Abstraction can certainly be detected inthe use of specific terms, but since we are dealing with an asymmetrical power relation, it may be argued that female writers would perhaps resort to more subtle (even unconscious) ways of expressing abstract thought. For this reason, less obvious linguistic devices, such as conjuncts and adverbial subordinators, are ideal indicators of women’s ability to express abstraction, although it may still be the case that, given the social contexts that promoted the kind of asymmetry just mentioned, women may still have had to seek to conceal or disguise their abstract thoughts. Given the socially-motivated nature of the expression of abstraction here, it may be interesting to assess the extent to which the social evolution of womenfromthe eighteenth to the nineteenth century was reflected in their writing strategies, looking particularly at devices to link ideas and build discourse. Moskowich and Monaco (2014) explored the evolution of the linguistic features typical of Biber’s dimension 5 (abstract vs. non-abstract style) inwomen and found a general increase in frequency over time. Such an increase, then, might also be observed inthe use of linking devices such as conjuncts and adverbial subordinators.
Although a thorough analysis of the semantics of the stance adverbs found here would be most interesting and could certainly be the object of further research, we have decided to pay more detailed attention to those forms at the top of a frequency scale. The three adverbs which are most frequently used are indeed, (185) generally (181) and perhaps (154). Such forms are easily recognised as being close to orality (Busse 2012) yet seem to fulfil different roles. Given their frequent use, it is tempting to conclude that authors may have perceived them as being somewhat devoid of meaning, and hence felt free to use them more widely. Nevertheless, a careful analysis shows that, in contrast with other adverbs, the abundance of these three forms can in fact be explained on the grounds that they all exhibit some kind of pragmatic peculiarity: emphasis, inclusiveness or tentativeness. Thus, indeed reinforces the meaning of the adjacent utterance; in using generally authors seem to be including in their discourse all the epistemic community they are addressing (Pérez-Blanco 2012). The use of perhaps is somewhat different, in that it conveys the author’s tentativeness regarding what he or she is expressing. Generally speaking, the three adverbs are mainly used inthe oral register that readers would recognise as familiar to them. Thus the sensation might be created in which readers feel as if they are being approached by authors, who are seeking to engage their readership. Examples (2) to (4) illustrate these uses:
Inthe current study, we will be using the same material. However, in order to go a step further, we will explore the syntagmatic relations of these two adverbs and their accompanying modal verbs. Although it is widely assumed that scientific English has shifted from author-centered to object-centered (Atkinson 1998), the presumably objective nature of scientific discourse has in fact been questioned, with the use of hedging (Hyland 1998) and other elements expressing stance (Moskowich and Crespo 2014; Alonso Almeida and Inés 2016; Dossena 2017) cited as evidence here. Inthe present study, we will continue our description of late Modern English scientific writing by assessing how the modal verbs accompanying these stance adverbs can modulate the expression of tentativeness. Perhaps and possibly both indicate an author’s desire to show tentativeness and uncertainty, as well as being devices that seek the reading public’s involvement inthe presentation of content (Seoane Posse 2016). The use of stance adverbs of this kind not only shows authorial presence, but also demonstrates a covert interaction with the reader, which makes these texts more engaging for the latter.
This paper explores the use of linguistic features characteristic of impersonal or personal style in scientific writing by female authors inthe eighteenth century. Variables such as discipline, subject-matter and genre are used to assess the ways in which abstract thought and argumentation are expressed by women, given that, even when these works were accepted by the scientific establishment, such modes of expression were more typical of men and men’s writinginthe context of the Modern Age. Data from different genres and disciplines (History, Philosophy, Astronomy and Life Sciences) will be used in order to obtain more reliable findings.
in our corpus that are deeply indebted to the scholastic tradition. It is also true that, at the other end, we have compiled samples like the one by Mary Astell or Wollstonecraft, which show a radically different way of thinking and champion more radical ideas. No doubt the Reformation accelerated the movement away from Scholasticism and favoured the opening to new approaches. This is the case of some other authors in CEPhiT such as Greene (1727), who are influenced by the increasing importance of observation and experimentation to confirm facts. As was the case with other sciences, the relationship between philosophy and society is also manifested in several works included in CEPhiT. The work Philosophical principles of natural religion: containing the elements of natural philosophy, and the proofs for natural religion, arising from them by George Cheyne (1705) constitutes an example of this need to have evidence of things instead of the sole word of ancient wise men.
In my experience it is not strange to find Colombian students that are not able to maintain a conversation, to fill a form or to interact when they travel to an English- speaking country besides the recent CEFR (2018) presents a new reference to creative writing as the personal response to creative texts, but this guiding principle is named but has not been really implemented inthe school curricula although there are not recent reports on the implementation of creative writing at a big scale the fact that the population of students in this particular context comes from different schools as it is explained inthe contextualization, then as product of the diagnosis implemented with this group of students specifically it was visible that only a few students mentioned that they have the opportunity to write in english classroom in a creative way. .
Italy was the initiator of the academy movement inthe early years of the seventeenth century. As is well-known, this country had been a pioneer inthe exportation of the Renaissance to all Europe. The first modern scientific academy was established in 1609 by Prince Federigo Cesi (1585-1630). The Accademia dei Lincei, which lasted for more than twenty years, had Galileo as one of its most eminent members. Cesi, the alma mater of the project, made sure that philosophers in his accademia shared with him a new attitude to science, based on an explicit emphasis on observation and experiment and desertion of old scholastic models. The name of the academy comes from lynx and it reflects their attitude about learning: the members of the academy knew that what we cannot see can indeed exist, as the lynxes and eagles, which are known to see more than the human eye could distinguish. The lynceans were mainly concerned with life sciences. They recollected and made research on fossils, fungi, and plants. Their attitude may be new but their texts and practice, however, still reflected traditional classical scholarship. This academy was the natural evolution of princely courts that were fashionable inthe Renaissance. This time, however, the establishment coincided with the beginnings of the Scientific Revolution, which granted it a privileged status. The invention of the telescope, reported to have taken place around 1608 (Applebaum, 2000, p. 634), and the microscope, only a few years after, were opening up new horizons to men of science but the change did not happen all of a
stones of the fields, common, grey, obscure, docked of all the splendours of association and romance” (1992b:137). It is in this reality, dejectedly deprived of literature, as agreed in “Women and Fiction,” where “the virtue of women’s writing often lay in divine spontaneity, like that of the blackbird’s song or the thrush’s” (1958:84). This continual idea is protagonist in A Room of One’s Own, where she comments upon women’s difficulty to create due to the conditions they lived in. She affirms that fiction, “imaginative work that is, is not dropped like a pebble upon the ground, as science may be; fiction is like a spider’s web, attached ever so lightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners” (1992a:53). And this task can be accomplished, by her fictional self, Mary Carmichael, with a sensibility that “responded to an almost imperceptible touch on it. It feasted like a plant newly stood inthe air on every sight and sound that came its way” (1992a:121). She attributes this character a feat expressed by means of a ploche, as celebrating that “she wrote as a woman, but as a woman who has forgotten that she is a woman” (1992a:121), rejoicing at the idea of her not being conscious of her sex in her writing.
Nikolajeva and Scott (2001) affirm that picture books lean on being plot-oriented instead of being character-oriented; but this does not mean that characters in a story are irrelevant or that they do not display a distinctive personality, on the contrary, picture books permit a different type of characterization where the pictures and the words complement each other or even contradict themselves. The authors also say that the visual description in picture books is somewhat problematic given that some human qualities are difficult to display through illustrations such as bravery or intelligence; the opposite happens when it is necessary to reveal the characters’ emotions and attitudes toward certain situations, which means that physical description depends to a large degree, on the illustrator’s ability, who can, with great precision, convey information about appearance that would take many words to communicate in much reading time. Conversely, physiological descriptions that can be indicated in pictures need the accuracy of words to depict complex emotion and motivation.
During the residential treatment, inpatients are not allowed to leave unless directors allow them to take part in family, work or center-related activities that take place outside the establishment. These permissions are only granted if the inpatient has shown to be reliable. Otherwise, escaping fromthe center is the only way out. This is why centers have fences and boundary walls with dif- ferent levels of safety, as well as security guards that watch over the doors, and reprimand inpatients who do not comply with the regulations. As in- patients gain guards’ and directors’ trust, different tasks and greater responsibilities are entrusted to them inthe center, from coordinating activities to becoming guards. This is how inpatients are en- couraged to play roles inthe new social circles where centers intend to include them once the residential treatment comes to an end.
We have also born in mind the principles of representative- ness and balance [McEnery and Wilson 1996; Biber et al. 1998: 251–253] most specialists incorpus linguistics care about. In addi- tion, it was our conscious decision to include only edited and print- ed texts in prose. As with the other sub-corpora, first editions have been used whenever possible and this addresses mainly the issue of availability. Otherwise, and taking for granted that language change can be observed within 30-year periods (Kytö et al. 2000: 92], texts published within a thirty-year span fromthe first publica- tion date were selected.
tienen suficiente agua para sus necesidades cotidianas y en tiempos de estiaje la situación es todavía más difícil. Desde José Cardel se decide cuándo apagar la bomba sin consensuar con la población. Las usuarias de la parte alta están dispuestas a abastecerse a la hora que sea: “por lo menos un par de horas en la noche deje que nos llegue el agua, cuando acá cierren las llaves y se duerman nosotros nos quedamos despier- tos… déjennos la bomba prendida más tiempo… a las cuatro de la mañana y a esa hora nos levantamos” (Taller, participante anónima, octubre 2015). En Loma Iguana la bomba también se enciende en ciertos horarios y no alcanza a cubrir las necesi- dades de todo el poblado: “ahora lo ponen creo tres [veces al día], pero nomás… cae y… todos a agarrar agua” (Marcelino Contreras, octubre 2015). El me- canismo que regula de manera automática la canti- dad de agua que se bombea al depósito tenía un mes descompuesto, motivo por el cual desde la cabecera se habían programado los horarios de distribución de agua. Igual que en el poblado rural de La Antigua, las viviendas más lejanas y altas se quedan sin ella: “uno aquí está esperando que venga el agua, y sí vie- ne un ratitito, un chorrito y ya” (Anacleta Molina Ortiz, octubre 2015). Los horarios de distribución no han sido consensuados con las usuarias y ellas son las principales afectadas. A las siete de la mañana “no hay ni gota de agua”, justo “cuando es más el que- hacer de la agarradera de agua, que porque hay que lavar, hay que guisar y bañar a los chiquillos para irse a la escuela, todo eso” (Mercedes Guzmán Ceballos, octubre 2015). Soares (2012) define esta falta de in- formación y consenso como un estilo de gobernanza poco democrático y ciego a las necesidades de las mu- jeres.
Learning to write gives students the power to share thoughts, ideas and opinions with others inthe present or across time; writing is ingrained in every aspect of our way of life. Therefore, guiding students in this process is essential, and EFL educators should know how to do it so that they actually improve their writing skill. Moreover, authors such as Tompkins (2004), as well as Ahlsén and Lundh (2007) agree that using thewriting process is an effective method in language teaching. Ahlsén and Lundh (2007) suggest that this process functions as a guide to lead students in their writing. There are four stages of thewriting process (Tomkins, 2004): prewriting (a planning stage for writing), drafting (going fromthe planning stage to writingthe paper), edition (reviewing the written draft, sharing the draft text with a writing group that was formed inthe classroom, and rearrange the content according to feedback from friends inthewriting group) and publishing (sharing the text with the readers who have been determined inthe prewriting stage), as the following figure shows:
Although the portal was developed for computer science (CS) undergraduates, it could be used at the graduate level not only for CS students but also for students from diverse disciplines of science and engineering (such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and civil, mechanical, or aerospace engineering), enrolled in a computational science/engineering program, who need parallel programming as an essential tool to solve large-scale problems in their fields. The portal also opens new possibilities for teaching parallel programming inthe context of international Master’s and Ph.D. programs as a means to enable universities from different countries share their supercomputing resources for teaching purposes. It could also provide a remote parallel-programming laboratory to students in countries that lack supercomputing infrastructures. The traditional educational links between Spain and Latin America offer a potential scenario for these purposes. Ongoing initiatives currently under development such as Gridcole , a collaborative learning environment that uses grid services technology, would be potentially appropriate in this context to provide integration of supercomputing capabilities or other specific resources at different locations in a wide area.
ourselves and being ourselves, for owning our experiences, our bodies, and our lives.’. Reese Witherspoon narrates her own experience as a survivor of sexual assault saying ‘I wish I could tell you that was an isolated incident in my career, but sadly, it wasn’t. I have had multiple experiences of harassment and sexual assault, and I don’t speak about them very often, but after hearing all the stories these past few days and hearing these brave women speak up tonight, the things that we’re kind of told to sweep under the rug and not talk about, it’s made me want to speak up.’. Frances McDormand urged all the female nominees in every category at The Oscars 2018 to stand up to deliver an important message about discrimination saying ‘Loor aeound, ladies and gentlemen, because we all have stories to tell and projects we need financed. Don’t talk to us about it at the parties tonight. Invite us to your office in a couple of days, or you can come to ours, whatever suits you best, and we’ll tell you all about them. I have to words to leave with you tonight, ladies and gentlemen: inclusion rider.’
Inthe case of groups with smaller amounts of information about rivals, “no show groups”, the results show that for the total of periods played, t ∈ [ ] 1, T , the dynamics through which firms adjust their individual quantities is explained by both variables. That is to say, firms observe both the optimum quantity they should have produced in t − 1 and the mean quantity produced by their opponents. Here, two points must be made clear. First, in every case the sign of the estimated coefficients was the one expected, and estimated coefficients were significant at 1%. Second, the Wald test did not allow us to reject the hypothesis of equality of the coefficients for markets 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. 33 Regarding the adjustment in 1 ,
Among the many definitions found inthe literature, some appear to be looser, or more “flexible” than others. For instance, early definitions of corpus by Leech include “a source of systematically retrievable data and…a testbed for linguistic hypotheses” (1991: 9), focusing on its serviceability in research, or, otherwise, “a helluva lot of texts, stored in a computer” (1992: 106), referring to its actual shape and content. Kilgarriff & Grefenstette (2003: 334) also emphasise the practical side of corpora, stating that “[a] corpus is a collection of texts when considered as an object of language or literary study” (in Saldanha 2009: 2). From this definition, any collection of texts can be considered a corpus when used in linguistic or literary research. On the other end of the scale, Sinclair (1994: 14) defines corpus as “a collection of pieces of language that are selected and ordered according to explicit linguistic criteria in order to be used as a sample of the language”, while McEnery & Wilson (1996: 24) characterise it as “[a] finite-sized body of machine-readable texts sampled in order to be maximally representative of the language variety under consideration”. Biber et al. (1998: 4), in turn, list four main characteristics of a “corpus approach”: it is empirical, in that it analyses the actual patterns of language use in natural texts; the collection of natural texts has to be large and principled; computers are used in its analysis; and this analysis combines quantitative and qualitative techniques. All in all, despite the flexibility of the term, there seems to be a general consensus among corpus linguists (Biber 1993; McEnery & Wilson 1996; Martí & Castellón 2000; Tognini-Bonelly 2001; Baker 2002; Bowker & Pearson 2002; McEnery 2003; Taavitsainen 2005) that a corpus, rather than being a mere collection of electronic texts, has to be compiled according to certain criteria. These include size, representativeness, balance and time-span, as well as register selection and research scope.
A descriptive study enumerating the lessons learnt and challenges faced in implementing a spontaneous reporting system in two rural districts of Mozambique – Namaacha and Matutuíne – where remote location, poor telecommunication services, and low level of education of health professionals are ongoing challenges was performed. A “yellow card” system for spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was instituted following training of health workers inthe selected districts. Thirty-five health professionals in these districts were trained to diagnose, treat and report adverse drug reactions to all medicines using a standardised yellow card system. There were routine site visits to identify and clarify any problems in filling and sending the forms. One focal person was identified in each district to facilitate communication between the health professionals and the National Pharmacovigilance Unit (NPU). The report form was assessed for quality and causality. The availability of telecommunication and transport was assessed.