PDF superior TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Empire, as govern’d, at this pre ∫ent, by that excellent Prince∫s, the Czarina. Shewing the Beauty of her Palace, the Grandeur of her Courtiers, the Forms of Building at Petersburgh, and other Places: with ∫everal entertaining Adventures, that happened in the Pa∫∫age by Sea, and Land

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TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

Turning to genre or text-type, Figure 9 above indicates that those genres that could be seen as closer to orality are those which contain most uses of private verbs forms. These are letters (12.91), with textbooks and lectures almost at the same level (10.63 and 10.45, respectively). Treatises and articles include fewer of these forms, which might suggest that the discourse is somehow more detached here. Letters, as a more informal means of communication, even in the scientific realm, are more apt to be personalised. Lectures although written to be spoken, contain a lesser number of tokens and are still more structured and formal than letters; that is, however oral, they have to conform to somewhat fixed patterns, as they contain quite well-differentiated parts and rhetorical devices. Due to their didactic aim, textbooks could also be considered as a genre that needs to establish a close contact with the corresponding readership and, as such, resorts to the use of private verbs.
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TítuloPatterns of english scientific writing in the 18th Century: adjectives and other Building blocks

TítuloPatterns of english scientific writing in the 18th Century: adjectives and other Building blocks

Samples extracted from CETA, part of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing, have been selected as my source of data. The eighteenth-century section of the corpus contains 208,079 words, these not being equally distributed as regards authors’ regional origin or the genre of the texts. I have analysed twenty-one samples by different authors, none of them being translations (cf Chapter 3), which will serve to minimise interference from Latin or other learned languages. That is to say, the forms found in my analysis will not be the result of a defective translation or any sort of linguistic interference but rather that of the authors’ effort to be precise. We must, however, bear in mind that many of the authors of scientific texts in the eighteenth century were members of the clergy or of universities, institutions in which Latin was the “official language”. This fact, together with the undeniable prestige that Latinate forms carry, may be operating to some extent in authors’ minds during the process of writing. The fact that CETA contains only one sample per author also guarantees that linguistic idiosyncrasies are avoided.
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Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Women are seldom mentioned in books about the History of Science or in Biographical Dictionaries. Public female activity was not common in certain spheres of life and publishing in general, but publishing works on Philosophy in particular, was one of these uncommon activities. However, it must be admitted that other fields of science were regarded as even more masculine than philosophy. Women’s work was often not taken seriously (Herrero, 2007, p. 75). Excluded from official science, the means women had to learn was by reading, by listening to other women, from mothers to daughters and, occasionally, by listening to men. Female authorship is difficult to establish. In certain fields of knowledge such as Astronomy, women did not sign their own works, as is the case of the Catalogue of Stars by German female astronomers in the seventeenth century. Although women participated intensively in science, their access to study and scientific work was limited to the role of mere assistants. Some scientific institutions, in fact, did not admit the first women until the second half of the twentieth century.
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TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

What we nowadays term “front matter” was conceived of in the past as a direct address to the reader. Over time, standard formulae were developed and certain rhetorical devices consolidated. Late modern authors were familiar with the highly conventionalised patterns of prefaces and dedications and employed their “discursive freedom” in their scientific works even though the style used for the transmission of scientific knowledge was also changing and being standardised. This paper revolves precisely around the either parallel or divergent development of prefaces to scientific works and the body of the texts themselves. In order to study such evolutions we have analysed samples written by women between 1700 and 1900 in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing. The scrutiny of some linguistic elements generally admitted to express involvement have rendered a decline in the use of involvement features but we assume that frequency of use of the same features should be different in both prefaces and actual works. Unexpectedly, the overall frequency of these features is higher in the texts than in their corresponding prefaces.
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Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Our expectations regarding the adverbs under discussion here in terms of the sex of the author were that women would probably use them more, as a means of mitigating their claims. Normalized figures were again used here, since there are substantially fewer words produced by women than by men in the CC, this being a matter of representativeness (far more men published scientific works in the late Modern English period). Our results (Figure 4) show—contrary to our initial hypothesis— that female authors tend to use the adverbs possibly and perhaps more often on their own than when accompanied by a modal verb, which reveals that they do not use mitigation as often as their male peers. This might be explained by them having felt the need to be more assertive if they want to be taken seriously in a highly androcentric world.
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TítuloStance is present in scientific writing, indeed  Evidence from the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloStance is present in scientific writing, indeed Evidence from the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Stance as a pragmatic feature has been discussed widely in recent years, although the analysis of its presence in the scientific register has been more limited. Stance is most clearly seen in the use of adverbs (Quirk et al. 1985; Biber et al. 1999; Huddleston – Pullum 2002), providing a comment on the propositional content of an utterance. Thus, in any speech act the information they transmit involves both participants, which in the case of academic prose are the writer and reader. Biber et al. (1999) have claimed that oral registers exhibit the highest number of stance adverbs and that these are “relatively common” in academic prose (Tseronis 2009). In this paper we try to ascertain the extent to which stance adverbs were used in Late Modern scientific discourse, and whether differences in use can be observed between British and American authors and also across disciplines and genres, taking the orality or written nature of texts as a key feature in the analysis. Data have been drawn from around one hundred and twenty authors, from three sub-corpora of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (see also Zea, this volume). Each of these sub-corpora contains extracts of texts from different scientific disciplines written between 1700 and 1900. However, for the present study, only nineteenth-century authors have been selected. The material also allowed us to consider whether the sex of a writer had a bearing on the use of these forms. Ultimately, we have found that the most frequently used stance adverbs are those indicating inclusiveness and expressing either emphasis or tentativeness. Curiously enough, they are more abundant in texts written by North American authors and when we come to sex, male uses exceed by far female ones.
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TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

From the moment at which the so-called Scientific Revolution erupted, objectivity was the main goal of all scientists. The experimental or scientific method favoured this search for objectivity, in that experiments were now to be described with sufficient precision that anyone could reproduce them and thus seek to confirm the findings. This form of making science also had an inevitable consequence on the way science was written. However, studies on discourse tend to view the second part of the eighteenth century as a period of reaction to this focus on objectivity and also as a reaction to Rationalism. It seems there is a continued shift, not only in scientific writing but in discourse in general, that goes from this object-centred world to a reality that is more deeply related to the inner self of authors (Adamson), such a shift finally giving rise to the Romantic Movement. Also, from the middle of the century onwards, the relation between language and its users began to be taken into considera- tion by authors such as Harris (1751) and Beattie (1783). Whereas it is true that certain linguistic features and constructions were associated with science during the eighteenth century, it is worth noting that other features denoting interpersonal interaction between writer and reader can also be detected in eighteenth-century scientific writing (Crespo; Alonso Almeida, “Sentential Evidential” and “An analysis”; Moskowich).
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Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Finally, current results not only advance the understanding of written bilingual- ism, but also may have significant educational consequences. Oral and written bilingualism may be dissociated and a specific individual can have a high proficiency in one of them, and a low ability in the other; for instance, many people in different countries learn to read in a foreign language although they cannot even maintain a simple conversation in the second language. Many immigrants to the United States of America learn to speak in English but they cannot even read the newspaper. From the educational point of view, the discrepancy between oral and written bilingualism can impact the learning ability of the student; for instance, some Hispanic students coming from Latin America can rapidly learn basic spoken English, but their ability to read English and hence, successfully using textbooks, can be limited; this situation results in an evident decrease in academic performance.
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Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Finally, current results not only advance the understanding of written bilingual- ism, but also may have significant educational consequences. Oral and written bilingualism may be dissociated and a specific individual can have a high proficiency in one of them, and a low ability in the other; for instance, many people in different countries learn to read in a foreign language although they cannot even maintain a simple conversation in the second language. Many immigrants to the United States of America learn to speak in English but they cannot even read the newspaper. From the educational point of view, the discrepancy between oral and written bilingualism can impact the learning ability of the student; for instance, some Hispanic students coming from Latin America can rapidly learn basic spoken English, but their ability to read English and hence, successfully using textbooks, can be limited; this situation results in an evident decrease in academic performance.
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Open Journal Systems

Open Journal Systems

The above data might be interpreted as revealing a more prescriptive tendency of newspaper opinion discourse in English. Adjectives of importance usually occur in passages in which a particular course of action is suggested or supported, thus, having the illocutionary force of a directive (indirect directives, Searle, 1975). On the other hand, adjectives of importance in Spanish opinion articles are mainly linked to the description of past or ongoing situations. Generally speaking, Spanish writers sprinkle their narrative with evaluative language, as evidenced by the large and varied range of adjectives of importance found in C- OPRES; however, they seem to refrain more from committing themselves to the recommendation of particular courses of action. In terms of pragmatics, it could be claimed that evaluation along the parameter of relevance has a directive function in English, foregrounding performative aspects of language usage, and a representative function in Spanish. This cross-linguistic difference derives from the type and nature of the most frequent evaluative adjectives in each language and their distribution with regard to the evaluation of proposals and situations (see Table 3 and Table 6 above).
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A study of the English postposition ago in the speech of adult native speakers in advanced EFL recordings

A study of the English postposition ago in the speech of adult native speakers in advanced EFL recordings

(a) the number of instances of nuclear ago in transcription, although somewhat significant, does not seem to represent such a serious issue as was previously thought on the basis of the frequency with which the researcher heard ago as nuclear in the volunteers’ spoken English, the single most important factor which triggered this piece of research. This undoubtedly suggests that further study including a comparison of student recordings with their own predictions when transcribing might throw more light into the researcher’s perceived discrepancy. Perhaps the extra time at their disposal when predicting nucleus placement in transcription allows students to weigh up all the words in a group against each other in terms of semantic load and thus shy away from accenting ago as often as they would do in speech, where real time production leaves little room for weighing up possibilities.
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TítuloCETA in the context of the Coruña Corpus

TítuloCETA in the context of the Coruña Corpus

2 .2P la ceo fCETAintheCC... Gen res / tex ttypesinCETA..[r]

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A challenge to travel literature and stereotypes by two Turkish women: Zeyneb Hanoum and Selma Ekrem

A challenge to travel literature and stereotypes by two Turkish women: Zeyneb Hanoum and Selma Ekrem

A Western reader who reads Selma Ekrem’s accounts would be very surprised with the multicultural household and the family relationships she experienced. Several languages can be heard at home since they have Greek servants and French teachers. In addition, the children attend to the Koran courses in order to acquire an appropriate religious background. Therefore, it can be inferred that the family’s attitude towards education is a very cosmopolitan and sophisticated one (of course the French admiration was at a high level in Turkey at the time). At some point in their accounts both of the writers complain about this strange mixture and are aware that the great confusion they have in their minds and daily life practices are due to this type of education. Wine is served in Ekrem’s family every night and interestingly she compares her aunts’ responses when sitting next to each other at the table. The fact that one of her aunts is playing cards and drinking wine, whereas the other abstains from a single drop of alcohol due to her religious interpretations is a perfect example to demonstrate this confusion in a small scale of the Turkish society if the family is taken as a reflection of a society.
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TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

We have also born in mind the principles of representative- ness and balance [McEnery and Wilson 1996; Biber et al. 1998: 251–253] most specialists in corpus linguistics care about. In addi- tion, it was our conscious decision to include only edited and print- ed texts in prose. As with the other sub-corpora, first editions have been used whenever possible and this addresses mainly the issue of availability. Otherwise, and taking for granted that language change can be observed within 30-year periods (Kytö et al. 2000: 92], texts published within a thirty-year span from the first publica- tion date were selected.
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Laddish Behaviour and Gender Performativity in British and Spanish Personal Weblogs

Laddish Behaviour and Gender Performativity in British and Spanish Personal Weblogs

In particular, this study is concerned with the tribulations of the British and Spanish teenage female self in narrating their love-lives in personal weblogs. Indebted to Herring, Scheidt et al. (2004a), I believe that the study of this emerging type of discourse provides a venue to explore the construction of twenty-first century gender identities (Huffaker 2004a and 2004b; Huffaker and Calvert 2005), and this, in turn, may shed further light on how the Internet has changed the way young people maintain social relationships. It is worth pointing out that personal weblog writing, in the literature, has been discussed as a “private” space without any sense of the paradox that it is available for the author’s “public” consumption (García Gómez in press). When analysing the presence of particular linguistics strategies, the discursive psychological perspective adopted in this study does not gloss over the point that all texts are designed for a particular audience. We understand that an important part of the analysis of any text composed for public consumption (as weblogs by definition are) must be to consider the effect on a writer’s self-presentation of who the text is written to be read by, what that reader can be assumed to find intelligible or appealing, and what kind of persona the writer may have an investment in projecting to her imagined reader.
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TítuloContemporary perspectives in philosophy and methodology of science

TítuloContemporary perspectives in philosophy and methodology of science

As is very well known Lewis proposes a “best-fit” account of natural laws. A regularity is a law if and only if it is a theorem of that system of axioms which best balances the two constraints of simplicity and correctness of predictions. Now we can extend this idea to law-like claims about probability. If we were trying to describe the sequence of outcomes of throws of a fair coin we could list the outcomes, but this would result in an enormously complex description (as long as the sequence). however we could simply say that the outcomes formed a Bernoulli trial with probability one-half which is very simple and assigns the actual outcomes to well determined class. Such a probabilistic description very well fits Lewis’s description of a law of nature. Now suppose we extend this idea to the history of the universe as a whole. The theoretical system we have been discussing throughout this section to describe the history of the universe is actually the combination of Newtonian mechanics, a postulate that initially the universe was in a very low entropy state (to guarantee that that Boltzmann’s statistical explanation of the second law of thermodynamics is true) and that the probability distribution at the origin of the universe over the initial low entropy state is precisely the standard micro-canonical one: namely that the probability of (now) the universe being in a particular microscopic dynamical state given that it is an a particular macroscopic state is proportional to the volume of microscopic states which yield that macroscopic state in the phase space surface of constant energy of the universe. Those three postulates together are a simple best fit theoretical system which captures the facts. This in fact gives a law-like character to initial conditions, but those initial conditions, in particular the third postulate above, play an essential role in the system and thus have a law-like character. The subsequent evolution of the universe then is entirely deterministic and fixed by the laws together with the actual initial conditions but nevertheless the initial law-like probability distribution over macroscopic states evolves too.
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International mobility of Spanish men and women doctorate holders

International mobility of Spanish men and women doctorate holders

From an individual perspective, there are important issues involved in the life course of highly skilled people. Literature on this topic links mobility decisions with biological and personal dimensions, and empirical evidence shows that mobility depends on the age of the scientist. Young scientists are more likely than their older counterparts to move internationally for learning purposes or even to satisfy an adventurous spirit. On the contrary, older professionals place more value on other commitments related to family and the workplace and may choose to remain in the home country (Blossefeld et al., 2005; Buchholz et al., 2009). Cooper and Makin (1985) show that people under 35 years old with no children are more mobile than those with children because accommodation is marginally less important to them. These studies highlight age and life course as important dimensions in the decision-making process regarding mobility.
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WHY IT MATTERS NOW

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Discoveries in Chemistry Robert Boyle pio- neered the use of the scientific method in chemistry. He is considered the founder of modern chemistry. In a book called The Sceptical Chymist (1661), Boyle challenged Aristotle’s idea that the physical world consisted of four elements—earth, air, fire, and water. Instead, Boyle proposed that matter was made up of smaller primary particles that joined together in different ways. Boyle’s most famous contribution to chemistry is Boyle’s law. This law explains how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other.
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Las cartillas farmacéuticas publicadas en España en el siglo XVIII

Las cartillas farmacéuticas publicadas en España en el siglo XVIII

Some pharmacy students of the time may have bought the book thinking that it would be of use to them; nevertheless, they would soon have discovered, just as we have done, that this was not the case. It is not clear whether Ambrosio de Almunia considered that the 18 pages dedicated to a Treatise on Medicines in this edition would really serve the studying purposes of novice chemists, or whether he was simply trying to give a greater scope to his work than it actually had. There is the additional possibility that the section may had been included in order to gain greater academic recognition, or as a means to selling more copies of the book.
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