However, the spread of these practices, conventional or otherwise, doesn’t take place without difficulties and resistance. Mainly, it’s fundamental to rethink the processes of teacher training, as well as the organization and context of his work. On the other hand, other challenges are presented: the lack of scientific basis of new information and communication technologies and their applicability in both conventional and long distance education; the unfamiliarity of constructive approaches and methods of collaborative work; the way how the teacher’s work is thought and structured, isolated from other disciplines involving little or no multidisciplinary and trans-disciplinary collaboration.
In order to acquire the target language effectively, learners need to engage actively in processing the meanings of what they hear and read. A variety of tasks can be designed to motivate and give learners a purpose for processing the meaning and accomplishing a desired end or product (Willis, 1996). Unlike grammar exercises that are focused directly on the structure and comprehension questions that may become boring and senseless, task-based approach provides students with both a framework of structures, forms and/or words to be used and a good reason/purpose for doing the activities. That is why task-based reading activities may prove to be a good means of integrating the four skills and fostering effective language learning because such activities are done with the purpose of comprehending something, reaching a conclusion and/or creating a whole picture of something within a pre-set frame (Nunan, 1989). Although such activities are done in order to improve the learners reading skill, they are expected to help improve the other skills as well. Of course, these ideas are just theoretical assumptions that the author of this work hopes to confirm.
In the same context, the Content-Based Instructions approach to second language teaching was studied by Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 204-220) refer ”t o an approach to second language teachingin which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or other type of syllables”. Although content is used with a variety of different meaning in language teaching, it most frequently refers to the substance or subject matter being learned or communicated through language, rather than the language used to transmit it. In addition, CBI Stoller (1997) provides a list of activities classified according to their instructional focus. The classification categories she proposes are: language skills improvement, vocabulary building, discourse organization, communicative interaction, study skills, synthesis of content materials and grammar. The subject matter-core states that organization of the curriculum is consequent from the subject matter, more than from forms, functions, situations or skills. Authentic language and texts are used. Central material texts, video tapes, audio recording and visual aids are chosen
Autonomy is often referred to as a multi-dimensional construct. It is therefore, difficult to be defined and to be distinguished from the other concepts related to it. In this study, we have associated the term autonomy to the one of independent learning as we think learners need to be shown how to be autonomous in their way of becoming independent. Since the 1970’s, the pedagogical field research interest in EFL has shifted from teacher-centred methodologies to a greater focus on students’ learning. Increasing numbers of studies have been undertaken from the students’ perspective, and teachers and researchers started to recognise the importance of the role students can play in their learningof a language. For language researchers and teachers, language learners are becoming the main source of information for classroom activities. The concept of LA became then, an area that has moved the ideas ofteaching and learning professionals into more responsibility sharing on the part of the learner with the educational team.Therefore, the focus today is on learners being able to assume a more active and participatory role than is usual in traditional language teaching approaches. Students are more and more being given practice in decision-making, and thus accepting responsibility for their own learning and gaining experience in managing and self- assessing their progress.
51 Kenworthy (1989) recommends English teachers to create learning contexts which enable students to work both on the perception and the production of the new sounds (taken from Gallardo del Puerto and Gómez Lacabex, 2008). Sound contrasts between familiar and unfamiliar sounds and extensive practice in a variety of contexts can be useful resources to improve both perception and production of target sounds in English. Learning to perceive sounds according to specific categories is a prior step to successful production. Regarding production, it is important to remember that “perfect imitation does not always correspond with perfect memorization or assimilation; it does not necessarily guarantee a good independent performance” (Cámara Arenas, 2010: 160). When dealing with vowels, perception and production work is to be reinforced by spelling and pronunciation correspondences. These are particularly complex in English due to lack of obvious correspondences between written and spoken forms. Therefore, Spanish students may assign the similar values to vowel-letters and vowel sounds as they do in their native language. Therefore, special and consistent attention should be paid on spelling and pronunciation relationships. Teachers should “highlight key patterns” (Selingson, 2011:129) as well as “present rules that are usable and (…) make sure learners are inferring correctly” (Kenworthy, 1990:97).
The method used for this research was quantitative and the student´s questionnaire was used for this analysis; here the results were tabulated and statistically organized by graphics. In addition, the information was converted into percentages for easier analysis of the three different sections, during the analysis of the information obtained from the questionnaires; these were different aspects to consider. The first aspect was the purpose of study. The second aspect to remember was which section was being worked with (academic, social or psychological), finally, any radical variation or conflicting data needed to be analyzed with scrutiny to understand its correlation to the whole.
The second block of articles is striking due to the wide range of different contexts allowed by eRubrics, which are presented in articles such as the following: A first chap- ter entitled: “An International Experiment with eRubrics: An Approach to Educational Assessment in Two Courses of the Early Childhood Education Degree”, by María Berg- man, who exposes the scope and limitations of eRubrics in international projects. This is followed by an interesting experiment in the field of engineering: “Implementation of an eRubric System for Assessing Module Projects in the Engineering Degree in Industrial Design and Product Development” by Ana Serrano Tierz. Next, a creative and innova- tive contribution is presented: “The Role of eRubrics in Assessing Digital Materials for Language TeachinginVirtualTeaching Environments”, by Esteban Vázquez-Cano, Elena Martín-Monje and Miguel Fernández-Álvarez. To close this block of articles, the expe- rience of using eRubrics combined with other technologies is addressed in: “Assessing Online Learning through Blogs and eRubrics: Complements or Suplements?”, by Esther Martínez-Figueira, Antonio Bartolomé and Fernando Tellado-González.
Gower, Phillips, and Walters (2005) state that short instructions are entirely appropriate to this situation where the students accept their authority. Also, they usually realize that a firm directive manner is necessary in order to make a good language practice and to avoid confusion and uncertainty. Sometimes students need a little time before they get going while others get on with the task immediately. By providing ongoing feedback you can help your students evaluate their achievement and progress. Feedback can take a number of forms: giving praise and
CBLI is the last approach regarded before dealing with other topic. It focuses on providing content information through the target language and using academic subjects to acquire the foreign language (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary, and Robbins, 1999; Richards et al., 2001). CBLI has many advantages in a foreign language class but two are especially relevant. The students are able to improve their language competence into specific areas of their interest and the four language skills (speaking, writing, reading, and listening) are naturally joined (Brinton, 1989; Chamot et al., 1999).
Before this research on field initiated, a profound literature review took place. To start with, some of the teaching approaches and methods related to the teachingof a foreign language were investigated to have a framework for the note-taking planned for later on. Then, the literature check focused on aspects like what the main concerns about class size are, how to manage learningin these conditions, the ways to run large classes, the kind of activities for working with this type of groups, classroom space and seating arrangement and the influence of different levels of proficiency in numerous classes. All these topics were selected because they are closely related to the matter of this study, and were used to interpret the results of the questionnaires.
In order to answer the objective formulated on the present project – satisfaction with the type of collaborative work and different aspects related to the teachingof the subject–, a double analysis was made. An initial analysis consisted of the comparison, statement by statement, between the collaborative work group and the individual work group using the non-parametric Mann- Whitney U-test, given the nature of the measuring scale used in the 23 statements that assess the students’ satisfaction with different aspects related to the teachingof the subject using a 1 (totally disagree) to 7 (totally agree) Likert- type scale. A second level of analysis consisted of reducing the dimensionality of the 23 statements by applying an exploratory factorial analysis according to the model of principal components and varimax rotation. The students’ grades were generated in each of the factors obtained from the regression method. These grades were later compared between the two groups studied using the Student’s t-test for independent groups.
17 Snivicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002) claim that if the number of students is about 16, the position face to face is more advisable; on the other hand, there is another way to arrange the chairs: they can be placed around the tables which is called “café style”. The advantage of this type of organization gives a successful result because learners are in a comfortable position, since “café style” offers students the possibility to work in pairs or in groups. Also, the authors explain that during the ‘open pair work’ two students discuss some topics under the supervision of their tutor, while the other students can hear the discussion, they do not move from their chairs, which give them the possibility of establishing communication; moreover, the teachers could arrange the seats in a circle and learners can move easily.
This research “The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school in the city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
In spite of the above, there is no indication that in Colombia you can find a total application of the ICT within the teaching-learning processes; on the contrary, in the real practices in the classroom, it is evident its lack of utilization, this due to multiple factors that go from the little investment in the technological elements till the deficiency of training in the use of them for the staff of an institution. Therefore, it is observable that in relation to new pedagogies that should be developed in the school, the colleges are forgetting the importance of updating in avant-garde educational models that use virtual means to access, to appropriate and to generate more knowledge and cultural exchange worldwide.
After that , the field research started . Two public high schools of the city of Cariamanga were selected. The survey aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English teaching-learning process. The students were asked an open – ended question about the effect of large classes on them which were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social. The gathered data was registered in tables, to do this, the quantitative method was taken into account. The research techniques used in this study were: Questionnaire , Note-taking. Instruments like questionnaire and tables were also applied. To analyze the results of this
and those without it. The research was carried out adopting the pre-posttest quasi experimental/control groups design. Two instruments were designed by the researcher and two research assistants. These instruments are namely Onuka Mathematics Achievement Test and Onuka English Language Achievement Test. The research was conducted on experimental and control groups. 280 students were involved in the investigation. At the beginning of each lesson a short test of the knowledge gained in the previous lesson was given. The scripts were collected and redistributed to the students after they had worked the solutions on the board, however, ensuring that no student got and marked his/her own paper. The teacher worked out the solutions on the board and then asked the student to randomly exchange their notebooks and mark strictly under his supervision with support of the research assistant. The results were organized and recorded at the end of the lesson. The teacher then proceeded to teach. The exercise lasted for eight weeks. A pre-test was given to each subject group (experimental and control) at the beginning of the investigation. At the end of the eight weeks, a post – test was administered to find out whether or not the treatment had had any effect on the students’
Narayanan, Rajasekaran & Iyyappan (2008) analyzed the most important socio- psychological factors that are affecting English learning such as motivation, attitude, and language anxiety. For this study questionnaires have been prepared and the data have been collected mainly in written modes. Also class observation and personal interaction with the students and teachers were done for data collection. The conclusion of this study was that factors such as motivation, attitude, language anxiety and gender have a great impact over students and if the learner wants to foster linguistics skills effectively he/she needs to be highly motivated, positive attitude towards the language, low
The programme “Escuela 2.0” has been analysed regarding the use of ICT (Martínez 2001:73). The use of new technologies is not an end on itself; it is not trying to digitize the classrooms rather to improve the usage of different types of methodologies. Using ICT as a tool can facilitate the teaching-learning process, the development of cooperative work and a responsible attitude towards ICT. It is no longer considered a learning accessory but a means to improve “learning to learn” skills. ICT tools work much more in the communication environments than the traditional methods, so ICT complements this type ofteaching (Granda 2010:113-114). My mindset is influenced by Granda as long as ICT is used as a facilitator of the learning process in this highly globalised world. We should bear in mind that the main aim of the teaching process is to provide educational competences which are valid insociety (Wolf 2012:2).
Martinez-Argüelles, M.-J., Ruiz-Dotras, E., & Rimbau-Gilabert, E. (2010). The Academic Advising System in a Virtual University. In 1st International Conference on Reforming Education, Quality ofTeaching and Technology-Enhanced Learning: Learning Technologies, Quality of Education, Educational Systems, Evaluation, Pedagogies (Vol. 73, pp. 345–350). Athens: SPRINGER-VERLAG Berlin, Germany.