PDF superior Una teoría de la validez jurídicaA theory of the validity of law

Una teoría de la validez jurídicaA theory of the validity of law

Una teoría de la validez jurídicaA theory of the validity of law

nes que conllevan implícita y necesariamente que las mismas son material y procedi- mentalmente correctas. El segundo paso es que esa pretensión incluye una «pretensión de fundamentabilidad», y aquí se cuenta con la «teoría del discurso práctico general» que posibilita por medio de un procedimiento de «argumentación práctica racional» alcanzar respuestas o normas correctas o verdaderas; en palabras del profesor alemán: «La teoría del discurso en una teoría procedimental de razón práctica .Conforme a ella, una proposición práctica o normativa es correcta (o verdadera) si y solo si ella es el resultado de un discurso práctico racional. Las condiciones de racionalidad dis- cursiva pueden resumirse en un sistema de principios, reglas y formas del discurso práctico general. Este sistema comprende reglas que exigen la no-contradicción, cla- ridad lingüística, fiabilidad de las premisas empíricas, ciertas consideraciones acerca de las consecuencias, la ponderación, la universalidad y la génesis de las convicciones normativas. Su núcleo procedimental está constituido por reglas que garantizan la li- bertad y la igualdad en el discursos .Estas reglas aseguran a cada individuo el derecho de participar en el discurso, así como el derecho a cuestionar o defender cualquiera de sus propias afirmaciones» 34 .
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Validez legal y corrección moral : el problema de la ley injusta en la teoría jurídica de John FinnisLegal validity and moral correctness : the problem of unfair law in John Finnis's legal theory

Validez legal y corrección moral : el problema de la ley injusta en la teoría jurídica de John FinnisLegal validity and moral correctness : the problem of unfair law in John Finnis's legal theory

En consecuencia, lo que se deduce de esta forma de concebir el concepto de validez jurídica es que se trata de un dispositivo de carácter exclusiva- mente técnico, instrumental, que no guarda vinculación alguna con el con- tenido de las normas jurídicas, y que opera con total independencia de ellas. Esto permite explicar la interpretación finnisiana de la máxima lex iniusta non est lex, a partir del tratamiento que Tomás de Aquino le da a la misma. Ciertamente, según Finnis, el Aquinate solo distingue entre “ley en sentido focal” [simpliciter], que se corresponde con el caso central del concepto de ley; y “ley en sentido secundario” [secundum quid], correspondiente a aque- llas versiones marginales, deformadas o diluidas (watered down), precisa- mente por la ausencia de algún elemento descriptor del caso central.
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The exception in the law. A discussion of the state of exception in juridical and political theory

The exception in the law. A discussion of the state of exception in juridical and political theory

Esta figura, como propone Comanducci, apun- ta hacia lo que sucede en la realidad con muchas normas. Es el caso de las denominadas “legisla- ciones excepcionales”, en las que lo excepcional se refiere más bien a esas contradicciones entre normas de distinta jerarquía, y en las que, a pesar de que normas de inferior jerarquía pueden resul- tar contradictorias con las de superior jerarquía, aquellas son igualmente efectivas, en tanto real- mente se aplican. En este punto, adquiere impor- tancia también otra cuestión debatida en torno a la teoría pura del Derecho: la distinción/relación entre validez y eficacia. De acuerdo con la teoría pura de Kelsen, validez y eficacia son conceptos distintos, pues la eficacia consiste en la conformi- dad de la conducta con la norma, ya sea mediante el cumplimiento de la obligación o por aplicación de la sanción en caso de la conducta ilícita. La validez de una norma, en cambio, depende de su conformidad con la norma superior jerárquica. Así, la validez depende de una cuestión normati- va, esto es, de otra norma; la eficacia, en cambio, de una cuestión fáctica, de lo que ocurre en la realidad.
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Teaching Legal English for Company Law: A Guide to Specialism and ELP Teaching Practices and Reference Books

Teaching Legal English for Company Law: A Guide to Specialism and ELP Teaching Practices and Reference Books

7. In this respect, see also Arnold, Jane & Dornyei, Zoltan 2015: The Principled Communicative Approach. London: Helbling Languages GmbH.; Richards, Jack C & Rodgers, Theodore S. 2014: Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Hughes, John 2014: ETpedia: 1000 Ideas for English Language Teachers. Brighton: Pavilion Publishing; Terrell, T. D. 1991: “The role of grammar instruction in a communicative approach”. Modern Language Journal, 75(1), 52-63; Hedge, Tricia 2000: Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Oxford, R. L., et al. 1989: “Language learning strategies, the communicative approach, and their classroom implications”. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 29-39; Pica, T. P. 1988: “Communicative language teaching: An aid to second language acquisition? Some insights from classroom research”. English Quarterly, 21(2), 70-80; Clark, J. L. 1987: “Classroom assessment in a communicative approach”. British Journal of Language Teaching, 25(1), 9-19; Morrow, K., & Schocker, M. 1987: “Using texts in a communicative approach”. ELT Journal, 41(4), 248-56; Rosenthal, A. S., & Sloane, R. A. 1987: “A communicative approach to foreign language instruction: The UMBC project”. Foreign Language Annals, 20(3), 245-53; Dolle, D., & Willems, G. M. 1984: “The communicative approach to foreign language teaching: The teacher's case”. European Journal of Teacher Education, 7(2), 145-54.
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Private Law: Reforming the law of obligations in Europe

Private Law: Reforming the law of obligations in Europe

The most important question is the following: Must the harmonization of private law be complete? This is a hotly debated issue among scholars and different research groups. This is proven by the proliferation of groups of scholars whose aim is to obtain as a result, a more or less complete text. The publication of the text called Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law25, presented as a draft by two European groups and based on the text of the Lando Principles of European Contract Law is an example of what is stated by this paper, as is the text on European Group in Tort Law. The European Commission, however, has for now rejected the idea of a general European Code and the Treaty of Lisbon does not contain any reference of unifying private law in Europe. In fact, the Treaty maintains the Maastricht methodology as regards setting the internal market as an object, at which all the rules are aimed (article 114.1TFUE) and to give up all general rules, to establish the identification of subjects which are the exclusive power of the EU and those which are shared with member States. Only in the field of Family Law is there any specific reference in article 81.3 TFUE, which regulates cooperation in civil law and including the rules in the Brussels 2 and Brussels 2 A regulations. The reported Proposal discussed until 2014 in the European Parliament was a good example as they rejected both a “Regulation establishing a European contract law and a Regulation establishing a European Civil Code”. Perhaps in the high echelons of the EU they may consider that the methodology of the European Civil Code is an obsolete idea and this may possibly be true, and it would also be very difficult to achieve.
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Hans Kelsen’s God and The State: The Theory of Positive Law as methodological Anarchism

Hans Kelsen’s God and The State: The Theory of Positive Law as methodological Anarchism

This article situates Hans Kelsen’s essay, God and the State, against the horizon of Bakunin’s God and the State. This enables Kelsen’s methodology to be revealed as a cir- cumscription of Feuerbach’s Left Hegelianism and its further radicalization in Bakunin. Kelsen’s separation of law from any foundation other than in law itself prefigures the question of the relationship between law and life in contemporary Italian theoretical work on the notion of biopolitics. In place of a simple reversal of Kelsen’s methodolog- ical procedure, the question should centre upon distinguishing law from life without repeating the opposition between the materiality of life and the abstraction of law pre- figured in Kelsen’s text.
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“I am not one of his followers”: The Rewriting of the Cultural Icon of the Virgin in Colm Tóibín’s The Testament of Mary

“I am not one of his followers”: The Rewriting of the Cultural Icon of the Virgin in Colm Tóibín’s The Testament of Mary

In her recent monograph on Colm Tóibín, Kathleen Costello-Sullivan convincingly argues that his play Ephesus, the earlier version of the novel, “engages the ability of dominant narratives to overwrite others’ individual truths in its imaginative contrast of Mary’s personal observations and private suffering with what was to be become the official narrative of her son Jesus’s life” (2012: 186). Costello-Sullivan’s remark holds true also in the novel, where Mary intersperses commentaries that reiterate “the grim satisfaction that comes from the certainty that I will not say anything that is not true” (5). In Ephesus, Mary feels repelled by the constant visits of her “guardians”, who want her to go over the event of the Crucifixion. In their conversations with the mother of Jesus, the disciples openly show their exasperation when Mary hesitates or refuses to say what they want her to attest. She complains that “they want to know what words I heard, they want to know about my grief only if it comes as the word ‘grief’, or the word ‘sorrow’” (80). It is soon revealed in the novel that the apostles appropriate her voice and experiences, as she readily intimates that one of the guardians “has written of things that neither he saw nor I saw” (5). In her testament, this elderly and isolated Mary discredits the canonical word of the disciples and recounts her own story, “knowing that words matter” (104). Therefore, it is only through the articulation of her voice that she can reclaim an identity of her own.
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EL DESARROLLO DE CUALIDADES LABORALES JURÍDICAS: LOGROS EN LA FORMACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE LOS ESTUDIANTES DE DERECHO DE LA ULEAM

EL DESARROLLO DE CUALIDADES LABORALES JURÍDICAS: LOGROS EN LA FORMACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE LOS ESTUDIANTES DE DERECHO DE LA ULEAM

The aforementioned research has addressed the issue of professional development based on new strategies, action systems, pedagogical models, teaching materials that strengthen pedagogical theory and practice, in the educational transformations that take place in Ecuador, with the purpose of perfect this process; However, due to its objectives, the treatment of work qualities as an essential condition for professional training in its preparation throughout life, has not been sufficiently addressed from the theory and practice of training in the field of Pedagogical Sciences in different socio-historical contexts and specifically for the career of Law in Ecuador.
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Theory of the Hipocampus.pdf

Theory of the Hipocampus.pdf

HPC is merely an index of the neocortical sites of trace storage where the full sensory/perceptual details are enco- ded. A fourth way would be to enable HPC associations that are repeatedly recalled, often representing environ- mental regularities, to trigger the gradual development of low-level intermodular connections within the neocortex, a process that is likely to require cortical, but not HPC, synaptic plasticity. These connections would enable cortical retrieval in the absence of activity in the hippo- campus. This is the process of systems-level memory con- solidation. Identified originally through experiments on retrograde amnesia revealing that damage to the HPC and related structures can impair new memory encoding while leaving old memories relatively intact (Squire & Zola- Morgan 1991; Kapur 1999), it is unlikely that insensitivity to brain damage is the adaptive pressure that led to its evolution. Our theoretical framework implies that, in part, its function is to avoid the distracting ‘recovery to con- sciousness’ of irrelevant associations that could otherwise interfere with ongoing mental activities (Moscovitch 1995). To work, it is vital that the inter-modular connec- tions that develop are appropriate to the associations rep- resented. This requires the gradual interleaving of appropriate connections (McClelland et al. 1995), perhaps during sleep (McNaughton et al. 2003). Interestingly, the rate of consolidation may not be strictly time-dependent. The process may be ‘cladistic’, with the rate of consoli- dation affected by the frequency with which HPC indices are reactivated. Thus, a further set of propositions to investigate is as follows.
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Raíces y desarrollo de la teoría de las dos espadasRoots and development of the theory of the two swords

Raíces y desarrollo de la teoría de las dos espadasRoots and development of the theory of the two swords

El papa Bonifacio VIII hizo suya la teoría en la citada bula Unam Sanctam: “Por necesidad de fe, estamos instados a creer y mantener que existe una sola y Santa Iglesia Católica y la misma Apostólica, y nosotros fir memente la creemos y simplemente la confesamos, y fuera de ella no hay salvación ni perdón de los pecados, como quiera que el esposo clama en los cantares: ‘Una sola es mi paloma, una sola es mi perfecta. Única es ella de su madre, la preferida de la que la dio a luz’ (Cant. 6, 8). Ella representa un solo cuerpo místico, cuya cabeza es Cristo, y la cabeza de Cristo, Dios. En ella hay ‘un solo Señor, una sola fe, un solo bautismo’ (Ef. 4, 5). Una sola, en verdad, fue el arca de Noé en tiempo del diluvio, la cual representaba con anticipación a la única Iglesia y, con el techo en pendiente de un codo de altura, llevaba un solo rector y gobernador, Noé, y fuera de ella leemos había sido borrado cuanto había sobre la superficie terrestre. Mas a la Iglesia la
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Marx on Financial Bubbles: Much Keener Insights than Contemporary Economists

Marx on Financial Bubbles: Much Keener Insights than Contemporary Economists

A second category of profits, according to Marx, is “profit upon alienation or expropriation,” which comes from capitalists’ appropriating part of the workers’ income or wage in the form of interest or rent. When workers’ pay (V in the above equation) is below the “subsistence” level, i.e., they are not paid a living wage, they often resort to borrowing to supplement their inadequate earnings. Frequently this leads to indebtedness and, therefore, the appropriation of part of their income by bankers and other money-lenders. This “financial expropriation is based on re-dividing the existing flows of money incomes, and thus amounts to a zero-sum game”: lenders gain what borrowers lose. Marx characterizes this type of financial gain by lenders at the expense of borrowers profit from “secondary exploitation”—as distinct from profit from “primary exploitation,” or profit of “enterprise,” which as mentioned in the previous paragraph, is based on the extraction of surplus value in the process of production.
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Reliability and validity of the scale of labor welfare

Reliability and validity of the scale of labor welfare

Thus, resource management indirectly affects satisfaction through opportunities, reliability, justice and abilities. In the first instance, the lack of resources would create a reduction in levels of public trust in the public administration, it would impact the choice options slowing consumption capacity. Once the purchasing power is compromised, citizen satisfaction levels are reduced to a minimum. In this vein, the shortage may also affect public perceptions of injustice, against the lack of government tangency, choice capabilities are reduced to influence life satisfaction (Zallas, Molina, Coss, Valdés, López, Bucio & Garcia, 2019).
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Concept and theoretical aspects of international migration law

Concept and theoretical aspects of international migration law

There are different approaches to theoretical controversies about the formation and development of international migration law, which we think are controversial and controversial. First, it is based on the subjective and objective theoretical views of various scholars on the field, and secondly, it is directly related to the socio-political processes in society. In our opinion, it is desirable to study various theories on the emergence of international migration law in the international legal system, using common and proprietary methods of studying the subject “International Migration Law”. The general method is based on nature, reasoning, and society’s regularities, but on a personal basis (systematic, comparative, historical, sociological, logical). In a systematic manner, the free movement of individuals, the right to move from one area to another, and the right to seek asylum and refugee status are studied as a single subject as a set of rights as migrant workers.
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Álgebras de funciones analíticas acotadas. Interpolación

Álgebras de funciones analíticas acotadas. Interpolación

As we have mentioned above, B. Berndtsson proved [Ber85] that the Carleson condition is sufficient for a sequence to be interpolating when we deal with finite- dimensional Hilbert spaces and the proof of this result is based on the P. Jones construction [Jon83] of Beurling functions. P. Galindo, T. Gamelin and M. Lind- ström pointed out [GGL08] that the Carleson condition is also sufficient for a sequence when we deal with infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Indeed, it is sufficient to notice that finite subsets of the sequence are interpolating and the constants of interpolation are uniform by the B. Berndtsson’s work in [Ber85] and, then, a normal families argument to pass to a limit as n → ∞ is applied. Our aim here is to give an explicit formula for the Beurling functions and the interpolating functions. First, we provide a lemma which includes some calculations related to the automorphisms M a .
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The Fair and Equitable Treatment and Full Protection and Security as Investment Protection Standards Established in the Mexico EU BITs  Edición Única

The Fair and Equitable Treatment and Full Protection and Security as Investment Protection Standards Established in the Mexico EU BITs Edición Única

The claimant argued that FET was a specific and autonomous standard and it should be interpreted broadly. To support this view, Saluka relied upon the decision on the Pope & Talbot 171 case where the tribunal held that even when the treaty provision containing the standard makes no particular reference, the protection afforded by it cannot be considered as existing only against conduct that is “egregiously unfair”, but to guarantee “the kind of hospitable climate that would insulate them from political risks or incidents of unfair treatment”. 172 The claimant also argues that the BIT provision does not refer to any high threshold of unreasonableness or flagrancy of the conduct constituting a breach, and it must be considered broadly enough to provide real and effective protection, which would encourage investors to participate in the economy of the host state. 173
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Montesquieu : teoría de la distribución social del poder = Montesquieu : theory of the social distribution of power

Montesquieu : teoría de la distribución social del poder = Montesquieu : theory of the social distribution of power

una suerte muy distinta corrió el principio de distribución social: bajo el supuesto de que este principio sólo es apropiado para un modelo de la sociedad estamental, se pensó que superando las jerarquías del antiguo régimen se superaba también el principio. sólo faltaba encontrar las razones que hicieran comprensible el “error” de su autor. Los más suspicaces creyeron estar en presencia de un pensador interesado –el Barón de La Bréde y montesquieu– que promovía la repartición social del poder político para devolver a la nobleza a la que pertenecía sus antiguas prerrogativas de clase (althusser, 1968: 91-101). para otros, en tanto, montesquieu sería un autor de transición en cuya teoría se confunden estrategias modernas y premodernas de “frenos y contrapesos” del poder. el principio de distribución jurídica correspondería a una forma de organización moderna en la que las funciones del estado se relacionan con instituciones y no con clases sociales. el principio de distribución social, en tanto, representaría el momento
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On Theory in Ecology

On Theory in Ecology

The preeminence of inductive approaches in biology— and in ecology, in particular—is reflected in the fascination with gathering information about the world, as if we were to find understanding in its accumulation. This trend is becoming even more acute in recent times because of tech- nological breakthroughs that are providing unprecedented quantities and varieties of information about organisms, from microbes to trees, and about environments, from local to global scales. The emergence of new subdisciplines, such as bioinformatics and ecoinformatics, along with monumental scientific efforts currently under way, such as the sequencing of complete genomes and metagenomes and the establishment of large-scale and long-term eco- logical monitoring networks (e.g., the National Ecological Observatory Network), clearly represent important and valuable scientific progress. However, we believe that for such efforts to fully bear fruit, they will need to be both guided by and more directly coupled to the development of efficient theory. Data is of great importance, but without theory, we have only phenomenology and correlation, and we lose the opportunity to yoke the complexity of eco- logical systems using simple, quantitative principles; as was suggested by Harte (2002), we need a better integration of Newtonian and Darwinian worldviews. With efficient theo- ries, we can harness the potential of empirical data to make more- effective progress in our discipline and provide more- informed answers to the pressing problems facing human- ity, such as understanding health, disease, and dysfunction in humans (West 2012). As was clearly stated by the Nobel laureate Sydney Brenner,
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Validez predictiva de una batería de pruebas de selección de personal en relación con la duración en el trabajo

Validez predictiva de una batería de pruebas de selección de personal en relación con la duración en el trabajo

This study evaluated the predictive capacity of a battery of recruitment tests of a personnel services company. To accomplish this, the scores of two tests (BARSIT and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) used in the selection processes were matched to the duration in the job of 233 workers who were hired in a brick company. As a finding, a high level of rotation of workers was observed, and it was also found that the overall BARSIT score significantly predicted the duration of staff in the job. It was concluded that it is necessary for Peruvian consultants to carry out worker selection with these instruments to check the predictive validity before its application.
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Determination of the nationality of the legal entity on the basis of the theory of control

Determination of the nationality of the legal entity on the basis of the theory of control

The disadvantages of the theory of control, which are shared by many domestic and foreign scientists, are the following. First, there is no consensus among scholars on the definition of this criterion: control can be established by nationality of the majority of persons owning shares, or by nationality of persons owning shares for a larger sum (Ladyzhensky, 1957; Kadysheva, 2002) which generally illustrates the low effectiveness of the criterion for a legal entity with a multinational composition (Boguslavsky, 2009; Ladyzhensky, 1957). Secondly, this criterion is not characterized by stability and staticity: usually the legal category “nationality” of individuals and legal entities serves for permanent application and is rarely subject to change. At the same time, it is clear that the composition of participants of a legal entity and their shares in it may change over time, which will entail a change in the nationality of the legal entity. In some cases, the phrase “over time” is equivalent to “during the day” (Boguslavsky, 2009). Third, for some types of legal entities the criterion of control is difficult to apply, due to a specific subject or object, for example: it is difficult to establish the origin of capital in anonymous companies or the nationality of shareholders of bearer shares (Ladyzhensky, 1957). As a result, according to N.N. Voznesenskaya, the practical significance of this criterion is not great, because it is not clear how to apply it (Voznesenskaya, 2017; Young, 1908).
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La teoría clásica del contrato y la discusión sobre su adaptación judicial = The classical theory of contract law and the discussion about judicial adjustment of contracts

La teoría clásica del contrato y la discusión sobre su adaptación judicial = The classical theory of contract law and the discussion about judicial adjustment of contracts

El punto que interesa destacar es que, aunque se advierta que ni los redactores del Code, ni tampoco sus comentaristas posteriores, afi rmaron una justifi cación del derecho de contratos derivada de la autonomía, eso no basta para descartar el mérito sustantivo de la concepción que establece un vínculo justifi cativo entre el reconocimiento de ese valor y la exigencia de que el derecho garantice la fuerza obligatoria irrestricta de los contratos y su intangibilidad salvo por mutuo acuerdo de las partes. Tampoco la crítica que impugna la capacidad de la teoría clásica para ofrecer una sistematización completa y coherente del de- recho de contratos pone en cuestión su mérito. Ella asume, en cambio, esa concepción de la fuerza obligatoria de los contratos y de su conexión justifi cativa con la autonomía como un dato y postula la necesidad de abandonarla en bloque por su incapacidad para explicar diversas normas e instituciones del actual derecho de contratos, que quedan relegadas bajo esa concepción al sombrío estatus de excepciones aisladas e inorgánicas.
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