PDF superior TítuloGenre and change in the Corpus of History English Texts

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

As regards the behaviour of these markers of involvement over time we note a decline, and this corroborates the tendency towards detachment (Lareo and Montoya, 2007) which has been observed in other historical studies of scientific texts (Moskowich and Crespo, 2015). This decline is not so clearly marked in front matter, perhaps due to the more flexible rhetorical patterns applied here and the need of authors to interact with readers in some way. As for genre, we have observed that Treatise contains fewer instances of these markers than any other genre in our material, which is perhaps indicative of the level of formality which treatises typically have. Travelogue is in fact the genre with the highest proportion of involvement devices in our data. In terms of our analysis of how subject-matter may have influenced the expression of involvement, we might recall that although our single sample of the genre Travelogue belongs to History, the discipline itself is the one containing fewest involvement devices. On the other hand, it is another discipline from the Humanities, Philosophy, which displays the largest number of linguistic elements conveying authorial involvement.
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TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

TítuloA Corpus of History Texts (CHET) as part of the Coruña Corpus Project

We have also born in mind the principles of representative- ness and balance [McEnery and Wilson 1996; Biber et al. 1998: 251–253] most specialists in corpus linguistics care about. In addi- tion, it was our conscious decision to include only edited and print- ed texts in prose. As with the other sub-corpora, first editions have been used whenever possible and this addresses mainly the issue of availability. Otherwise, and taking for granted that language change can be observed within 30-year periods (Kytö et al. 2000: 92], texts published within a thirty-year span from the first publica- tion date were selected.
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TítuloPatterns of english scientific writing in the 18th Century: adjectives and other Building blocks

TítuloPatterns of english scientific writing in the 18th Century: adjectives and other Building blocks

Samples extracted from CETA, part of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing, have been selected as my source of data. The eighteenth-century section of the corpus contains 208,079 words, these not being equally distributed as regards authors’ regional origin or the genre of the texts. I have analysed twenty-one samples by different authors, none of them being translations (cf Chapter 3), which will serve to minimise interference from Latin or other learned languages. That is to say, the forms found in my analysis will not be the result of a defective translation or any sort of linguistic interference but rather that of the authors’ effort to be precise. We must, however, bear in mind that many of the authors of scientific texts in the eighteenth century were members of the clergy or of universities, institutions in which Latin was the “official language”. This fact, together with the undeniable prestige that Latinate forms carry, may be operating to some extent in authors’ minds during the process of writing. The fact that CETA contains only one sample per author also guarantees that linguistic idiosyncrasies are avoided.
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Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Previous research (Crespo and Moskowich 2016; Moskowich 2017) has shown that both subject matter and communicative format or genre exert a great influence on linguistic choice. The genres included in the CC cover different degrees of formality and proximity to the oral register. Thus, we find samples extracted from Lectures, Dialogues, and Letters (speech-based genres) and others such as Textbooks, Treatises, or Travelogues, which are typically written to be read. We have analyzed the behavior of perhaps and possibly separately, since although the OED gives a very similar meaning for both, which might imply similar kinds of use, the results for the previous variables have led us to prefer a separate analysis, this as a means of seeing whether they would also behave differently or not here. Thus, the adverb perhaps was taken first, and a search was made for all those instances in which it was accompanied by modal verbs in the 12 different genres represented in our material. Figure 6 illustrates the very varied distribution that we found. On the one hand, Essay (2.19 nf) and Lecture (1.45 nf) are the two formats that contain the highest number of occurrences of perhaps when accompanied by a modal verb. It is to be noted that both formats are close to orality, in that lectures are conceived of as pieces of writing to be read out, and essays were originally the reports of the public demonstrations of experiments. Such characteristics of these formats may explain the preference for an adverb of Germanic origin such as perhaps. On the other hand, from the 12 genres, four contained no instances of these constructions, this being the case with Dictionary, Catalogue, Travelogue, and Biography. Curiously, these are discipline-specific genres, in that Biography and Travelogue are exclusive to the History corpus, and Catalogue has thus far only been found in the Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts (under compilation). Meanwhile, Dictionary—a format that can also be found in other disciplines—is represented here by a sample in CETA (Astronomy). It is also true that although the form and function of both Catalogue and Dictionary do not seem to be likely to contain structures such as those we are dealing with, the other two (Travelogue and Biography) might indeed be expected to contain some instances precisely because of their nature.
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On the origin and history of the English prepositional type a-hunting: a corpus-based study

On the origin and history of the English prepositional type a-hunting: a corpus-based study

Jespersen shows a combination of the two above-mentioned theories (A Modera English Grammar IV168-69): in a first formulation, he asserted that the progressive tenses "seem to have[r]

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Corpus linguistics and its aplications in higher education

Corpus linguistics and its aplications in higher education

inner circle (Kachru, 1982, 1988) are very well represented in various other corpora. However, if we turn our attention to the issue of representativeness and balance we need to be cautious. To start with, the spoken samples in the BNC are just 10% of the total. If wished to carry out research within the specific field of, say, academic English by means of the BNC, we will observe that there is a significant imbalance. Almost 50% of all academic journal articles are medical texts (Hoffmann et al., 2008: 213). Therefore, our results about the academic language in British academic journals would be flawed. Likewise, it may be argued that small specialized corpus, which are considered as extremely easy to compile and useful in English for Academic and Specific Purposes (see Flowerdew, 2009: 397) very often cannot be taken to represent national varieties, but a mixture of contributions pertaining to the inner, outer or even the expanding circle (ibid Kachru). This might cast doubt on the use of L1 or native labels to refer to contributions whose authors definitely do not have English as their mother tongue, and certainly do not use it as their own national variety. Indeed, most scientific work published today is in English though much of it does not qualify as representing the inner circle. This earlier argument is unrelated to language proficiency. If we still wish to make use of these samples, perhaps it would be more appropriate to refer to them as representing collectively a community of practice of ‘Successful Users of English’ (Prodromou, 2003), where English acts as the lingua franca.
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A specialized parallel corpus of english and spanish free trade agreements for the study of specialized collocations

A specialized parallel corpus of english and spanish free trade agreements for the study of specialized collocations

This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA), a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America that is being prepared and aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998). The data is taken from Free Trade Agreements officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries. Once complete, the corpus will contain about 1.3 million words in the English section and 1.5 million words in its Spanish counterpart. One of the aims is to study the specialized collocations that appear in this kind of texts and the terminological value of specialized collocations as carriers of specialized information.
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TítuloRenewal of Grammatical Forms in the History of English

TítuloRenewal of Grammatical Forms in the History of English

In sum, the pronominal relativization strategy has always existed in English, from Old English times to Present-Day English, but the elements involved have changed throughout the history of the language. Old and Early Middle English have elements inherited from the demonstrative pronominal system (se(þe)/seo(þe)/þæt(þe)), and from Middle English onwards, the pronominal relativizers are represented by wh- words, derived from the interrogative pronouns. Available historical data point to a reduction of inflections as one of the main causes to account for the change: from a [+ gender, + number, + case] strategy to a more simplified strategy marking only [+ case], in line with the progressive reduction of English from a synthetic to an analytic language. Another cause frequently pointed out for the emergence of wh- pronouns as relativizers is the influence of Romance languages, such as French or Latin.
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THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ECUADOR

THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ECUADOR

end of the 70s and beginning of the 80s the Community Approach created the Natural Method. The interaction between the teacher and the students is part of the class, there is more reflexion and the development of the English skills (Reading, Listening, Writing and Reading) appeared as a goal in the learning process. Twenty years ago, a curriculum reform in the English teaching process began with the CRADLE project. The methodology used followed a functional-communicative approach through which the students developed linguistic competences, therefore there was a significant learning where the students knew about the Ecuadorian culture with aspects of socializing. In spite of the course book, material and resources, teacher training in the methodology used in the book, the English deficiency continues being part of Ecuadorian students. There are some factors explained by Silvano Muñoz, who was the coordinator in Los Rios province of the CRADLE project. One of the factors was that teacher did not have the open mind to change the old way of English instruction because it was much more comfortable to keep the discipline with a lot of exercises in class of translation of readings from the OWTE, the textbook used in this course, instead of applying new strategies which required more energy, classroom management and use of English in class. It is important to say that in that moment many of the English teachers in service did not have any pedagogical formation. Thus, many of the strategies in the book were not well done, although the project gave some training about the use of this methodology even the young teachers preferred avoiding the communicative strategies.
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Sports and Adventure Tourism Anglicisms in Spanish: Esferatón or Zorbing?

Sports and Adventure Tourism Anglicisms in Spanish: Esferatón or Zorbing?

Active and adventure tourism are two types of tourism that take place outdoors in contact with nature. The present article discusses the language of sports and adventure tourism in Spanish focusing on the use of Anglicisms. We examine the different aspects related to the integration and adaptation of English words. The integration process is often attested through the change in the spelling of the word and its adaptation to the Spanish orthographic system. Furthermore, the influence of English upon Spanish pervades not only its lexicon, but also its morphology, syntax, semantics and phraseology. In this article, we analyse word morphology in terms of plural formation and gender assignment. In order to carry out the research, the data are retrieved from a corpus and an associated database, known as Anglicor, that the authors have been compiling since 2003 up to now. The corpus is made up of several subcorpora, whose main topics are computers, medicine and health issues, fashion, beauty, science and technology, and tourism. The tourism subcorpus is a collection of texts from airline magazines, brochures, academic journals, leaflets, websites and active tourism magazines. For this study, we have made use of recent texts from specialised websites and printed magazines. Thus, the explanations are illustrated with examples obtained from authentic sources, which will provide an up-to-date overview of the presence, use and significance of Anglicisms in the language of sports and adventure tourism in Spanish.
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TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

The aim of this work is to offer an overview of female scientific writing in English in the nineteenth century. In particular, we want to focus on the analysis of the more or less informational style of texts written by women. Variables such as discipline or subject-matter and genre will be used to measure the way in which the informative character of scientific texts develops once Empiricism is well settled. Assuming the andro-centric nature of scientific discourse in the Modern Age, the survey of these variables will help us explore the extent to which this informational style is revealed in female scientific works. The fact that these authors are women could imply that some involvement on their part may be required. This could be caused by extra-linguistic factors such as the need to be taken more seriously not only in a field completely dominated by males but also in the social context surrounding women’s lives in general.
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TítuloMuStE: the Dimensions of Linguistic Research at UDC

TítuloMuStE: the Dimensions of Linguistic Research at UDC

lled collocations in Mel’čuk’s (1994) terminology— were dealt with in Lareo and Esteve (2008) and Lareo (2009) or conditional structures were delved into by Puente-Cas- telo and Monaco (2013) or Puente-Castelo (2016). Our interest for the socio-historical dimension of the English language has recently grown into several and gra- dual forays into the wide field of discourse analysis. In those we have studied written texts from various discur- sive perspectives such as stance, persuasion, abstraction, involvement, modality and women’s scientific writing. The triggering effect of all this was the creation of what has been and still is MuStE’s flagship, the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC for short). Designed to be a generic or specific corpus —as opposed to a gene- ral corpus—, it is now well known and respected within the academic community. An electronic corpus is not a mere juxtaposition of texts —as sometimes understood in the field of literary studies. It is not a simple bunch of scanned images either as these formats cannot possibly be read and processed by a computer. On the contrary, the same as Biber (1993), Meyer (2002) and Crystal (2003), we agree that a corpus should be briefly defined as a “principled” collection of machine-readable texts. The truth is that the idea of creating a corpus, a speciali- sed one focusing on scientific English, first arose in 2003 when some members of the MuStE group were awarded funding from the University of A Coruña to explore the historical background of English as the language of scien- ce. We soon realised that the compilation of a corpus of scientific texts from the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- turies would fill a gap in the field of English historical linguistics. At that moment, we had the examples of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (Rissanen et al. 1991) and the Lampeter Corpus of English Tracts (Schmied et al, 1999). In Helsinki, Prof. Taavitsainen and her colleagues were working on the compilation of MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts) and we thought our corpus would complement theirs in the history of scientific English as, initially, the Helsinki project was intended to cover the Middle Ages and the early Modern period, focusing on medical texts.
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TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

Both the changes occurring in science and those occurring, if not to language itself then at least to people’s conceptions of it, had an effect on its use. Latin had been the language of knowledge for a long time, but the transforma- tion of science also provoked its widespread abandonment in face of the use of vernaculars. Latin was no longer considered the lingua franca of science, yet somehow it managed to persist for a considerable time. With all these chang- ing attitudes to language as a vehicle for knowledge, our research question here is whether classical linguistic elements survived better in the Humanities or in other more observational, scientific disciplines. Looking at the evolution of scientific texts in English, it seems plausible to suppose that such lexical items and expressions would be more frequently found in the Natural, observational Sciences (an example of which is Life Sciences) than in the Humanities (the Philosophy texts used for this work). But is this in fact the case?
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TítuloLexical Richness in Modern Writers: evidence from the Corpus of History English Texts

TítuloLexical Richness in Modern Writers: evidence from the Corpus of History English Texts

The first thing to be observed (see Table 3 above) is that the number of types within each sample ranges from 1,861 (in 10,037 words) in Sewell’s text to 2,610 (in 10,102 words) in the sample from Martha Freer. The difference in the number of types in these two samples does not seem to be caused by sample size, since all samples in the CC contain around 10,000 words. Time as a variable can also be disregarded, as it does not seem to have any direct influence on my data; only three years separate the publication of the two works containing the highest and lowest number of types (published in 1857 and 1860, respectively). So, where does the difference lie? Genre seems to be a determining factor, since the work containing the least varied vocabulary is a textbook and the one with the greatest use of different terms is a treatise. In fact, Table 3 seems to reveal a gradiance here which establishes some kind of correlation between genre and lexical diversity, thus: textbook, travelogue, article, treatise. This sequence is disrupted only by the sample from the text written by Sarah Scott in 1762 (The History of Mecklenburgh). The fact that this work had two editions in its very year of publication suggests it was very popular. Although a treatise, Scott’s book is certainly close to its readers in style and content, offering anecdotes from the everyday lives of the historical characters she portrays, as the author herself recognises as one of her aims in the preface: “They all required, with the mo∫t ardent curio∫ ity, for anecdote∫ concerning the hou∫e of Mecklenburh” (Scott, The History of Mecklenburgh ix)
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Pragmatics and semiotics: the relevance of addressee expectations in the translation of newspaper texts

Pragmatics and semiotics: the relevance of addressee expectations in the translation of newspaper texts

Quite on the contrary, it is argued here that it is precisely these texts that demónstrate how systematically translators are capable of forecasting the average target recipient and o[r]

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TítuloThe Adjective in English: The "French type" and its place in the History of Language

TítuloThe Adjective in English: The "French type" and its place in the History of Language

The Adjective in English The "French Type" and its Place in the History of Language Folia Linguistica Historica XXIII/l 2pp 59 71 ? Societas Linguistica Europaea THE ADJECTIVE IN ENGLISH THE "FRENCH T[.]

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The fiction of Arundhati Roy and Githa Hariharan : another world is possible

The fiction of Arundhati Roy and Githa Hariharan : another world is possible

intersections of gender, caste, and history in narratives by Indian women writers.. in English.[r]

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The Acquisition of Copula Verbs in English/Spanish and Bulgarian/Spanish Bilingual Children: Language Contact in Early Bilingualism

The Acquisition of Copula Verbs in English/Spanish and Bulgarian/Spanish Bilingual Children: Language Contact in Early Bilingualism

These two hypotheses have been said to characterize both L1 and 2L1 acquisition. However, in the case of 2L1 acquisition other phenomena, which will be developed in subsequent paragraphs, might interfere given the specific properties of this acquisition process. A bilingual has been defined in two ways: firstly, as a speaker having an identical command in two different languages (Marouzeau 1951), a rather idyllic definition that is no longer used nowadays, or as a speaker having a similar or a different command of two languages (Edwards 2004). Furthermore, Butler and Hakuta (2004) hold that there are different types of bilingualism. Firstly, they argue that bilingualism can be either simultaneous, when two languages are acquired at the same time, or sequential, i.e., firstly, an L1 is acquired and then an L2. Depending on the age of the speaker, they claim that bilingualism can be early, if the two languages are acquired early in life, or late, if a speaker learns an L2 after his L1 has been fully established. Moreover, regarding the command that the speaker may have of the two languages, the bilingualism can be symmetric, if the command is equal for the different linguistic skills, or asymmetric, if the command of the two languages is different. Finally, bilingualism can be individual, if the society in which the speaker lives is monolingual, or societal, if the society in which a speaker lives is bilingual. In the present dissertation, the term 2L1 bilingualism will be used to refer to simultaneous early bilingualism, a term that is often used in bilingual acquisition research. However, as will be seen below, this term is nothing short of debate.
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Development of discourse pragmatic markers in a multilingual classroom: A mixed method research approach

Development of discourse pragmatic markers in a multilingual classroom: A mixed method research approach

studies need to combine frequency analysis with measures for a holistic evaluation of functional adequacy (Kuiken and Vedder, 2016). Second, this study explained changes in pragmatic development with qualitative data to supplement quantitative findings, tracing common trends in the data gathered. However, we have not considered cases of particular learners as previous studies have done in other learning contexts (Alcón- Soler, 2017; Taguchi, 2011b, 2012). Future research should consider individual trajectories compared to group development in order to consider whether individual differences may have an impact on pragmatic development in multilingual classrooms. Despite these limitations, the present study fills a research gap by exploring pragmatic development in a particular classroom context, the multilingual classroom, which has not been addressed in previous research on pragmatic development.
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