Cooperativelearning is a cognitive, socio-constructivist methodology that promotes the development of academic and social competences instudents provided it is properly implemented and assessed. This article aims at showing how the continuous exposure tocooperative tasks has a favorable impact on students´ achievement as they have “to discuss, argue, present and hear one another´s viewpoints” (Slavin, 1995). Additionally, it has an effect on their motivation as “cooperative incentive structures create a situation in which the only way group members can attain their personal goals is if the group is successful” (Slavin, 1995). This research refers to the experiences, pedagogical decisions and outcomes of a twelve-hour intervention in a private school in Santiago, where CL was implemented in a ninth grade, in a unit of work. Even though, the experience was positive, there were problems such as excessive students´ socializing in the groups, time management problems, class organization issues and furthermost, the request of the subject teacher to redirect the intervention. The results were the need of training students into team skills before implementing CL, adapting the roles suggested in literature to an EFL context, shortening tasks andusing the Think-Pair-Share technique to introduce role interdependence and individual accountability tostudents.
The present project was developed as an action research in the Instituto Pedagógico Nacional School in Bogotá. The sample was a group of 32 fifth graders who were about ten to twelve years old. The researcher identified the necessity to help shy and slow students improve their oral production,basically, their interaction in English class. According to the analysis of the data and the results, it was evident that the games, and the cooperative work took an essential part in the EFL classroom, because those aspects helped studentsto feel comfortable in the moment of interacting with others in an informal situation. Therefore, the proposal consisted of usingcooperative games in order to promote oral interaction among the fifth graders, because games are a worthy tool for learning, and not a waste of time, promoting active participation and interaction as the center of the experience. Moreover, students interacted with each other through cooperative games, while they enjoyed playing as well. This application was significant for language learning while it applied and modified their recent knowledge about the real world.
In this chapter the process of analysis of the results is described with the purpose of identifying the effects of cooperativelearning, while implementing comic strips, in responsive listening. In this way, this procedure was done analysing the data from eighteen studentsandusing a data analysis method called grounded theory. Grounded theory was originally developed by sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss. This theory provides, as a method, the possibility to identify categories, analyse them and create relationships among them. In this way, grounded theory provides different key strategies to gather andto analyse information. In this research was used constant comparative analysis. The main objective of this analysis is to link and integrate categories in such a way that the researcher does not merely build up them but also analyse the whole complexity and diversity of the data by contrasting and comparing it (Willing, 2013). Therefore, the triangulation of information was done by considering certain criteria in each variable of this investigation (comic strips, cooperative work and responsive listening). Thus, having clear of what aspects to analyse in each category, it was possible to contrast what it was found in each data collection instrument.
Future research, following these recommendations, therefore, could strengthen our understanding of the role of strategy use in the classroom and determine the accuracy of both teacher and student perceptions. Our interpretation here is that, to a considerable extent language achievement is associated with characteristics linked to integrative motivation, which the students bring with them to the class and is relatively independent of strategy use (Factor I). Teacher motivation is, however, influential in the use of strategies as perceived by the studentsand can influence their attitudes toward the learning situation andmotivation (Factor II). Studentsand teachers both recognize the use of traditional strategies, but in these classes there is a tendency for this to be related to lower levels of English achievement (Factor III). Finally, teacher’s perceptions of innovative strategy use is characteristic of classes where language anxiety is low, probably because there is less concern with assessment in these classes (Factor IV). Thus, the question of the role of the teacher and the use of strategies can be seen to be more complex that normally thought when it comes to language learning.
As educators we need to analyze the strategies we apply inside the class with the students. Lesson plans are essential in that process. Lesson plans are the product of teachers’ thoughts about their classes; what they hope to achieve and how they hope to achieve it. According to the Common European Framework and also the students’ needs in our school, we establish the topics to be covered through the scholar year. In addition to that and as a general statement, we set the lesson plans up in detail as a “time strategy” to not to lose time working with them. However, there are occasions in where time is not enough and we have to add it to finish an idea explained the class before. According to Robertson and Acklam (2000) it does not matter the level of experience though, it is very important that all teachers take the time to think through their lessons before they enter the classroom. Besides, there are some elements to be taken into
The third instrument in this study was a class observation format filled in by teacher-researchers during each class according tostudents’ behavior. The format was based on coding systems designed by teacher-researchers which allowed them to record and organize participant information during the intervention. It had the numbers 4 from 1 to 14 in which 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 explained the participants’ perceptions about the activities; the codes 5, 6 and 7 provided evidence about participation, numbers 9 to 12 showed the participants’ attitude when they worked alone, collaboratively or when the teachers were not with them, and codes 13 and 14 gave information about language used by participants: English or Spanish. These codes were used by the teacher-researchers according to the participants’ performance. Table 2 shows four codes used. If the participants valued the activity hard but he tried and did it the teacher-researchers wrote number 1, if all of them participated they ticked number 5 and so on; for complete explanation (See Appendix H).
The author offers a system of learning tasks which might have a great value in order to make the students be actively involved within the teaching learning process of the target language. A total of 15 learning tasks were designed and implemented. In detail, the system proposed comprises only one learning task mostly devoted to the development of the listening comprehension ability, three learning tasks emphasizing on the development of the speaking ability, four on the development of the reading comprehension ability, six aimed at improving the writing ability, while using listening materials as a means, developing thereby the listening comprehension ability. The other learning tasks, a total of two, are developed under an integration of abilities conception. Nevertheless, all through the entire proposed system, the mixed ability work is objectively included to some extent.
The recreational activities are excellent alternatives in relation to the old methods of education due to they allow the different skills of students. Besides, with playful activities students learn to think, analyse and solve problems and discover knowledge in an interesting way. Currently there are techniques and teaching methods that help teachers during the process of teaching andlearningand improve the quality of education. Therefore it is necessary to use appropriate strategies that combine aspects, such as: cognitive, affective and emotional needs of students, this is found in playful activities. Playful activities are very useful as a teaching strategy to teach English and other subjects because they help to raise the level of students‟ achievementandlearning real and practical form in the development of foreign language skills. In addition to the implementation of these activities in class students can become familiar with the English and learn to communicate through games and fun, motivating, dynamic and participatory activities that help toincrease knowledge and improve them.
CooperativeLearning could be an adequate strategy for the English learningin a large classroom with heterogeneous learners.- According to (Hall, 1994) “Cooperativelearning explores the benefits to work in large groups with heterogeneous learners. Larger groups are good because they provide more people for doing big tasks; they increase the variety of people in a group in terms of skill, personalities, background, and they reduce the number of groups for the teacher to monitor”. This point has its advantages and disadvantages, Shindler, J. 2009 for example claims that a study showed that in groups of mixed ability, low-achieving students become passive and do not focused on the task.
The second step of informing students they would be working with films showed immediate differences between both groups as well. Starting with 5 th graders, comments like “¿y nos va a enseñar ingles con eso?, ¡qué buena!” (and you’re going to teach us English with that?, how good!), underlie and suggest that this group of students is once again more engaged with the learning process rather than the end of it which for 6 th graders is the mark. Whereas, for 6 th graders, comments like “¡Al fin vamos a tener clases entretenidas!” (At last we’re going to have fun classes!), or “¡Al fin algo nuevo!” (At last something new!), evidence the surprise they first had when they were told they would be working with a resource they thought as fun more than as a material for learning. Hence, this group of students took this instance as a means of entertainment rather than of learning., all the opposite of what Kaiser (2011), Berk (2009), and Valdes (n.d.) proposed with their methodology using films. This negative outcome will also be analyzed in the next section of the post enactment test where they manifested that movies “are more to have fun than for learning”.
Apart from the herein described stages of the learning process, it is essential for studentsto develop self-interest and self-motivationin knowledge-acquisition. Self-regulated learning is the ultimate expression of self-interest and self-motivation of a learner in acquiring knowledge, which implies the optimum combination of drive, enthusiasm, concern andachievement of learning objectives. Several scholars in education and psychology fields have devoted their attention to this matter. Specifically, Paris and Byrnes (1989) defined self-regulated learners as students who are looking for challenges andto overcome obstacles by being persistent and implementing creative problem- solving techniques. These type of learners set realistic goals and employ a wide range of resources to solve problems through innovative approaches, having higher intrinsic motivation, sense of goal-orientation and tend to have positive expectations. Because of these characteristics, these students have a tendency to approach any kind of academic task with confidence and purpose.
Then, there is an important influence of the images on their writings. Using pictures, the student has a general idea about what they have to write. About this matter, Chareina (2007) states that “pictures gave the students real and exact data of the things they were writing about, like shape, colour, size, etc. Through pictures, the students can express their ideas in their writing easily” (p.56). As it is seen in the examples above, students achieve writing through the use of images. Based on the results, for the students was easier to transmit writing ideas when they have a visual element to describe. In addition, as the images used were based on the students’ context and reality, it increased the students’ interest on writing because they give opinions and
Undergraduate students need accurate feedback from their work, in order to properly assess their actual level of acquisition of competences. Unfortunately, they do not receive as much feedback as needed from the faculty instructors, especially in case the number of students per course is too large. Peer- review offers a valuable tool to allow this feedback andto encourage the process of learning. Moreover, the context provided by the service-learning activity provides an appealing environment where students’ motivation is boosted and the learning process promoted.
Then, students need to put four chairs together. It is important to show or give them instructions by shifting their desks together to assemble their workspace. Each member of the group should cooperate. Guide one group to demonstrate what you mean. Practice at least three times. Now, ask studentsto sit and give them instructions regarding group behavior during the cooperativelearning activity. You can write and tell the participants the three responsibilities that all members have in the group: To be polite, to listen, to cooperate. Have them repeat orally the responsibilities in each group and post them on the board. For group management, draw a Quiet signal that signifies that whenever you wish the class to convene or to stop working in their groups; it could be a hand signal, a bell or a card with a symbol on it.
With the data analysis and the answers that my students provided, I could affirm that my hypothesis was correct because the lack of motivationto participate actively in the class was caused by emotional factors caused by the different interaction that took place in the class. But, on one hand, the first changes were connected to methodology I started to use ESA to teach grammar. I reduced the teacher speaking time, and I considered their concerns and tastes to plan my lessons. Also, I used lots of warm up activities in order to generate positive emotions during the class, such as enjoinment. According to the idea of fostering a sense of achievementin my studentsin Liceo A-100, I changed the focus of the
35 form. Moreover, there is an image of the ending and they have to explain why it is so comical; the answer, of course, requires a reference to the last statement of one of the characters, so they have to use reported speech again. In this stage, it is probable that the learners need some help, so the teacher has to move around and provide them with some feedback and recommendations. However, it is highly important that the teacher does not give them the correct answer directly, since the main objective is that they think together and share their opinions to find it. Nonetheless, when this task was carried out for the present study, learners were given some examples of how to report before starting working with the worksheet. In this way, they were a bit prepared for it. This kind of reminder was necessary because their first answer had been that they did not know how to do that and they would not do it. Notwithstanding, when they were given some examples of how to report different statements, they started to work. Finally, the metalinguistic explanation or ‘focus on form’, has two parts: the correction of the activity and the explanation of the grammar point. To correct the task, students have to read their proposals aloud and, if any of them is correct, the teacher makes some suggestions to make them reformulate their sentences or, depending on the time, gives them the right option. The procedure is the same for each sentence and also to comment the image. In this study, learners found this part a bit difficult, however, it was crucial for them and facilitated the process to understand the grammar point. After that, the teacher explains that the different constructions used to refer to what other people have said is known as “reported speech” and starts the metalinguistic explanation. Nonetheless, students must participate in it, so the teacher has to ask them different questions, for example, “What have you eaten this morning?” or “Where did you go yesterday?” The next step is that students have to answer the questions with complete sentences and, after that, the teacher asks another student to report what their classmate said.
contrasted with competitive learningin which students work against each other to achieve an academic goal (Johnson et al., 1994:4.) In the last decade there has been a growing interest among ESL/EFL teachers inusingcooperativelearning activities. Cooperativelearning principles and techniques are tools which teachers use to encourage mutual helpfulness in the groups and the active participation of all members. These principles can be seen in the cooperativelearning technique Numbered Heads Together (Kagan, 1992) that can be used, for example, in an ESL/EFL reading class. There are four steps in doing Numbered Heads Together: Each student in a group of four gets a number: 1, 2, 3, or 4. The teacher or a student asks a question based on the text the class is reading andstudentsin each group put their heads together to come up with an answer or answers. They should also be ready to supply textual support for their answers. The teacher then calls a number from 1 to 4 and the person with that number gives and explains their group’s answer.
To discover the research problem a pilot survey was designed about students’ learning process. Kvale (1996, p. 14) regarded interviews as “an interchange of views between two or more people on a topic of mutual interest, sees the centrality of human interaction for knowledge production, and emphasizes the social situation of research data.” In this way, the interview helped the project to understand better the phenomenon in different learners’ perspectives than others instruments where people’s voices and feeling are not relevant. Berg (2007, p. 96) talks “the importance of interviewing is not only because it builds a holistic snapshot, analyses words, reports detailed views of informants; but also because it enables interviewees to speak in their own voice and express their own thoughts and feelings” (as cited Hamza Alshenqeeti, 2014, p. 39)
The functionality of BITWINE under current conditions in Chile: The last two answers in Table 3 reflect that BITWINE did not work well under inadequate conditions of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). This lead us to be more reflexive about the fact that technologies themselves do not directly make learning happen but address certain tasks which may result inlearning (Dalgarno, & Lee, 2010). This is an important issue to be solved because we experienced some problems regarding computer capacity and Internet connectivity in high schools. During the study, it became apparent that the Chilean Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure is not well developed, despite being considered the most advanced in South America (Donoso, 2010; Voogt, Knezek, Cox, Knezek, & ten Brummelhuis, 2013).