T he preceding chapters examined democratic state formation in SouthAfrica over the past six years. They did so against the African National Congress (ANC) government’s stated objectives and vision fortransformation and development. In the political realm, significant and fundamental change has taken place. The consolidation and deepening of democracy, however, rests on the ability of the state to per- form its core functions as it responds to popular expectations and the social experience of inequality within an environment of economic and political globalisation. As it heads into the new millennium, SouthAfrica confronts multiple challenges in the quest forhumandevelopment and transformation within a fluid regional, continental and global geo-political landscape. The challenge of transformation and humandevelopment is a challenge to all South Africans to become committed to a shared vision that can transcend the legacy of apartheid. Given that SouthAfrica represents a hybrid social forma- tion – a ‘two nations’ context – the transformation project poses complex and contradictory trends against a constantly shifting and contested ter- rain.
In particular, the coefficient implies that being highly indebted will increase the extent of a country’s human poverty by 7.04%. This finding supports the notion that most African countries service their external debt at the expense of providing major social services and poverty reduction investments. For instance, in Ethiopia, 45% of the US$783 million from export earnings spent on debt payments in 1996 is a far cry from its investment in health (Poku, 2002a). Similarly, in Zambia, debt service payments due in 1998 amounted to US$123 million or 69% of funds budgeted for social services. In Tanzania, what is spent on debt servicing each year is in excess of three times what is spent on health care (Colgan, 2001). Indeed, Poku (2002a) notes that, with the exception of SouthAfrica, all African countries spend more on debt service than on health care.
4. At its 10th meeting, on 30 August, statements were made by the Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund, the President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, the Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the President of the Dutch Farmers’ Association, the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Executive Secretary of the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the representative of the Youth Association for Habitat and Agenda 21 Turkey, the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission forAfrica, the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, the representative of Environmental Alert, the Executive Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the Acting Director of the Environment Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the representative of the Foundation to Promote Indigenous Knowledge, the Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund, the Regional Director of the Eastern and Southern African Office of the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Director-General of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Executive Director of the European Trade Unions Confederation, the Secretary-General of the Nordic Council of Ministers, the Director-General of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the Acting Secretary of State of the Estado Libre de Puerto Rico, the Chairperson of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, the representative of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the representative of the Permanent Commission of the South Pacific, the Minister of State for External Affairs of the United States Virgin Islands, the Executive Secretary of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, the representative of the Mines Ministries of the Americas Conference and the Assistant Director-General for Natural Sciences of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
and dance near the house where Mandela once lived. They sang songs from the anti-apartheid struggle. Some people were wearing South African flags and the green, yellow and black colours of Mandela’s party, the African National Congress (ANC). 12 Mandela’s death sends SouthAfrica deep
In this paper we reconsider the light-quark axial-vector channel using the first three FESR, together with an im- proved hadronic spectral function involving the pion pole as well as the a 1 ð1260Þ resonance. This allows for a more realistic conclusion on the relation between chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement. At the same time, it provides additional and valuable information on the temperature behavior of the a 1 ð1260Þ coupling and hadronic width. The results indicate that s 0 ð T Þ vanishes at a critical tempera- ture some 10% below that for chiral-symmetry restoration. Within the accuracy of the method this difference is not significant. The a 1 ð1260Þ coupling initially increases with increasing T up to T=T c ’ 0:7, and then decreases sharply
pling fðTÞ have been found to be monotonically decreasing functions of T , with the width ðTÞ increasing substantially with increasing temperature, and the mass showing a small increase or decrease, depending on the channel (for recent results see  and references therein). This behavior is consistent with quark-gluon deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration at a critical temperature T c ’
PDI-12 Reviews of mutual accountability. All three of the following aspects of mutual accountability need to be met to consider a country as having a mutual review in place: i) Aid policy or strategy . Developing countries are expected to have a document that sets out agreed approaches to the delivery of aid in the country, containing agreed principles, processes, and/or targets designed to im- prove the eﬀ ectiveness of aid. Th is may take the form of a stand-alone policy or strategy document, or may be addressed within an- other document (e.g., as part of a national development strategy). Such a document should have been the subject of consulta- tion between the government and donors. ii) Country-level aid eff ectiveness targets. Country targets for improved aid eﬀ ective- ness should have been established, including within the framework of the agreed partner- ship commitments and indicators of prog- ress included in the Paris Declaration. Th ey may go beyond the Paris Declaration wher- ever governments and donors agree to do so. Th ere should be targets for both govern- ments and donors. iii) Broad-based dialogue . Mutual assessments should engage a broad range of government ministries and donors in dialogue. Governments and donors should also consider engaging with nonexecutive stakeholders, including parliamentarians and civil society organizations. While the fo- cus of the criteria remains unchanged from those used in previous surveys, three ques- tions were introduced, drawing on clearer deﬁ nitions to guide a more accurate assess- ment of progress.
Basados en los postulados de Amartya Sen (2000), el centro de investigación Oxford Poverty and HumanDevelopment Initiative (OPHI) desarrolla una metodología para medir la pobreza con un nuevo enfoque, llamándolo Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional (IPM) (Alkire y Santos, 2010), el cual ha tomado vigencia durante los últimos años y contempla una medición más integral sobre la medición de pobreza a través de la incidencia de la misma, estableciendo un hogar con privaciones, donde se miden tres dimensiones: 1. Educación, 2. Salud y 3. Condiciones de vida. A partir de éstas, se considera una persona pobre multidimensional si en al menos una de las dimensiones presenta deprivación (Alkire y Foster, 2008).
Compared with other regions, Africa has been slow to mobilize the private sector for the provision and ﬁ nancing of infrastruc- ture. Th e Infrastructure Consortium reports that private sector interest has gradually spread. Th ere is an upward trend in private sector provision and management of infra- structure, which stood at $6 billion in 2006, up from $4 billion in 2004. Most private ﬂ ows (84 percent) go to telecommunications and energy. Concessions have now been awarded to operate and rehabilitate many African ports and railways and some power distribution enterprises, but ﬁ nancial com- mitments by the concessionaire companies are often small. Th is reﬂ ects both the value of the management improvements that the concessionaire is expected to bring and the limited scale and proﬁ tability of the enter- prises taken over. An important facilitator in some cases has been the insurance in- struments developed over the past 15 years by such bodies as the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Multilat- eral Investment Guarantee Agency and by the World Bank’s Partial Risk Guarantee
Gaye and Jha (2010) examine sub-national, national and regional reports, finding several novel ways for improving the humandevelopment index that can potentially be replicated at the global level. Pagliani (2010) shows that national and sub-national HDRs have promoted the humandevelopment paradigm, policy formulation and assessment, the revision of policies and budget allocations, as well as generating media and educational attention. Burd-Sharps et al (2010) show the continued relevance of the HDI to affluent countries. De la Torre and Moreno (2010) extend the calculation of the HDI to the individual and household level, and include additional dimensions such as being free from local crime, absence of violence against women, and inequality. Harttgen and Klasen (2010) also provides a method to calculate the HDI at the household level, allowing the estimate of HDI inequality by population subgroups and household socioeconomic characteristics. Desai (2010) concentrates on women’s empowerment, arguing for a wide spectrum of considerations taking into account violence against women and HIV/AIDS in addition to formal employment, education, political representation, waged labor, fertility decline and maternal mortality.
(only one or two out of 100 SMEs succeed in doing so). To respond to these challenges, the authorities adopted a National Policy on Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises, which was drafted in 1999 by a Task Force on SMEs led by the private sector. The objectives of the policy are to foster citizen entrepreneurship and empowerment; encourage the development of a competitive and sustainable SME community; achieve economic diversification; create sustainable employment opportunities; promote exports; promote the development of vertical integration and horizontal linkages in primary industries (agriculture, mining and tourism) for SMEs; and improve efficiency in the delivery of products to business. An appropriate institutional framework and mechanisms for the implementation of the policy were put in place through the establishment of the Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA). CEDA seeks to develop sustainable citizen-owned businesses through the provision of finance and the development of business skills. It offers three forms of assistance: i) financial assistance in the form of loans to citizens at subsidised interest rates, aimed at assisting those who wish to start or expand their businesses; ii) a training, monitoring and mentoring programme for SMEs; iii) a venture capital fund launched in September 2003 to provide risk capital to citizen-owned projects and/or joint ventures between citizens and foreigners. In all cases, the business owner is encouraged to contribute to the project cost in the form of equity or an owner’s contribution so as to share the risk. The contribution may be in cash, in kind or a combination of the two. Small and medium-scale projects may be assisted even if the owner cannot raise a contribution.
As it was mentioned before, traditional language laboratories do not take full advantage of the technological resources and software available in educational institutions. Traditionally, language laboratories were set up as 1:1 systems that had homogeneous technical capabilities. . The initial scenario presented as a part of the first increment considers a groups of PCs, where each one of them had a system of automatic voice recognition and synthesis. This makes it necessary to install and keep updated that system in each one of the computers, with the costs that it implies. On the other hand, if there is a system failure in one of the computers, it is only possible to replace it by setting up another computer with the same configuration. A possibility is to outsource these processes though Cloud Computing (Ambrust et al., 2009). Under this paradigm, the technological resources are provided by a combination of computer systems that present such resources as services. Although under Cloud Computing you can outsource resource supplies, it is also possible to organize the computer systems in an internal network of resource sharing (Mei et al., 2008). In literature, there are experiences where it is possible to share resources using mobile devices, focused on sharing documents (Neyem et al., 2005), relevant information for upcoming events (Neyem et al., 2008) or simply on the exchange of data (Heinemann et al., 2003). A related approach is mobile cloud computing (Fernando, Loke & Rahayu, 2014), where mobile devices are used as thin clients of Cloud computing applications, as resource providers to other mobile devices, or as processing balancing nodes with other mobile devices and cloud services.
Meanwhile, robots have become a common element in most households, where it is easy to find task-oriented robots that do chores autonomously. As of today, the more relevant example is robot vacuum cleaners. These devices range from robots that navigate a home randomly while avoiding obstacles to robots that map the entire house and design a navigation path for optimal cleaning. Thus, given the current popularity of robots, it is only natural to develop social robots that cover the needs of long- term care provision. There are two types of robots that can perform this kind of task: companion robots and service robots. The former attempt to improve user welfare, not only in terms of physical health but also by improving their mood and cognitive capability. The latter are targeted at providing support and independence to the user. We will focus on service robots, as they can be used to cater to the user needs reducing their dependence while performing daily life activities.
The African Network for Soil Biology and Fertility (AfNet), established in 1988, is TSBF- CIAT’s implementing agency in Africa. Its main goal is to strengthen and sustain stakeholder capacity to generate, share and apply soil fertility and biology management knowledge and skills to contribute to the welfare of farming communities. AfNet facilitates collaboration among African scientists in order to develop innovative, practical resource management interventions for sustainable food production. AfNet works with partners to identify key research themes or problems of regional or international importance and then develops appropriate experimental methods and protocols for cross-site learning. Predictive interdisciplinary research across environments, using standard methods and experimental designs, reinforces results, enables the drawing and extrapolation of generalized conclusions and enhances modelling capacity, all leading to accelerated progress in essential research areas. Among the research themes covered are:
ening the value of entrepreneurship education using a humanistic anthropological paradigm. Entrepreneurship education is defined as an educational focus that enhances entrepre- neurial potential in students and contributes to their all-round growth. It is not just limited to socio-economic and professional growth but places a particular focus on the intellectual, social, and moral dimensions of their develop- ment. First of all, it helps to stimulate intelli- gence by developing creativity and innovation, both of which are intrinsic and unique to all human beings and to their freedom. Secondly, it promotes social development, encouraging relationships that transcend mere reciproci- ty and aim to find the common good and not just economic well-being. Finally, it stimulates moral development, which involves an aware- ness of freedom and entails autonomy and leadership. This proposal for entrepreneur- ship education is part of a line of work that underlines the intrinsic goal of education by focusing on the personal needs of the student and allows for entrepreneurial development to manifest the explicit relationship between the individual, education, and society.
As anticipated, it would be inappropriate to take a stance on which system better allows communities to be involved in DRR decision-making. However, some guidance could be provided by an action research project carried out in Nepal during which two types of committees were established: one as a CBO and the other embedded in municipal government. The analysis carried out by Jones, Aryal and Collins following the project concluded that the institutionalized committee could more easily pursue its objectives because it had more chances to obtain funding for its functioning, it was better connected to relevant services and organizations and it could ensure more accountable and transparent work. 51 However, the same research underlined that an institutionalized system would have probably not succeeded in the village where the CBO was established due to the lack of support for the local government in that different area of the country. 52 All of the above suggests that, even though an institutionalized system may offer some important advantages, it is unreasonable to try to identify a ‘one size fits all’ solution.
Expenditures on HD inputs are clearly not objectives in themselves, but rather constitute instruments for achieving advances in various dimensions of basic well being. A further important determinant of HD achievements is, therefore, the effectiveness of these expenditures in raising HD levels, i.e. what type of provision is most productive at what level of development, and how different combinations effect a change in HD. In our earlier work, we termed this relationship the HumanDevelopment Improvement Function (HDIF) (Ranis et al., 1999). These relationships are similar to those of a production function in that they relate the inputs into HD, such as public expenditure on health services or water, to HD improvement. An illustration of the type of relationship involved is whether and how far the provision of safe water is complementary to or substitutes for education in contributing to improvements in health. The relationships here are complex, depending on individual and community behaviour and the existence of local knowl- edge about relevant technologies. Empirical work looking into these rela- tionships has provided abundant evidence that education, especially female, tends to improve infant survival and child nutrition, as does female control over household income (see, for example, Rosenzweig and Schultz, 1982; Wolfe and Behrman, 1987; Barrera, 1990; Thomas, 1990; Strauss and Thomas, 1995).
Within the household level, family composition changes when large num- bers of men and boys are absent. There is a clear trend in a greater proportion of female-headed and child headed households (30% or more) in conflict and post-conflict situations which results in changes in division of labour. Whether the household is male– or female-headed, there is a strong tendency for women to take on additional productive roles, either because of the absence of men, or because men have lost access to the resources they once controlled. At the community level, conflict may create space to make a redefinition of social relations possible, but in so doing it rather rearranges, readapts or reinforces patriarchal ideologies, rather than fundamentally changing them. At the same time, we should not forget that the consequences of conflict and impact are varied and complex from so- ciety to society, and often lead in turn to further various consequences.
Es preciso, por tanto, observar el principio básico de la igual dignidad de todos los seres humanos, sea cual sea su género, etnia, cultura, creencia, ideología. El concepto de dignidad es tan relevante que la Carta de Dere- chos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea, aprobada en el año 2000 como guía necesaria en los albores de siglo y de milenio, sitúa a la dignidad en el primer artículo de la Carta, para indicar el relieve que desde todos los puntos de vista tiene considerar la igualdad sin cortapisas.