity of the development of the world, the problems of which are fundamentally researched in Russian science (Perskaya, 2018). Add a new appearance of the multipolarity of the modern world, the increasing the aggregate share of quotas of the BRICS countries - Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (up to 14.7%), their share of votes and representation on the Executive Council as a result of the IMF reform in the form of appointing its own executive director. Moreover, India and Brazil for this purpose headed two new groups consisting of more than 7 states with an insignificant number of votes, which delegated them the right to appoint an executive director.
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8 Lee mas

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