PDF superior TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

TítuloInvolved In Writing Science: Nineteenth Century Women in the Coruña Corpus

In absolute terms, the percentage of involvement features found in the work of the female writers under survey here is quite low (0.74%). If we see the birth of modern science, underpinned by the empiricist movement, as having led to an overreaction against the expression of personal commitment, our findings might be seen as reflecting the written manifestation of a nineteenth-century ideological construct based on the kind of objectivity, truthfulness and mathematical scrupulousness first posed by authors such as Bacon and Boyle (Allen, Qin and Lancaster, 1994). However, one of the basic tenets of this ideology was also reliability, and the expression of this implied the use of particular text-types that could help the author “convince” the reader of their reliable explanations or the use of language structures which could make the reader participate in his or her work.
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TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

Science written in English is generally considered to have become a well- established practice by the eighteenth century, the vernacular having replaced Latin as a vehicle of communication, the culmination of a process which started as early as 1375 (Taavitsainen and Pahta). The linguistic situation was so stable at the time that authors such as Tieken-Boon van Ostade (254) claim that “according to traditional accounts of eighteenth-century English, nothing much happened to the language during this period.” One might expect to find that some words of a classical etymology would still be used in texts dealing with scientific issues (as is also the case today), although perhaps these not equally present across all disci- plines. Indeed, even nowadays some fields of knowledge seem to be more prone to use such terms. A simple example will suffice here. In 2005 a new dinosaur fossil was discovered in Australia. After observing its characteristics palaeontologists immediately gave it a pseudo-Latin name, Spinosaurus, illustrating that Latin persists as a preference in the scientific register of this field.
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TítuloLinking ideas in women's writing: evidence from the Coruña Corpus

TítuloLinking ideas in women's writing: evidence from the Coruña Corpus

Table 3 shows the relative frequencies for the genres represented in each century. Overall, the data indicates that Article (7.1 nf for the nineteenth century) is the genre where both features are most abundant, followed by Textbook (6.4 nf in the eighteenth century); at the other end of the scale we find Other (3.2 nf in the eighteenth century) and Lecture (5 nf in the nineteenth century). The reason for this may lie in the relative proximity of genres to the oral register. Articles and textbooks were written to be read, and involve a high-brow, formal register, whereas our sample of Other is a travelogue, a genre which shares some characteristics with diaries, thus making use of a more intimate, oral-like language. Similarly, lectures were intended to be spoken (Gómez-Guinovart and Pérez- Guerra, 2000) and in this sense are also closer to orality. Letters deserve special attention since they make frequent use of the features under survey (6.0 nf) and because the presence of conjuncts and adverbial subordinators in them is somehow unbalanced (with the latter appearing three times more often than the former). This may be due to the fact that these are not private letters but rather letters intended to be published, yet which were written with the aim of conforming to the supposed style of the genre. This, for example, may account for the lack of “therefores” and the abundance of “becauses” in these letters.
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TítuloStance is present in scientific writing, indeed  Evidence from the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloStance is present in scientific writing, indeed Evidence from the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Bacon’s and Boyle’s canon for style in scientific writing, which emerged as a reaction to the medieval scholastic tradition, demands the use of clear and plain language devoid of ornamentation (Allen – Qin – Lancaster 1994). This transparent, object-centred style (Atkinson 1999), acting as a direct vehicle for the transmission for scientific observation and experimentation, seems to have tolerated the veiled presence of the author. The reasons here may lie in the necessity for authors to connect with the increasing numbers of the literate public, while complying with the ideas of the dissemination of knowledge, so central to the new science, and with the principle of reliability, another core aim of Empiricism. The linguistic mechanisms best suited to express this intimate relation between author and audience include stance adverbials, modality, second person pronouns, suasive and private verbs (Biber 1988), and directives (Hyland 2005), among others. The use of stance adverbs in particular may have been conditioned by several factors, and the social and external factors we will consider here may have influenced their degree of use in scientific writing. First, we will consider where authors acquired their competence in scientific writing: that is, whether the writing tradition in which they were educated had any effect on the extent of their reliance on such adverbs. Second, assuming that certain genres are closer to orality than others (Biber – Finegan 1992, Culpeper – Kytö 2000) and that, a priori, the expression of one’s attitude towards the message conveyed is more easily detected in oral than in written scientific texts, we will ask whether the degree of technicality of genres may influence language choice. In a previous study of contemporary English, Biber et al. (1999: 767) claimed that oral registers exhibit the highest number of stance adverbs, the occurrence of which is “relatively common” in “academic prose, while they show the lowest frequency in news” (Tseronis 2009). This may imply that news is somehow more objective than scientific or academic prose, which in principle might seem to be a wholly objective field with a high degree of abstraction (Monaco forthcoming). Finally, we will ask whether male and female authors may also have used these stance markers differently, in that it has been argued that women are generally more involved than men in their writing style (Argamon et al. 2003). Previous studies on sex differences in a variety of aspects of scientific writing (Crespo 2011; Crespo – Moskowich forthcoming; Moskowich – Monaco 2014) point to the relevance of distinct writing practices by men and women, each manifested in the preponderant use of specific linguistic strategies.
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TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

span covered by the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (henceforth CC). All samples will be extracted from different sub-corpora of CC, namely, CETA (Corpus of English Texts on Astronomy) (Moskowich et al, 2012), CEPhiT (Corpus of English Philosophy Text, forthcoming), CELiST (Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts) and CHET (Corpus of History English Texts). Given that women writers in this period mainly devoted themselves to the creation of fictional works, the number of samples written by female authors in these corpora is not very high but it reflects eighteenth- and nineteenth-century scientific reality accurately. Since we will be working with samples from different corpora devoted each to a particular scientific discipline, we will use this as one of the variables in the analysis. Disciplinary conventions might exert an influence on how the author communicates science. The second variable will be time. To this respect we will present and compare our results per century, considering that, as could be expected, the findings will point to an evolution towards detachment, mainly in texts. Finally, the text-type or genre to which the text belongs, that is, generic conventions, could also determine the final writing.
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TítuloNoun formation in the scientific register of late modern english : a corpus based approach

TítuloNoun formation in the scientific register of late modern english : a corpus based approach

Thus, the time span selected follows unambiguous motives. In general, the late Modern English period is characterised by antagonistic tendencies regarding language. A movement that purported the customary use of Latin in scientific texts coexisted with another that suggested that disseminating knowledge in the vernacular would undoubtedly reach a wider audience. Also, to make matters worse a third movement intended to create a universal scientific language from scratch. Though the date for the vernacularisation of science has been set as early as 1375 (Taavitsainen & Pahta 2004), it is nonetheless certain that we cannot talk about an outburst of texts written in English until the turn of the seventeenth century, with a consolidation in the eighteenth, since even the most important promoters of the scientific revolution published their works in Latin in the first place (Bacon’s Novum Organum, Newton’s Principia). In sum, the eighteenth century seems, therefore, a fairly reasonable moment in the history of the English language to begin an approach to the morphological devices employed in the period to coin new linguistic elements. We must bear in mind, however, that changes happening in the eighteenth century are not likely to be largely observed until the following century, especially those closer to the turn of the century. Future studies using the nineteenth century section of the Coruña Corpus will definitely address this issue.
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Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Women are seldom mentioned in books about the History of Science or in Biographical Dictionaries. Public female activity was not common in certain spheres of life and publishing in general, but publishing works on Philosophy in particular, was one of these uncommon activities. However, it must be admitted that other fields of science were regarded as even more masculine than philosophy. Women’s work was often not taken seriously (Herrero, 2007, p. 75). Excluded from official science, the means women had to learn was by reading, by listening to other women, from mothers to daughters and, occasionally, by listening to men. Female authorship is difficult to establish. In certain fields of knowledge such as Astronomy, women did not sign their own works, as is the case of the Catalogue of Stars by German female astronomers in the seventeenth century. Although women participated intensively in science, their access to study and scientific work was limited to the role of mere assistants. Some scientific institutions, in fact, did not admit the first women until the second half of the twentieth century.
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TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

nonetheless, notwithstanding, otherwise, rather, similarly, therefore, thus, viz, in comparison, in contrast, in particular, in addition, in conclusion, in consequence, in sum, in summary, in any event, in any case, in other words, for example, for instance, by contrast, by comparison, as a result, as a consequence, on the contrary, on the other hand, that is

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Convents as Transnational Education Spaces in the Long Nineteenth Century

Convents as Transnational Education Spaces in the Long Nineteenth Century

Despite the growth in research on Sister teachers, there has not been much work done on their main locus of activity: the convent school. Some work has explored the curriculum in convent schools, especially in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Christine Lei (2000) has looked at the formal and hidden curriculum in Canadian Loretto education, while Marjet Derks (2008) has examined extra- curricular activities in Catholic secondary schools in Nijmegen. The educational praxis within convent schools has been explored in the work of Mona Gleason (2001), while Elizabeth M. Smyth and Anne V. O’Connor (1986) have written on the use of schoolbooks and the teaching of «accomplishments». All of these works testify to the fact that this is a growing area in research, and much more work is needed. This is so not only because of the sheer scale of the involvement of Sisters in education over at least three hundred years, but because much extant work has tended towards «thick description»: documentary accounts of convents, schools and nuns, that draw on archival materials and create an important chronological narrative 5 . The further
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TítuloEating in silence: isotopic approaches to nuns' diet at the convent of Santa Catalina de Siena (Belmonte, Spain) from the sixteenth to the twentieth century

TítuloEating in silence: isotopic approaches to nuns' diet at the convent of Santa Catalina de Siena (Belmonte, Spain) from the sixteenth to the twentieth century

The best-preserved human skeletal remains were sampled, covering groups that ranged in age from sub-adults (14– 18 years) to older adults (+ 60 years), sex (one of the individ- uals was possibly male, while the others were females), and health conditions (some of the individuals showed signs of chronic diseases such as brucellosis, leprosy, cancer, tubercu- losis, and osteoporosis). Although the main focus of this arti- cle is on adult females from the monastic population, the anal- ysis of the diet of sub-adults and a possibly male individual will yield important information about life in convents and respect of the general monastic rules. Because the rules of the Dominican Order emphasise that the sick and children under 14 can be excluded from fasting, it was expected for that their isotopic signal would be different. In the case of the possibly male individual, if the isotopic signal was similar to that other the nuns that could mean that he (?) lived with them in the same convent, while any differences could indicate that he (?) was only buried there, or re- ceived some kind of special treatment.The sampled bones in POB MON 1 were mainly skull fragments ( n = 32) and ribs ( n = 21). There were also eight long bone diaphysis, three vertebrae, and one jaw fragment (see Table 2). For POB MON 2, all the samples were ribs, except for one metacarpal.
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A NEW ROAD TO MODERNITY: THOMAS JECKYLL’S DESIGN INNOVATIONS OR THE REFORMATION OF THE MID-VICTORIAN DECORATIVE ARTS THROUGH THE JAPANESE CULTURE.   Un nuevo camino hacia la modernidad: el diseño y la innovación de Thomas Jeckyll o la reforma...

A NEW ROAD TO MODERNITY: THOMAS JECKYLL’S DESIGN INNOVATIONS OR THE REFORMATION OF THE MID-VICTORIAN DECORATIVE ARTS THROUGH THE JAPANESE CULTURE. Un nuevo camino hacia la modernidad: el diseño y la innovación de Thomas Jeckyll o la reforma...

One of the most important commissions undertaken by Jeckyll throughout his career was the tempting invitation he received from Alexander Ionides to redecorate, according to his own idiosyncratically exotic taste which had already become widely known, his big house in Nº 1 Holland Park, a rich and elegant area of the city of West London. His first reforming attempt included the layout and decoration of a new wing added in 1870: so he designed a billiard room of stunning beauty, a master bedroom, a sitting room, as well as a servant‟s hall in line with the fashionable Anglo-Japanese Style, while he also undertook the executive design of these rooms furniture. Perhaps the most impressive of all them was the billiard room, as it constituted the epitome of minimalist aesthetics in terms of both materials and style, with obvious influences from the Japanese furniture design. We mention it because many of its features such as the dado, the cornice and even the ceiling were covered with a type of lacquered wood, a technique commonly found in wooden trays but mainly in the traditional furniture of Japan as we have already stated 30 . The dominant colors were shades
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Technical education in England, Germany and France in the nineteenth century: a comparison

Technical education in England, Germany and France in the nineteenth century: a comparison

On the other hand, two schools were founded at higher technical education level: The Royal College of Chemistry (1845) and the Schools of Mines (1851). Lyon Playfair was one of the persons that had more influence on technical education. He belonged to the staff of the School of Mines, and as a member of it he had an important participation in the promotion of technical education (Argles, 1964). However, although some advances were made, higher technical education in this period was characterized by the training of engineers on the job. One way was training engineers on the job through premium pupillage and apprenticeship, this training last near three years. However, the cost for this training was assumed by the students, they have to pay high fees required for pupillage, but then they could find good positions in the job market (Guagnini, 1993). 6 On the other hand, some firms required small fees or no fees at all for training, therefore,
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Olhares que desnudam: viajantes, mulheres do Amazonas no século XIX / Trying to undress: Travelers, Amazon women in the nineteenth century Denudate looks: travelers, women form Amazonas at the nineteenth century

Olhares que desnudam: viajantes, mulheres do Amazonas no século XIX / Trying to undress: Travelers, Amazon women in the nineteenth century Denudate looks: travelers, women form Amazonas at the nineteenth century

E numa série de imagens reincidentes registraram em seus relatos imagens referente ao viver cotidiano da população manauara e de modo particular dos modos e das modas da população femini[r]

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Italian immigration to Argentina in the nineteenth century : Cocoliche and Lunfardo

Italian immigration to Argentina in the nineteenth century : Cocoliche and Lunfardo

Moreover, in El Cocoliche y el Lunfardo, Conde provides more examples of words in lunfardo. However, before doing so, he explains that lunfardo developed due to a variety of Italian languages (not dialects) spoken in different regions of Italy that introduced several words into River Plate Spanish, either with their original pronunciation or an adapted one (2009, p. 5-6). First, he provides a few examples of words that come from “standard Italian”, i.e., Italian spoken in the region of Tuscany, located in central Italy. For instance, the words birra meaning “beer”, capo “boss”, and manyar “to eat” (Conde, 2009, p. 7). Second, as regards the northern languages spoken in Italy, he pays special attention to words that came from the region of Liguria, particularly from the city of Genoa. For example, bagayo adapted from bagaggio meaning “luggage”, chanta meaning “an utrustworthy person”, and vento “money” (Conde, 2009, p. 7). Third, he refers to those words, which came from several regions of southern Italy, such as escoñar meaning “to hurt”, laburar from lavurarë “to work”, and furca meaning horca which refers to a type of crime taken from Naples, Calabria, and Sicily respectively (Conde, 2009, p. 8). Furthermore, for more examples of words in lunfardo that reflect today’s reality see Appendix 4.
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International mobility of Spanish men and women doctorate holders

International mobility of Spanish men and women doctorate holders

The growing importance of mobility in scientific careers has inspired recent works about the agency of highly skilled professionals managing their own careers through international mobility, and progressing within their careers throughout different organisations and contexts (Arthur and Rousseau, 1996; De Fillipi and Arthur, 1996; Bimber et al., 2005; Sullivan and Arthur, 2006; William, 2006; Jokinem et al., 2008). Despite its growing importance, Inkson et al. (2012) point out that that agency of highly skilled people is strongly restricted by established institutional forces, therefore, the advancement of their careers depends on social and economic forces. According to Castells (1996) and Held et al. (1999), there are certain limitations regarding migration policies and work permits, depending on the nationality of the highly skilled professional and the country of destination. Further to the aforementioned literature, González Ramos (2011) states that Spanish scientists are likely to move internationally in response to the lack of desirable professional opportunities in the domestic labour market, even if it means overcoming important personal challenges.
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The impact of British Rule on the Indian Muslim Community in the nineteenth Century

The impact of British Rule on the Indian Muslim Community in the nineteenth Century

Muslims’ rejection of Western education and culture and their attitude towards their successors in the seat of power had indeed many reasons. One of these reasons was imperial pride. In fact, whereas Hindus were, by nature, too willing to submit to the rulers, Muslims were too proud of their past glory to submit to the British. The takeover of the Indian Subcontinent by the East India Company proved to be a bitter pill for Muslims to swallow (Aziz 1967:76-77). They had been dethroned and could not reconcile themselves with the current status quo, as K. K. Aziz put it: “When Muslim hegemony was gone and real power lay with the British, the Muslims would not, could not, forget that they had once ruled over the land. Their reaction was bitter and truculent” (Aziz 1967:76). As a result, they developed a hostile attitude towards the British whom they accused of expropriating their prestige. This made the Muslim community shy away from everything associated with the British, including their culture, language, and education. 50 Furthermore, this state of affairs of the
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Agricultural crisis in Spain (19th and 20th centuries)

Agricultural crisis in Spain (19th and 20th centuries)

the population was a weak point in the economic prosperity of Western Europe (Vanhaute et al, 2007: 19). Nonetheless, and with respect to the previous century, there was an overall improvement. In fact, from the end of the 1820s, there were no serious food crises in Europe until the end of the 1840s, thanks to the improvement in agricultural productivity and in transport and communications. Despite this, there are doubts regarding the scope of these improvements in productivity, and it is estimated that 10% of the low income population was still structurally malnourished. This more favourable situation emerged within a context of improved trade terms of agricultural products due to the fall in prices of industrial products and the reduction in subsistence production, which implied that a growing part of output was sold on the market. However, in the 1840s, and particularly in the years 1845-48, the situation changed dramatically, especially in certain places such as Ireland. The whole of Europe suffered the potato plague of 1845 simultaneously and then the poor harvests of the main cereal crops in 1846. Nevertheless, this serious food crisis had traditional characteristics and other more modern features such as the fact that it occurred in a context of considerable market integration and a significant trading of foods between countries (Vanhaute et al, 2007: 38).
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¿Qué era el “Barrio Inglés”? Arqueología de un conjunto de viviendas del Ferrocarril Central Argentino, Rosario, Argentina

¿Qué era el “Barrio Inglés”? Arqueología de un conjunto de viviendas del Ferrocarril Central Argentino, Rosario, Argentina

Built in the industrial zone of Rosario (Santa Fe, Argentina) in the late nineteenth century and annex to the facilities of the Ferrocarril Central Argentino (FCCA), what is now called "Barrio Inglés" (“British Quarter”) formerly had other names: Barrio Talleres, Morrison Building, and Batten Cottages. This paper attempts to get an “operational onthology” of the quarter, analyzing -into an archaeological frame- the relicts found and the social conditions that allowed the making of the neigh- bourhood, and where both builders and inhabitants had lived. Those conditions to- day remain still forgotten. The present paper about them, will open further and mo- re detailed studies about this subject of investigation.
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William Godwin's place in eighteenth century memoir writing: the example of the Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft

William Godwin's place in eighteenth century memoir writing: the example of the Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft

William Godwin's Place in Eighteenth Century Memoir Writing: The Example of the Memoirs ofMary Wtllstonecraft.. Eva M.[r]

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Common Land in Eastern Lombardy during the Nineteenth Century

Common Land in Eastern Lombardy during the Nineteenth Century

humid fields unsuitable for the cultivation of cereals and/or clover. There was very little land producing good yields in cereals and this explains why its cadastral value only rep- resented between 0.5% and 1.5% of the total. During the first half of the nineteenth cen- tury the municipalities preferred to sell their land and this increased the number of land- lords on the plain. The exception was Bagnolo, where the municipality increased its land from two to nineteen hectares, and also obtained the land of the local vicinia (74 hectares). But in general terms in the central and western plains, common land decreased from 3% to less than 0.5%, while in the eastern plain it decreased from 12.5% to 2%. Be- sides that, as the remaining common land was of low quality, its cadastral value decreased from 1.5% to 0.75%, and if we include the data from the hills the reduction was from 2% to 0.75% (see Table 2). The municipalities normally had no problem with the poor peo- ple in the fertile central and western plains because the produce of the common land in these areas represented a small value of the total income produced by the farms and so few people considered them essential for their livelihoods. There were some problems in those municipalities which were situated in the less fertile eastern plains, where an im- portant share of common land was linked to the local vicinie . In these cases sales only be- gan after the assignation of the land which had belonged to the vicinie . Problems were linked to the price because the members of the vicinie asked for a discount for the in- habitants of the village, while municipalities (and obviously all the people living in the vil- lage but without rights to the produce of common land) wanted to profit from increased demand (that is they wanted to sell by auction and hoped that outsiders would drive up the bidding). Finally, on the plain crops and yields increased. There was some land of low quality and some evident hydro-geological problem near the rivers, but in general the vol- ume of arable land (and consequently the work for peasants) increased. Pastures and woods decreased respectively by 40% and 20% during the second half of the nineteenth century, but in the same period the incolti produttivi decreased by 75% to less than 1,500 hectares. After the great agrarian crisis of the 1880s, efficient farms using new agrarian machines and fertilizers offered work to people who had lost their rights to common land and this eased the negative effects of the decisions of the municipalities.
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