PDF superior The tunnel of the line and its impact on the international trade in Colombia

The tunnel of the line and its impact on the international trade in Colombia

The tunnel of the line and its impact on the international trade in Colombia

La investigación del presente artículo, buscó analizar el impacto que ha generado la construcción del túnel de la Línea frente al comercio internacional del País, especialmente en el Puerto ubicado en el Pacifico. Buenaventura ha sido uno de los puertos más importantes de Colombia, ya que debido a sus características y conexiones internacionales por vía marítima, ha atendido los negocios más significativos a nivel internacional. La vía de acceso principal que lo conecta con el interior del país cuenta con una infraestructura vial montañosa, haciendo que su tránsito sea denso y lento, además de ser protagonista de diversos siniestros de tránsito y naturales, por ende, se han visto afectadas las entregas y fletes en las diferentes rutas. El túnel de la línea es un proyecto colombiano que según los estudios realizados, buscaban mejorar la distancia y tiempo de recorrido en dicho tramo, lo que favorecería tanto al transporte terrestre como a la agroindustria colombiana, de esta manera se impactaría directamente y positiva el comercio internacional del país. Para el análisis de los resultados, se obtuvo información de; la ubicación geográfica de Colombia, ubicación de los puertos, infraestructura vial montañosa y características del proyecto El Túnel de la Línea. Como resultado, se obtuvo que la construcción del túnel favorece a los sectores anteriormente mencionados, debido a que por su disminución de km y tiempos en recorrido, los movimientos de carga por el puerto tienden a incrementar por la mejoría en la atención a las exportaciones e importaciones.
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14 Lee mas

The link between farmgate and world prices in the wake of trade liberalization: The case of Colombia

The link between farmgate and world prices in the wake of trade liberalization: The case of Colombia

In theory, the new regime should have increased transmission of world market signals to local producers. However, post-liberalization interventions may have obstructed integration. On the one hand, trade liberalization was accompanied by the creation of a variable tariff scheme—known as the price band system—in eight politically sensitive crops. On the other hand, liberalization was followed by a profound agricultural crisis in 1992, caused by currency appreciation, tariff reductions, acute drought conditions and falling world commodity prices (Jaramillo and Junguito, 1993). The crisis prompted the government to adopt a number of ad hoc measures to restrict exposure to international competition in selected crops. Such measures included pressures on local processors to purchase crops at pre-arranged prices, minimum import prices and modifications of the price band methodology. Despite these measures, the value of agricultural imports has grown at a record pace—27 percent annually—between 1990 and 1996.
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ITC, innovation in the classroom and its impact on higher education

ITC, innovation in the classroom and its impact on higher education

In accordance with the first idea the author proposes, and as stated in Chapter 6, in Colombia the coverage rate of higher education does not exceed 50% of the population between 17 and 21 years old, aggravated in turn by the high dropout rates which show that about 50% of the stu- dents of higher education withdrew from the system. On the contrary, the second idea the author proposes suggests that education should aim to maintaining high quality standards. Quality is a factor that is deter- mined by the evaluation standards, which allow us to infer the educational achievements of the country. The different tests implemented by the State in grades 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11, known as the Saber tests, seek to stimulate the academic excellence of students enrolled in school. However, when compared to international standards, such as the Pisa test, Colombia is still far from achieving high quality standards, since from 72 countries participating in the test, it occupies the 58th place, well below the average. This does not mean that the state tests are not working, but simply that the the coverage gap still remains large. For all these reasons, it is pertinent to assess the added value of the Saber tests, as an impact on curricular and investigative management, as presented in Chapter 7.
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202 Lee mas

An exploratory assessment of the potential impact of the free trade area of the americas on the andean community

An exploratory assessment of the potential impact of the free trade area of the americas on the andean community

investment balance holds in the pre-simulation equilibrium. In GTAP this balance is given by equating the difference between savings and investment to the difference between exports and imports value (since no income flows or transfer flows are considered in the model. While the difference between savings and investment is largely determined by macroeconomic forces, the difference between exports and imports must adjust to keep the balance. Therefore, when tariffs are eliminated, as is done here, and imports surge, then exports must rise too to maintain the balance. However, any increase in exports will lead to a price decrease yielding a terms of trade deterioration. As a consequence, equilibrium can only be restored by changes in the exchange rate. As there is no money in GTAP, the real exchange rate is measured as the ratio of the price of primary factors in one region to the world price of primary factors. The role of relative primary factors in restoring the external balance derives from the zero profits condition. When tariffs are cut and imports surge, the only way that exports can become more competitive is for primary factors prices to fall relative to those in other regions. This also reduces regional income and helps damping the demand for imports. Welfare changes arising from the savings-investment balance relate to changes in prices for the investment goods and changes in prices for the aggregate global capital goods composite. As the position of a country changes in the valuation of its net investment and its savings welfare is affected.
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Aid and its impact on the donor’s export industry – The Dutch case

Aid and its impact on the donor’s export industry – The Dutch case

Among the studies that deviate from the gravity model framework, some have used Granger causality tests to investigate the direction of the causality. Lloyd, McGillivray, Morrissey, and Osei (2000) examined data on aid and trade flows for a sample of four European donors and 26 African recipients over the period from1969 to 1995. They found evidence showing that trade Granger-caused aid in 14% of the country pairs, aid Granger- caused trade in 13% of the cases and bi-directional causality was found in 8% of the pairs. Along the same lines, Osei, Morrissey, and Lloyd (2004) extended the analysis to more countries and also found that donors providing a higher share of aid tend to trade more with the recipients. Martínez-Zarzoso et al. (2016) ran Granger causality tests within a gravity model framework and found evidence for a bi-directional relationship between donor exports and bilateral aid, which implies that both series have to be considered as endogenous variables in the German case. Thus, they conclude that appropriate techniques should be used to address the endogeneity issue of all right-hand-side variables and suggest GMM methods and the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) approach (Wooldridge, 2009).
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The impact of violence and the armed conflict on hotel occupation demand in Colombia 1998-2006

The impact of violence and the armed conflict on hotel occupation demand in Colombia 1998-2006

After the M-19 guerrilla invasion of the Colombian Supreme Court in 1985, real tourism ended and has never really recovered, according to Jean-Claude Bessudo 2 . Currently, 57 countries recommend that their citizens do not visit Colombia. As long as these warnings against Colombia exist, international tour operators will choose other destinations in order to avoid problems. For example, recently, a French tourist was kidnapped on an island in the Philippines, which had a warning against it and the tourist agency that sold the ticket was fined a million euros. Nowadays, Colombia is promoted as a “safe” destination and the amount of investment linked to the tourist industry has been growing along with the amount of foreign visitors. From this point of view, Colombia is an interesting study-case. Previous studies, on how terrorism and the armed conflict in Colombia have caused the domestic tourism industry to deteriorate, do not exist, unlike in countries with the presence of violence and terrorism, like Egypt, Israel and Kenya etc. The motivation behind this essay is to fill this gap, given that there is no previous study regarding the impact of violence on tourism in Colombia.
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TítuloNetwork of specialists in the archival field and the impact on knowledge organization: the case of Brazil

TítuloNetwork of specialists in the archival field and the impact on knowledge organization: the case of Brazil

This work will focus, within the network of researchers in the archival field, on evidence of the fragility of the scientific mechanisms of institutionalization of this field in Brazil, specifically the reflection in its representation as an area of knowledge, and also possible repercussions for knowledge organization. It will also show articulation with international research, especially with Spanish researchers, drawing attention to some still not fully occupied spaces, may be due to the way of representing knowledge. This work will initially present a historical survey of both the landmarks in the area and of the actors who are active today in the archival field, as well as their academic production. This first approach will demonstrate the plurality of areas for educating people in Archival Studies, even though the field has been established for over 40 years.
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Economic and institutional repercussions of the drug trade in Colombia

Economic and institutional repercussions of the drug trade in Colombia

The tendency of drug dealers to invest in real estate is due not only to their search for productive assets, but also by a desire to reduce risk (as these assets are more difficult to be detected by the authorities). Drug dealers tend toward investment in ranches devoted to raising cattle and horses. Thus, the end result is a number of huge, low-productivity, ranches, and an agrarian counter-reform. If one takes into account the violent elements that these land transfers bring with them, the impact on overall agricultural productivity is, in all likelihood, negative. Drug dealers set up private security systems based on the use of violence, thus affecting the prevailing social relationships in the countryside. Given the increasing violence, many producers prefer to sell their lands or establish inefficient systems to manage them. Investment in this sector has been seriously affected by elements of uncertainty and risk engendered by the drug trade (Echandía, 1995).
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The impact of the host country language on international adjustment: Spanish engineers in Germany

The impact of the host country language on international adjustment: Spanish engineers in Germany

Being career development so relevant for SIEs, organizations should emphasize to the supervisors, the need of frequent and clear feedback. So misunderstandings, due to language or cultural effects, can be clarified and the status in the adjustment process can be checked. Besides, clear feed- back shall be given regarding performance, steps and goals to be achieved for career development and clarify their perspectives within the company. On a country level, probably HC benefit on the short term with the migration of high skilled workers, but home countries could also profit on the long term. Migrants can build momentum on their return to Spain, applying the knowledge acquired in foreign countries; launching new business projects, improve the production and trade system, so that at the end, they will be contributing to job creation and economic growth.
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Nothing is written . The impact of modern international law on the revivalist/reformist debate of the Shari'ah

Nothing is written . The impact of modern international law on the revivalist/reformist debate of the Shari'ah

One constant in the international legal process is the notion of pacta sunt servanda (the obligation that the treaty s obligations be fulfilled . Concomitantly, a Muslim is obliged to uphold contracts in both letter and s pirit as detailed in the Qur an itself. The principle of pacta sunt servanda is recognized by all Muslim jurist-theologians. The Shari ah maintains that full faith be placed in the observance of all bona fide contracts. Following in the Christian conviction of Grotius, Islamic international law draws its authority from God. Thus, religious compliance with a treaty eclipses temporary state arrangements of mutual convenience. Consequently, there is a stronger moral force for self-proclaimed Islamic states to adhere to treaty obligations even if the underlying substantive law proves less than celestial. More important, proof of bona fide and purely Islamic efforts to uphold an international treaty is found in the standard set forth in the Treaty of Hudaybiya.(74) The treaty between the Prophet Muhammad and the idolatrous tribes of Mecca was aimed at achieving a truce between the warring sides. Even after repeated breaches by the Meccans, Muhammad s entry by force into Mecca came without incident. )nstead , the Prophet Muhammad granted general amnesty to all of the non-believers. The treaty offers two important points of consideration: the treaty, at that time, was in fact an international treaty of peace between Muslims and some of the more aggressive tribes of Arabia, and although a military reprisal was justified under the terms set forth in the treaty, an extreme counter- response never materialized. (75)
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Protection of animals in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Protection of animals in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

In the Shrimp-Turtle Case ( WTO shrimp-turtle) 6 , decided under the new rules on conflict settlement put in place after the establishment of the WTO itself in 1995, what was at stake was the validity under WTO rules of the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) which had listed as endangered or threatened the five species of sea turtles that range in U.S. waters, and prohibited their “take” within the U.S., in its territorial sea and the high seas”. Under the ESA, the U.S. required that U.S. shrimp trawlers use “turtle excluder devices” (TEDs) in their nets when fishing in areas where there is a significant likelihood of encountering sea turtles, unless the harvesting country was certified to have a regulatory program and an incidental take-rate comparable to that of the U.S., or that the particular fishing environment of the harvesting nation did not pose a threat to the sea turtles. “In practice, countries that had any of the five species of sea turtles within their jurisdiction and harvested shrimp had to impose on their trawlers technical requirements comparable to those imposed by the U.S. on its fishing fleet, if they wanted to be certified to export shrimp products into the U.S. In fact, this meant the use of TEDs” (Alonso 2011). The body of the WTO was much more prone to admit the validity of such rules and the United States lost the case mainly because it had irrationally discriminated between different members of the WTO when enforcing the measure, rather than because the measure might be illegal and against WTO rules per se. The big problem that the conflict resolution mechanism faced in this case, and the big problem that this system and its Appellate Body face in general, is that the conflicts are solved more in a case-by-case basis instead of through the settling of general rules confronting the real merits of the issues implied in them, For example in this case the Appellate Body decided that “We do not pass upon the question of whether there is an implied jurisdictional limitation in Article XX(g), and if so, the nature or extent of that limitation 7 ”., although the Appellate Body also insisted                                                                                                                          
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199 Lee mas

International Trade of Chilean and Tasmanian Salmon and the Governmental Human Resource Policy enabling its Expansion

International Trade of Chilean and Tasmanian Salmon and the Governmental Human Resource Policy enabling its Expansion

Governments in both Chile and Tasmania started from scratch. Chile’s National Fishing Agency (Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura) imported 40 million eggs from Japan in 1969 with the help of JICA (UNCTAD, 2006). Fifteen years after that, Tasmanian Government brought in fertilized eggs from Nova Scotia, Canada in 1984 to kick start an industry that now brings more than USD $500 million worth of sales revenue every year (TAS Government, 2017). Importing eggs would have had no use if governments in these countries had not embarked on training of personnel needed to get those eggs to grow into marketable fish. The primary focus of these Governments was Human Resource Development. People are what make businesses grow and so early investment in people is now bringing profits worth millions in Tasmania and billions in Chile. Chile has delivered an economic miracle by getting into a completely new salmon industry and becoming its second largest exporter, all in a matter of a few decades. However, when Chile or even Tasmania started on an unexplored road of an unknown salmon farming industry; they needed people who could deliver a myriad of different services. People were needed to control fresh water environments in hatcheries; produce optimum fish meal; design durable sea pens; dive under water to clean them; conduct research on vaccines/antibiotics; conduct controlled breeding for genetic superiority; manage/harvest fish; prepare fillets; transport fish; and market the product in far off countries. None of these jobs could be done because trained human resource simply did not exist at the outset. Government institutions had to be proactive in taking the lead to initiate the development of a capable human resource.
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The pedagogues educated abroad and their impact on the education in Serbia in the late 19th and the first half of the 20th century

The pedagogues educated abroad and their impact on the education in Serbia in the late 19th and the first half of the 20th century

Serbia, as a Balkan country, has always represented the crossroads between East and West. In a small space, it is mixed more culture and more faith for centuries. During its existence, the Serbian people received different influences, which are reflected in daily life, customs, style of dress, the food and the language and script which were used to print the books and create the documents. It started with the Old Slav’s language and spelling, and since 1867 when was adopted the Vuk’s spelling, the books and certificates were given a different look. In those areas where the Turkish government stayed till the Balkan War certificates were printed in Turkish and Serbian Cyrillic and Arabic script. During World War II, under Austria-Hungarian occupation, school documents were bilingual – in Serbian with Latin script, and German language. After the establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the unification of the document, schoolbooks and certificates were printed in Latin and Cyrillic. Some vocational schools, to facilitate employment with foreign companies and abroad, were issuing certificates in three languages - Serbian, French and German. The graduate of the High School contained the same text in Serbian and Latin, which was in line with the European standards. In addition, the social phenomena for the introduction the alphabet of Vuk Stefanovic the Serbian pedagogues, which were educated abroad, were creditable.
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Understanding the impact of line-of-sight in the ergodic spectral efficiency of cellular networks

Understanding the impact of line-of-sight in the ergodic spectral efficiency of cellular networks

Small-scale analysis relies on statistical models that at- tempt to reproduce the variations of the channel effects. The κ-µ shadowed model, introduced in [5], has proven to be a powerful and general model that covers propagation conditions ranging from very favorable to worse-than-Rayleigh fading. The model considers the received signal as formed by one or several groups of multipath signals, each being able to have a main component whose amplitude can fluctuate. It includes Rayleigh, Rice, Rice shadowed, Nakagami-m, κ-µ and η-µ as particular cases [6, 7]. Changing its fading parameters (κ, µ and m), the model can study non-line-of-sight scenarios (NLoS) and line-of-sight scenarios (LoS) with different char- acteristics.
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6 Lee mas

THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE ON WAGE INEQUALITY RECENT EVIDENCE FROM ARGENTINA

THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE ON WAGE INEQUALITY RECENT EVIDENCE FROM ARGENTINA

fixed effects per industrial sector have been included in the estimation. Table 6 shows the correlation between the variables penetration of im- ports and intensity of the exports and the educational wage premium for the groups of the semi-skilled and skilled workers (base group: unskilled workers). The left part of the table contains the results of the regression (2). The only coefficient that is not significant is the one that relates the import penetration to the skilled worker premiums (those with university or college education). The other coefficients are significant and show that international trade generates distributional conflicts, since it hast opposite effects on the wages of the unskilled workers and of the workers with some sort of skill. The signs of the coefficients imply that an increase in the intensity of the exports reduces the premium paid to the semi-skilled and skilled workers compared to the unskilled workers and the increase on the import penetration tends to increase the premium paid to semi-skilled workers compared to the unskilled ones. Furthermore, workers with some skill, in industries with a high intensity of exports and a low penetration of imports receive a lower premium for their skills. The toughness vari- able is significant for semi-skill premiums.
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35 Lee mas

Decisions of the atpdea and its impact on the floriculture. Comparative case Colombia-Ecuador. 2011-2015

Decisions of the atpdea and its impact on the floriculture. Comparative case Colombia-Ecuador. 2011-2015

For the above exposed it is possible to indicate that the purpose of the Law of Tariff Preferences was to transfer to the Andean countries an incentive for helping in the struggle against drugs, favoring them for being exempt in the taxes payment in the exports of the USA, nevertheless the pressure that the country was held was considered to be a blackmail on the part of that Government, bearing with the ending of the agreement, therefore from that moment the exports must cancel the tariffs for the commercialization that are carried out (Comercio, 2014).
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Lead Contaminated Soils in the city of La Oroya-JUNIN, and its impact on the quality of the waters of the Mantaro river

Lead Contaminated Soils in the city of La Oroya-JUNIN, and its impact on the quality of the waters of the Mantaro river

Se tienen los estudios realizados por las consultora Ground Water International, para Activos Mineros S.A. realizados entre junio de 2008 y marzo 2009, llegando a la siguiente conclusión: Las emisiones de plomo, cadmio y arsénico ocasionados por la fundición de La Oroya durante sus 87 años de vida productiva han afectado alrededor de 2300 kilómetros cuadrados de suelos de la región central. Como para tener una idea del impacto ambiental de las emisiones del CMLO, el área afectada equivale al 83% del área total de Lima Metropolitana, están afectadas no solo de la provincia de Yauli, donde se ubica la ciudad de La Oroya, sino también de Tarma, Jauja y Junín. (Activos Mineros S.A.C., 2012)
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8 Lee mas

Summarizing-the-evidence-on-the-international-trade-in-ilegal-wildlife

Summarizing-the-evidence-on-the-international-trade-in-ilegal-wildlife

The global trade in illegal wildlife has myriad impli- cations for the environment and for human and animal health. When a commoditized species is endangered, its harvest to supply illegal trade may easily reach unsustain- able levels (Sodhi et al., 2004). Indeed, the demand for larger or more ornate specimens tends to remove the fittest individuals from the breeding population, which may result in reduced fitness in subsequent generations (Paquette and Lapointe, 2007). Illegal wildlife trade also poses health threats to humans, native species, and livestock (Go´mez and Aguirre, 2008). As is the case with the legal trade in wildlife, the transport of large numbers of illegal live ani- mals could facilitate pathogen pollution—human-induced movement of infectious agents to new regions (Cunning- ham et al., 2003; Smith et al., 2009). Additionally, illegal trade undermines the efforts of developing nations to manage their natural resources, resulting in massive potential economic losses, while the involvement of crim- inal organizations brings the threat of violence and cor- ruption (Zimmerman, 2003; Milledge, 2007). Finally, specimens in the illegal market are often handled and transported under appalling conditions, creating an animal welfare concern (WSPA 2007).
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9 Lee mas

The impact of innovation and finance on the competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs

The impact of innovation and finance on the competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs

economic sectors in the State of Aguascalientes. For this reason, this research focus on the impact of innovation and finance in the competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs in this State. To measure this impact, 206 surveys were applied to persons responsible for the administration of this type of business organizations. With the data obtained, the analysis of reliability and validity of the scales of the different blocks of reagents used was carried out, and subsequently the multiple linear regression analysis in order to evaluate the correlation between the variables used. As a result of the tests, data are obtained and consist in new empirical evidence on the importance of innovation and finance as factors that significantly affect the competitiveness of the companies subject to study.
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16 Lee mas

The Impact of the Arab Spring on Tourism

The Impact of the Arab Spring on Tourism

The Middle East and North Africa observed clear decline. The number of tourists has dropped sharply in the March 2011 in the Middle East as reported by the World Tourism Organization. In 2010 reached 54.8 million visitors after an increase of 14.9%. In North Africa, the percentage declined to 9.9% with 16.9% in 2011 after witnessed a 6.5% increase in the previous year. Tourism activities fell by 41% in Syria, 24% in Lebanon and 16% in Jordan in the first seven months of 2011. Considering, that tourism is major contributor to the GDP in most of these countries. Monarchies did better than the autocrats, but from Bahrain to Jordan and Morocco, all were forced to make cessions and are still dealing with the Arab Spring fallout. The absolute rulers of the Gulf States including Qatar, the UAE and Saudi Arabia put down what little dissent they faced. But revolts elsewhere worried leaders, pushing them into external clashes, particularly in Yemen, to protect their power. There is greater tension between them, particularly Qatar and Saudi Arabia, and the wars have
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