La investigación del presente artículo, buscó analizar el impacto que ha generado la construcción del túnel de la Línea frente al comercio internacional del País, especialmente en el Puerto ubicado en el Pacifico. Buenaventura ha sido uno de los puertos más importantes de Colombia, ya que debido a sus características y conexiones internacionales por vía marítima, ha atendido los negocios más significativos a nivel internacional. La vía de acceso principal que lo conecta con el interior del país cuenta con una infraestructura vial montañosa, haciendo que su tránsito sea denso y lento, además de ser protagonista de diversos siniestros de tránsito y naturales, por ende, se han visto afectadas las entregas y fletes en las diferentes rutas. El túnel de la línea es un proyecto colombiano que según los estudios realizados, buscaban mejorar la distancia y tiempo de recorrido en dicho tramo, lo que favorecería tanto al transporte terrestre como a la agroindustria colombiana, de esta manera se impactaría directamente y positiva el comercio internacional del país. Para el análisis de los resultados, se obtuvo información de; la ubicación geográfica de Colombia, ubicación de los puertos, infraestructura vial montañosa y características del proyecto El Túnel de la Línea. Como resultado, se obtuvo que la construcción del túnel favorece a los sectores anteriormente mencionados, debido a que por su disminución de km y tiempos en recorrido, los movimientos de carga por el puerto tienden a incrementar por la mejoría en la atención a las exportaciones e importaciones.
In theory, the new regime should have increased transmission of world market signals to local producers. However, post-liberalization interventions may have obstructed integration. Onthe one hand, trade liberalization was accompanied by the creation of a variable tariff scheme—known as the price band system—in eight politically sensitive crops. Onthe other hand, liberalization was followed by a profound agricultural crisis in 1992, caused by currency appreciation, tariff reductions, acute drought conditions and falling world commodity prices (Jaramillo and Junguito, 1993). The crisis prompted the government to adopt a number of ad hoc measures to restrict exposure to international competition in selected crops. Such measures included pressures on local processors to purchase crops at pre-arranged prices, minimum import prices and modifications ofthe price band methodology. Despite these measures, the value of agricultural imports has grown at a record pace—27 percent annually—between 1990 and 1996.
In accordance with the first idea the author proposes, and as stated in Chapter 6, inColombiathe coverage rate of higher education does not exceed 50% ofthe population between 17 and 21 years old, aggravated in turn by the high dropout rates which show that about 50% ofthe stu- dents of higher education withdrew from the system. Onthe contrary, the second idea the author proposes suggests that education should aim to maintaining high quality standards. Quality is a factor that is deter- mined by the evaluation standards, which allow us to infer the educational achievements ofthe country. The different tests implemented by the State in grades 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11, known as the Saber tests, seek to stimulate the academic excellence of students enrolled in school. However, when compared to international standards, such as the Pisa test, Colombia is still far from achieving high quality standards, since from 72 countries participating inthe test, it occupies the 58th place, well below the average. This does not mean that the state tests are not working, but simply that thethe coverage gap still remains large. For all these reasons, it is pertinent to assess the added value ofthe Saber tests, as an impacton curricular and investigative management, as presented in Chapter 7.
investment balance holds inthe pre-simulation equilibrium. In GTAP this balance is given by equating the difference between savings and investment to the difference between exports and imports value (since no income flows or transfer flows are considered inthe model. While the difference between savings and investment is largely determined by macroeconomic forces, the difference between exports and imports must adjust to keep the balance. Therefore, when tariffs are eliminated, as is done here, and imports surge, then exports must rise too to maintain the balance. However, any increase in exports will lead to a price decrease yielding a terms oftrade deterioration. As a consequence, equilibrium can only be restored by changes inthe exchange rate. As there is no money in GTAP, the real exchange rate is measured as the ratio ofthe price of primary factors in one region to the world price of primary factors. The role of relative primary factors in restoring the external balance derives from the zero profits condition. When tariffs are cut and imports surge, the only way that exports can become more competitive is for primary factors prices to fall relative to those in other regions. This also reduces regional income and helps damping the demand for imports. Welfare changes arising from the savings-investment balance relate to changes in prices for the investment goods and changes in prices for the aggregate global capital goods composite. As the position of a country changes inthe valuation ofits net investment andits savings welfare is affected.
Among the studies that deviate from the gravity model framework, some have used Granger causality tests to investigate the direction ofthe causality. Lloyd, McGillivray, Morrissey, and Osei (2000) examined data on aid andtrade flows for a sample of four European donors and 26 African recipients over the period from1969 to 1995. They found evidence showing that trade Granger-caused aid in 14% ofthe country pairs, aid Granger- caused tradein 13% ofthe cases and bi-directional causality was found in 8% ofthe pairs. Along the same lines, Osei, Morrissey, and Lloyd (2004) extended the analysis to more countries and also found that donors providing a higher share of aid tend to trade more with the recipients. Martínez-Zarzoso et al. (2016) ran Granger causality tests within a gravity model framework and found evidence for a bi-directional relationship between donor exports and bilateral aid, which implies that both series have to be considered as endogenous variables inthe German case. Thus, they conclude that appropriate techniques should be used to address the endogeneity issue of all right-hand-side variables and suggest GMM methods andthe dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) approach (Wooldridge, 2009).
After the M-19 guerrilla invasion ofthe Colombian Supreme Court in 1985, real tourism ended and has never really recovered, according to Jean-Claude Bessudo 2 . Currently, 57 countries recommend that their citizens do not visit Colombia. As long as these warnings against Colombia exist, international tour operators will choose other destinations in order to avoid problems. For example, recently, a French tourist was kidnapped on an island inthe Philippines, which had a warning against it andthe tourist agency that sold the ticket was fined a million euros. Nowadays, Colombia is promoted as a “safe” destination andthe amount of investment linked to the tourist industry has been growing along with the amount of foreign visitors. From this point of view, Colombia is an interesting study-case. Previous studies, on how terrorism andthe armed conflict inColombia have caused the domestic tourism industry to deteriorate, do not exist, unlike in countries with the presence of violence and terrorism, like Egypt, Israel and Kenya etc. The motivation behind this essay is to fill this gap, given that there is no previous study regarding theimpactof violence on tourism inColombia.
This work will focus, within the network of researchers inthe archival field, on evidence ofthe fragility ofthe scientific mechanisms of institutionalization of this field in Brazil, specifically the reflection inits representation as an area of knowledge, and also possible repercussions for knowledge organization. It will also show articulation with international research, especially with Spanish researchers, drawing attention to some still not fully occupied spaces, may be due to the way of representing knowledge. This work will initially present a historical survey of both the landmarks inthe area andofthe actors who are active today inthe archival field, as well as their academic production. This first approach will demonstrate the plurality of areas for educating people in Archival Studies, even though the field has been established for over 40 years.
The tendency of drug dealers to invest in real estate is due not only to their search for productive assets, but also by a desire to reduce risk (as these assets are more difficult to be detected by the authorities). Drug dealers tend toward investment in ranches devoted to raising cattle and horses. Thus, the end result is a number of huge, low-productivity, ranches, and an agrarian counter-reform. If one takes into account the violent elements that these land transfers bring with them, theimpacton overall agricultural productivity is, in all likelihood, negative. Drug dealers set up private security systems based onthe use of violence, thus affecting the prevailing social relationships inthe countryside. Given the increasing violence, many producers prefer to sell their lands or establish inefficient systems to manage them. Investment in this sector has been seriously affected by elements of uncertainty and risk engendered by the drug trade (Echandía, 1995).
Being career development so relevant for SIEs, organizations should emphasize to the supervisors, the need of frequent and clear feedback. So misunderstandings, due to language or cultural effects, can be clarified andthe status inthe adjustment process can be checked. Besides, clear feed- back shall be given regarding performance, steps and goals to be achieved for career development and clarify their perspectives within the company. On a country level, probably HC benefit onthe short term with the migration of high skilled workers, but home countries could also profit onthe long term. Migrants can build momentum on their return to Spain, applying the knowledge acquired in foreign countries; launching new business projects, improve the production andtrade system, so that at the end, they will be contributing to job creation and economic growth.
One constant intheinternational legal process is the notion of pacta sunt servanda (the obligation that the treaty s obligations be fulfilled . Concomitantly, a Muslim is obliged to uphold contracts in both letter and s pirit as detailed inthe Qur an itself. The principle of pacta sunt servanda is recognized by all Muslim jurist-theologians. The Shari ah maintains that full faith be placed inthe observance of all bona fide contracts. Following inthe Christian conviction of Grotius, Islamic international law draws its authority from God. Thus, religious compliance with a treaty eclipses temporary state arrangements of mutual convenience. Consequently, there is a stronger moral force for self-proclaimed Islamic states to adhere to treaty obligations even if the underlying substantive law proves less than celestial. More important, proof of bona fide and purely Islamic efforts to uphold an international treaty is found inthe standard set forth inthe Treaty of Hudaybiya.(74) The treaty between the Prophet Muhammad andthe idolatrous tribes of Mecca was aimed at achieving a truce between the warring sides. Even after repeated breaches by the Meccans, Muhammad s entry by force into Mecca came without incident. )nstead , the Prophet Muhammad granted general amnesty to all ofthe non-believers. The treaty offers two important points of consideration: the treaty, at that time, was in fact an international treaty of peace between Muslims and some ofthe more aggressive tribes of Arabia, and although a military reprisal was justified under the terms set forth inthe treaty, an extreme counter- response never materialized. (75)
Inthe Shrimp-Turtle Case ( WTO shrimp-turtle) 6 , decided under the new rules on conflict settlement put in place after the establishment ofthe WTO itself in 1995, what was at stake was the validity under WTO rules ofthe U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) which had listed as endangered or threatened the five species of sea turtles that range in U.S. waters, and prohibited their “take” within the U.S., inits territorial sea andthe high seas”. Under the ESA, the U.S. required that U.S. shrimp trawlers use “turtle excluder devices” (TEDs) in their nets when fishing in areas where there is a significant likelihood of encountering sea turtles, unless the harvesting country was certified to have a regulatory program and an incidental take-rate comparable to that ofthe U.S., or that the particular fishing environment ofthe harvesting nation did not pose a threat to the sea turtles. “In practice, countries that had any ofthe five species of sea turtles within their jurisdiction and harvested shrimp had to impose on their trawlers technical requirements comparable to those imposed by the U.S. onits fishing fleet, if they wanted to be certified to export shrimp products into the U.S. In fact, this meant the use of TEDs” (Alonso 2011). The body ofthe WTO was much more prone to admit the validity of such rules andthe United States lost the case mainly because it had irrationally discriminated between different members ofthe WTO when enforcing the measure, rather than because the measure might be illegal and against WTO rules per se. The big problem that the conflict resolution mechanism faced in this case, andthe big problem that this system andits Appellate Body face in general, is that the conflicts are solved more in a case-by-case basis instead of through the settling of general rules confronting the real merits ofthe issues implied in them, For example in this case the Appellate Body decided that “We do not pass upon the question of whether there is an implied jurisdictional limitation in Article XX(g), and if so, the nature or extent of that limitation 7 ”., although the Appellate Body also insisted
Governments in both Chile and Tasmania started from scratch. Chile’s National Fishing Agency (Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura) imported 40 million eggs from Japan in 1969 with the help of JICA (UNCTAD, 2006). Fifteen years after that, Tasmanian Government brought in fertilized eggs from Nova Scotia, Canada in 1984 to kick start an industry that now brings more than USD $500 million worth of sales revenue every year (TAS Government, 2017). Importing eggs would have had no use if governments in these countries had not embarked on training of personnel needed to get those eggs to grow into marketable fish. The primary focus of these Governments was Human Resource Development. People are what make businesses grow and so early investment in people is now bringing profits worth millions in Tasmania and billions in Chile. Chile has delivered an economic miracle by getting into a completely new salmon industry and becoming its second largest exporter, all in a matter of a few decades. However, when Chile or even Tasmania started on an unexplored road of an unknown salmon farming industry; they needed people who could deliver a myriad of different services. People were needed to control fresh water environments in hatcheries; produce optimum fish meal; design durable sea pens; dive under water to clean them; conduct research on vaccines/antibiotics; conduct controlled breeding for genetic superiority; manage/harvest fish; prepare fillets; transport fish; and market the product in far off countries. None of these jobs could be done because trained human resource simply did not exist at the outset. Government institutions had to be proactive in taking the lead to initiate the development of a capable human resource.
Serbia, as a Balkan country, has always represented the crossroads between East and West. In a small space, it is mixed more culture and more faith for centuries. During its existence, the Serbian people received different influences, which are reflected in daily life, customs, style of dress, the food andthe language and script which were used to print the books and create the documents. It started with the Old Slav’s language and spelling, and since 1867 when was adopted the Vuk’s spelling, the books and certificates were given a different look. In those areas where the Turkish government stayed till the Balkan War certificates were printed in Turkish and Serbian Cyrillic and Arabic script. During World War II, under Austria-Hungarian occupation, school documents were bilingual – in Serbian with Latin script, and German language. After the establishment ofthe Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the unification ofthe document, schoolbooks and certificates were printed in Latin and Cyrillic. Some vocational schools, to facilitate employment with foreign companies and abroad, were issuing certificates in three languages - Serbian, French and German. The graduate ofthe High School contained the same text in Serbian and Latin, which was inline with the European standards. In addition, the social phenomena for the introduction the alphabet of Vuk Stefanovic the Serbian pedagogues, which were educated abroad, were creditable.
Small-scale analysis relies on statistical models that at- tempt to reproduce the variations ofthe channel effects. The κ-µ shadowed model, introduced in , has proven to be a powerful and general model that covers propagation conditions ranging from very favorable to worse-than-Rayleigh fading. The model considers the received signal as formed by one or several groups of multipath signals, each being able to have a main component whose amplitude can fluctuate. It includes Rayleigh, Rice, Rice shadowed, Nakagami-m, κ-µ and η-µ as particular cases [6, 7]. Changing its fading parameters (κ, µ and m), the model can study non-line-of-sight scenarios (NLoS) andline-of-sight scenarios (LoS) with different char- acteristics.
fixed effects per industrial sector have been included inthe estimation. Table 6 shows the correlation between the variables penetration of im- ports and intensity ofthe exports andthe educational wage premium for the groups ofthe semi-skilled and skilled workers (base group: unskilled workers). The left part ofthe table contains the results ofthe regression (2). The only coefficient that is not significant is the one that relates the import penetration to the skilled worker premiums (those with university or college education). The other coefficients are significant and show that internationaltrade generates distributional conflicts, since it hast opposite effects onthe wages ofthe unskilled workers andofthe workers with some sort of skill. The signs ofthe coefficients imply that an increase inthe intensity ofthe exports reduces the premium paid to the semi-skilled and skilled workers compared to the unskilled workers andthe increase onthe import penetration tends to increase the premium paid to semi-skilled workers compared to the unskilled ones. Furthermore, workers with some skill, in industries with a high intensity of exports and a low penetration of imports receive a lower premium for their skills. The toughness vari- able is significant for semi-skill premiums.
For the above exposed it is possible to indicate that the purpose ofthe Law of Tariff Preferences was to transfer to the Andean countries an incentive for helping inthe struggle against drugs, favoring them for being exempt inthe taxes payment inthe exports ofthe USA, nevertheless the pressure that the country was held was considered to be a blackmail onthe part of that Government, bearing with the ending ofthe agreement, therefore from that moment the exports must cancel the tariffs for the commercialization that are carried out (Comercio, 2014).
Se tienen los estudios realizados por las consultora Ground Water International, para Activos Mineros S.A. realizados entre junio de 2008 y marzo 2009, llegando a la siguiente conclusión: Las emisiones de plomo, cadmio y arsénico ocasionados por la fundición de La Oroya durante sus 87 años de vida productiva han afectado alrededor de 2300 kilómetros cuadrados de suelos de la región central. Como para tener una idea del impacto ambiental de las emisiones del CMLO, el área afectada equivale al 83% del área total de Lima Metropolitana, están afectadas no solo de la provincia de Yauli, donde se ubica la ciudad de La Oroya, sino también de Tarma, Jauja y Junín. (Activos Mineros S.A.C., 2012)
The global tradein illegal wildlife has myriad impli- cations for the environment and for human and animal health. When a commoditized species is endangered, its harvest to supply illegal trade may easily reach unsustain- able levels (Sodhi et al., 2004). Indeed, the demand for larger or more ornate specimens tends to remove the fittest individuals from the breeding population, which may result in reduced fitness in subsequent generations (Paquette and Lapointe, 2007). Illegal wildlife trade also poses health threats to humans, native species, and livestock (Go´mez and Aguirre, 2008). As is the case with the legal tradein wildlife, the transport of large numbers of illegal live ani- mals could facilitate pathogen pollution—human-induced movement of infectious agents to new regions (Cunning- ham et al., 2003; Smith et al., 2009). Additionally, illegal trade undermines the efforts of developing nations to manage their natural resources, resulting in massive potential economic losses, while the involvement of crim- inal organizations brings the threat of violence and cor- ruption (Zimmerman, 2003; Milledge, 2007). Finally, specimens inthe illegal market are often handled and transported under appalling conditions, creating an animal welfare concern (WSPA 2007).
economic sectors inthe State of Aguascalientes. For this reason, this research focus ontheimpactof innovation and finance inthe competitiveness of manufacturing SMEs in this State. To measure this impact, 206 surveys were applied to persons responsible for the administration of this type of business organizations. With the data obtained, the analysis of reliability and validity ofthe scales ofthe different blocks of reagents used was carried out, and subsequently the multiple linear regression analysis in order to evaluate the correlation between the variables used. As a result ofthe tests, data are obtained and consist in new empirical evidence onthe importance of innovation and finance as factors that significantly affect the competitiveness ofthe companies subject to study.
The Middle East and North Africa observed clear decline. The number of tourists has dropped sharply inthe March 2011 inthe Middle East as reported by the World Tourism Organization. In 2010 reached 54.8 million visitors after an increase of 14.9%. In North Africa, the percentage declined to 9.9% with 16.9% in 2011 after witnessed a 6.5% increase inthe previous year. Tourism activities fell by 41% in Syria, 24% in Lebanon and 16% in Jordan inthe first seven months of 2011. Considering, that tourism is major contributor to the GDP in most of these countries. Monarchies did better than the autocrats, but from Bahrain to Jordan and Morocco, all were forced to make cessions and are still dealing with the Arab Spring fallout. The absolute rulers ofthe Gulf States including Qatar, the UAE and Saudi Arabia put down what little dissent they faced. But revolts elsewhere worried leaders, pushing them into external clashes, particularly in Yemen, to protect their power. There is greater tension between them, particularly Qatar and Saudi Arabia, andthe wars have