Top PDF Why are there so many orchid species?

Why are there so many orchid species?

Why are there so many orchid species?

To provide an idea of the extent of the devastation caused by geological activity a few examples can suffice. In 1987 an earthquake of a 7.2 magnitude on the Richter scale struck north-central Ecuador with the epicenter near Volcán Reventador, about 40 miles northeast of Quito in a direct line. Damage to buildings in Quito was extensive but not catastroph- ic. On the face of Volcán Reventador a landslide occurred that was 40,000 hectares in area. The slide caused a temporary dam on the Rio Napo that broke after a couple of days. The ensuing wall of water that came down the Rio Napo devastated indigenous communities all the way to the Amazon River and the death toll was incalculable. The bald area is now recovering. Eighty thousand years ago the Volcán Chalupas exploded leaving a crater 40 km in diame- ter and a baby volcano appeared in the crater that we now call Volcán Cotopaxi. The explosion covered with ash what we now know as 5 provinces of cen- tral Ecuador to a depth of 30 m. The Volcán Tungurahua, which now has 12 species of Telipogon occurring on its slopes, is only 3,000 years old. An eruption of Volcán Pululagua 3,500 years ago left the province of Pichincha covered in 1.5 m of ash. Volcán Pululahua is about 20 km northwest of Quito.
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Why Have so Many Disinflations Succeeded?

Why Have so Many Disinflations Succeeded?

Finally, we also test if democracy plays a role in explaining sustainability. During the 70s and 80s, democratic regimes were an exception in LAC countries. Moreover, as we have documented, those years were characterized by poor sustainability records. During the 90s, however, LAC began catching-up with G7 countries in terms of S. During this time, most LAC countries also enjoyed democratic regimes. The question then is whether there is any causality link between the two trends. To test this, we use the average polity index during the episode. The index, ranges from 10 (strongly democratic) to -10 (strongly autocratic), as explained in the appendix. As Table 2 shows, higher polity values are indeed associated with larger S values; the coefficient, however, is only significant once, at the 10 percent level.
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Why are there no back-arc basins around the eastern Pacific margin?

Why are there no back-arc basins around the eastern Pacific margin?

There are many back-arc basins (system of island arc and back-arc seas) on the western mar- gin of the Pacific Ocean, but we do not find any back-arc basins on the eastern of the Pacific margin even though volcanism related to subducting slabs has been operating on both sides of the Pacific. It seems that subduction of oceanic plates contributes to volcanism not only through the supply of slab- derived fluids necessary for upwelling of magma diapirs, but also by inducing convention in the mantle wedge so as to maintain the hot mantle layer within the wedge. Dehydration from the hydrous layer of old descending slabs at depths of 100 to 300 km is important for the genesis of volcanic chains and back-arc spreading. In contrast, dehydration from the hydrous layer of young descending slabs acts quite differently on the origin of volcanism. These differences are shown by the examin a- tion of high pressure and high temperature phase changes in MORB (mid -oceanic ridge basalt) + H 2 O reactions.
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How many orchid species in Costa Rica? A review of the latest discoveries

How many orchid species in Costa Rica? A review of the latest discoveries

puntarenasensis Fowlie, and L. macrophylla subsp. xanthocheila Fowlie), also changed in Oakeley (2008). He segregated the taxa within this complex, attributing to Costa Rica the following species: L. xanthocheila (Fowlie) Oakeley, L. panamanensis Fowlie ex Oakeley (first record for Costa Rica), L. puntarenasensis (Fowlie) Oakeley, and L. measuresiana (B.S.Williams) Oakeley. Lycaste macrophylla subsp. desboisiana was treated as synonym of L. measuresiana (Oakeley, 2008). However, a previous publication by Archila (2002) seems to have priority over Oakeley (2008), so that the correct names are Lycaste puntarenasensis (Fowlie) Archila, Lycaste xanthocheila (Fowlie) Archila, and Lycaste panamanensis (Fowlie) Archila. There are new additions to various genera segregated from Maxillaria s.l. (Blanco et al., 2007). Maxillaria bolivarensis C.Schweinf. described from Venezuela and distributed throughout South America has been recorded based on two collections along the Caribbean lowlands (Fig. 4I, 7b); the recent nomenclatural changes did not affect this name (Blanco 2008). Ornithidium pendulum (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn. (=Maxillaria pendula (Poepp. & Endl.) C.Schweinf.), a widespread species ranging from Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, and South America, is recorded for a first time in Costa Rica (Fig. 6f, 7c). The misapplied name Maxillaria ramosa Ruiz & Pav. has been widely used since its clarification by Blanco et al. (2008). Maxillaria appendiculoides C.Schweinf., first described from Costa Rica, has recently been reported from Ecuador (M. Blanco, personal communication). A new species of Mormolyca, allied to what we call the Maxillaria rufescens alliance, was described by Bogarín and Pupulin (2010) (Fig. 2i). Tribe Neottieae: Palmorchis nitida Dressler, previously described from Panama, was documented in the Golfo Dulce region of southern Costa Rica by Bainbridge and Aguilar (2008). Subtribe Oncidiinae: A collection of Lockhartia similar to L. micrantha Rchb.f. has been reported as the Colombian Lockhartia chocöensis Kränzl. based on two collections from the tropical wet forest-premontane belt transition on the Caribbean watershed of the Cordillera de Tilarán range northwestern Costa Rica (Fig. 4h, 7a). Studies in Trichopilia revealed a new species, T. primulina Dressler & Bogarín, from a cultivated plant without specific locality (Dressler and Bogarín, 2009; Fig. 2l, 11b). A recent collection is the first known locality of this species. The only record of Warmingia
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Determinants of orchid species diversity in Latin America

Determinants of orchid species diversity in Latin America

importance of these two factors was recently tested, using data on orchid species diversity in various countries in the world and it was found that size of the country (or of the protected areas within the country) is a better determinant of species diversity in orchids than latitude. On the other hand, literature data indicate that in many groups species richness is also heavily dependent on habitat diversity as expressed by the range of altitudes in the region considered. Here we analyze the species richness data for various countries in Latin America, using the above-mentioned altitudinal amplitude as a proxy. Habitat diversity played a role in tropical, but not in temperate countries. The reason may indicate that in the temperate countries only few orchid species grow in higher elevations, so an increase of altitudinal range of habitats there does not entail a corresponding increase of species richness there. Thus, especially in the tropics, efforts should be directed to preservation of protected areas in all altitudes, rather than to increase of existing reserve size only in areas that are not attractive for human development.
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Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico

Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico

Oaxaca, Mexico, but also they mentioned the complex of A. caesarea as the most economically important. Grajales-Vasquez et al. [46] reported the preference of edible species in the town of Independence in the state of Chiapas, which included species of such genera as: Pleurotus, Polyporus, and Favolus, (commonly found in tropical areas), but they also recorded A. caesarea complex and C. cibarius for the higher temperate zones. In an eth- nomycology study in two communities in the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico, Ruan-Soto et al. [47] men- tioned the use of 10 species of fungi, including nine ligni- colous that, according to the perception of respondents, grow on wood and are edible. In this study, Schizophyllum commune was the most known and consumed by the people interviewed in both communities, and it may be considered by the authors as possibly the most prized ed- ible mushroom in the tropical areas of the world [47]. This fungus commonly grows on the trunks of the oaks in the middle and lower parts of the Sierra Tarahumara [20]. In our study, only one person mentioned it as edible, and in Moreno’s study [25], it was not mentioned as being used by the Raramuris. More than 50 species of potentially edible wild fungi grow in these forests [9,10,21,26,48]. Within the few species that are consumed, A. rubescens was considered the second option during the month of August, and those who used it stated that it should always be well cooked and never eaten raw. Its use was mainly due to the high competition among the population in the search for and collection of A. caesarea complex. In con- trast to these results, in other states in Mexico a lot of wild species are consumed on a regular basis, for example, in the villages around the volcano La Malinche, Tlaxcala, people regularly consume 74 different mushrooms, and 73 are regularly consumed in Michoacan state. Mestizos of Ozumba in the state of Mexico consume 89 species, the Nahuas of Tlaxcala 66, the mestizos of Federal District 60, the mestizos of the state of Mexico 56, the Purepecha of Michoacan 56, the Ixtlan Zapotec of Oaxaca 33, and the Nahua of Puebla 28 [49]. In total, in the country there are more than 350 species of wild edible fungi [50].
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TítuloMapping and modelling of granite cavities: problems in the representation of forms and work scale

TítuloMapping and modelling of granite cavities: problems in the representation of forms and work scale

The geomorphological mapping of granite landscapes present particularities inherent to this type of rock. The granite is a rock consol- idated inside the Earth during its emplace- ment. The pair emplacement/cooling gener- ates discontinuities that affect the intrusion in its outer zone. Some of these discontinuities serve as escape ways of tardimagmatic fluids. However, the discontinuities may be only seen when the rocky massif reaches the Earth’s sur- face either by tectonic movements or after a weathering stage under the ground. Anyway, given the granite impermeability, the sube- daphic or subaerial weathering will preferably progress using the system of discontinuities. Once the rocky massif is weathered, the ero- sion of the regolith gives morphology to the granite landscapes where the endogenous fea- tures prevail, called so by their origin and not related to the external processes. The meteoric agents: water, wind, ice and gravity may mod- ify the morphology of the massif more or less intensively adding new features that will diversify the final geomorphology of the mas- sif. It is that special association of forms of endogenous and exogenous origin (subedaph- ic and subaerial) which forms the granite land- scape. For that reason the aspect of the rocky relief in surface is not due to only one type of processes but to a succession of them devel- oped along millions of years. Geomorphologists do not normally consider the contributions of the intrusive magmatic and tectonic processes to the genesis of forms what causes to confuse endogenous and exogenous forms. Implicitly, it is assumed that both categories of forms were generated at the same time and during only one exogenous process. And this it is not because geomor- phologists ignore the landscape polygenism but by the fact of not differentiating the forms by their genesis.
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TítuloLanguage and culture in Norway

TítuloLanguage and culture in Norway

The dialects As mentioned aboye, people in Norway speak dialects, and there is no standard spoken language taught in Norwegian schools.. There are many dialects in Norway and we can find[r]

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How geolocation is used in the local space and in general internet marketing: • Targeting	Ads	to	user’s	locality - ads could be targeted

How geolocation is used in the local space and in general internet marketing: • Targeting Ads to user’s locality - ads could be targeted

The Skyhook Wireless Wi-Fi Positioning System (WPS) includes a database with the known physical location of more than 19 million WLAN access points across a growing coverage area that reaches over 70% of the U.S., Canadian, and Australian populations, making it the world’s most comprehensive WiFi database. With the market for local search exploding, the applications for WiFi positioning software are endless. Some of these include Internet search, proximity advertising, search and recovery, E911, fleet management, buddy finders, and more. Skyhook’s also set up a locational beta service for users called Loki, along with an interesting free open API for developers. Downside of Skyhook: precision best in Wifi-dense locations such as centers of major cities—otherwise uses Skyhook is using IP location addresses as a fall back.
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El efecto de la educación en el cuidado paliativo por parejas en el manejo del dolor en pacientes con cáncer

El efecto de la educación en el cuidado paliativo por parejas en el manejo del dolor en pacientes con cáncer

The results above showed that there was a statistically significant difference in mean pain management between the two groups after the intervention. For example, in a study by Bennett et al, entitled “How Patient-Based Educational Interventions Affect Cancer Pain Management”, this review study found that education improves patients’ knowledge and attitude about pain management and that it can improve the cancer pain management. The results of this research are similar to those of the mentioned study. The purpose of this study was “to determine the effect of peer education on quality of life of patients after breast resection surgery in women who referred to cancer clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences". They concluded that peer education improves the quality of life of patients after breast resection surgery, which is consistent with the present study.
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La vulnerabilidad estructural y las nuevas perspectivas en medicina social sobre la salud de los migrantes: entrevista a James Quesada y Seth M. Holmes

La vulnerabilidad estructural y las nuevas perspectivas en medicina social sobre la salud de los migrantes: entrevista a James Quesada y Seth M. Holmes

A lot of us have been working on devel- oping trainings, thinking through how it might work to see if they help health professionals interact differently with their patients. In the Structural Competency Working Group here in the Bay Area, we developed a four-hour training for medical students, residents, and physicians. After the first training, the peo- ple who did the training said “this is really important,” “it gives me a language to think about things I’ve been seeing,” “it helps me see them differently than I had before,” and “I keep thinking about it all the time.” But they also said, “I feel overwhelmed because I’m not sure how to respond.” So, then we changed the training and added a significant section of examples through history that we could find of physicians, healthcare provid- ers, and of different communities and different patient populations and neighborhoods do- ing things that we might say are kind of struc- tural interventions that affect health so that they could think of examples and they could see that sometimes the responses are individ- ual – helping an individual find resources for housing or something. But sometimes the in- terventions are collective – a neighborhood gets together, or the critical psychology col- lective in Tarapacá gets together and supports the people from Alto Hospicio after they’re violently expelled or whatever. So oftentimes change happens collectively. And then what we’ve seen in the responses to the new ver- sion of the training is that people find the language and ideas helpful for them in inter- acting with their individual patients. They of- ten feel more empathy or solidarity with their patients; instead of feeling like “I’m working really hard for you and you keep smoking even though I’m telling you not to and I’m really frustrated with you,” the physicians and healthcare providers often start to feel, or they say that they’ve been feeling more like “you’re experiencing structural violence and you’re vulnerable because of these so- cietal structures and I’m being impinged on by societal structures because I only have ten minutes or fifteen minutes to see you and the health insurance system in the United States is a very clear example of a structure that’s
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are several species associated to odonates like F. latipes, F. fidens (Macfie, 1936a), F. aerobates (Macfie, 1936b), F. tokunagai (Naraoka, 1999) and F. debenhamae (Orr and Cranston, 1997), and a review of pictures of odonates from Cambodia revealed a high incidence of one unidentified species of Forcipomyia (Kosterin et al., 2012). Odonates from Yunnan (China) and from the Fiji islands, have been also observed with Forcipomyia in their wings (A. Cordero Rivera, per. obs). One species has been described from odonates from Aldabra Atoll in the Indian Ocean (Wirth and Ratanaworabhan, 1976). Apparently the subgenus Pterobosca is rare in Africa, with only one species described from Liberia in association with odonates (Macfie, 1926).
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There are Two Different Language Systems in the Brain

There are Two Different Language Systems in the Brain

Nonetheless, differences between humans and non- human primates can be related with the temporal lobe volume. Rilling et al. [49] analyzed the volume of the temporal lobe in different primates. Whole brain, T1-weighted MRI scans were collected from 44 living anthropoid primates spanning 11 species. The surface areas of both the entire temporal lobe and the superior temporal gyrus were measured, as was temporal cortical gyrification. Allometric regressions of temporal lobe structures on brain volume consistently showed apes and monkeys to scale along different trajectories, with the monkeys typically lying at a higher elevation than the apes. Within the temporal lobe, overall volume, surface area, and white matter volume were significantly larger in humans than predicted by the ape regression lines. The largest departure from allometry in humans was for the temporal lobe white matter volume which, in addition to being significantly larger than predicted for brain size, was also significantly larger than predicted for temporal lobe volume. Among the nonhuman primate sample, Cebus have small temporal lobes for their brain size, and Macaca and Papio have large superior temporal gyri for their brain size. The observed departures from allometry might reflect neurobiological adaptations supporting spe- cies-specific communication in both humans and Old World monkeys. The authors concluded that entire hu- man temporal lobe and some of its component structures are significantly larger than predicted for a primate brain of human size. The most dramatic allometric departure is in the volume of the human temporal lobe white matter, which, in addition to being large relative to brain size, is also large relative to temporal lobe size. These allometric departures in humans could reflect a reorganization of the temporal lobes driven by expansion of language cor- tex and its associated connections. It is interesting to note that in primates the superior temporal gyrus contains neurons tuned to species-specific calls, the magnitude of different species’ relate to the repertoire of vocal com- municative signals as reflections of the complexity of their respective social environments.
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The role of periphyton in the regulation and supply of nutrients in a wetland at El Edén, Quintana Roo

The role of periphyton in the regulation and supply of nutrients in a wetland at El Edén, Quintana Roo

(Novelo 1998) or the Huasteca Potosina (Montejano, Carmona-Jiménez, and Cantoral-Uriza 2000). Importance of El Edén’s algal flora is based, too, in the predominance of Cyanoprokaryota and the great number of rare or not well- known species. This richness is very important because of the abundance and cover of periphyton in the savanna. Species from other groups are present in the periphyton, but in much less abundance than the cyanophycean algae; still, their presence indicates microconditions whose effects should be evaluated. In the flooded period, water in the savanna is continuous with the ponds and cenotes and could suggest some kind of homogenized flora; the data in Tables 11.2 and 11.3, however, point to a more restricted distribution of species than might be suspected.
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Bulletin boards for enhancing the writing skills among students of 10 th grade at unidad educativa Manglaralto, Santa Elena, province of Santa Elena, school year 2015-2016.

Bulletin boards for enhancing the writing skills among students of 10 th grade at unidad educativa Manglaralto, Santa Elena, province of Santa Elena, school year 2015-2016.

This research paper is focused on the implementation of bulletin boards in order to enhance the writing skills in 10th grade students at Unidad Educativa Manglaralto. Bulletin boards are used as a visual education tool in the classroom in order to improve the students’ writing interests and creativity by managed in group. This research was implemented in three weeks. Each week contained specific activities that encourage students to practice more writing. The main subjects of this research were the students of 10th grade, the researcher herself, the principal and the teacher as the collaborator. The data was acquired through classroom observations, interviews, and documentations; it was analyzed to obtain the results of the research, the use of school bulletin board in this study is believed to be effective improving the students’ writing practice. The students’ writing problems are lack writing practice; lack of motivation, the aspect of content, vocabulary, language use, and the organization can be reduced by implementing exercises series and bulletin board in the teaching and learning process of writing. Implementing bulletin board was also effective to improve the students’ motivation in the writing process. From the data obtained, it can be said that the students were more enthusiastic to attend the lesson. They had motivation to write. They were also able to create positive relationship when they worked in groups
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Language education policy and teachers in Puerto Rico: implications for identity, sovereignty, and community in a context of displacements

Language education policy and teachers in Puerto Rico: implications for identity, sovereignty, and community in a context of displacements

The indigenous conceptual framework includes non-western ways of knowing and being, considers life as a whole rather than many parts, and does not reduce education to school and official knowledge. These principles and processes are epistemological—how to know and learn, to transmit knowledge, ie ‘education’ (songs, stories, petroglyphs, books, memory). The focus is on the relation between parts and the whole in terms of unity or non-separation of parts (for example, language, culture, education, earth, air; subsistence). It is also adaptive and dynamic rather than rule-governed—thus processes and dialogues. Finally, it is place-based: communities where people have roles. Multiple realities between living things, relations and processes co-exist. All of these have importance for identity, belonging, and survival of communities. Studies that have used Indigenous methodology come from many disciplines, and challenge deficit thinking and pathological descriptions of the formerly colonized, to reconstruct a body of knowledge that carries hope and promotes transformation and social change among the historically oppressed (Chilisa, 2012; Smith, 1999). The research process itself is social- justice oriented because it seeks to decolonize methodologies and epistemologies that have affected Indigenous people and knowledge about them. It addresses a gap in research methodology because dominant research traditions are founded in Euro-western thought and academic institutions; excluding the knowledge system of the researched, colonized Other.
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Business Plan to reconfigure Mediseen INC early strategy

Business Plan to reconfigure Mediseen INC early strategy

Due to shortage, family doctor’s practices are easy to fill in Ontario and the doctors get penalized by OHIP if their patients switch doctors. Some doctors have policies that patients would get de-rostered if they visit another doctor too many times. FHP (family health practice) - paid per patient (based on the age of a patient, condition, gender, etc.) - is a more lucrative and most doctors are signed up on it. There are some family doctors who charge fee-for-service - "one problem per visit". Most family doctors offer evening and same day emergency service. Our research shows that doctors prefer to open up their own clinic but if they are not getting enough patients they join a walk-in clinic to build a patient list. In GTA, MediSeen’s platform may work for patients due to unavailability of family doctors but it will be very difficult to convince family doctors to list themselves on the platform. Registered Nurses
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Determinants of the development of corporate bond markets in Argentina: One size does not fit all

Determinants of the development of corporate bond markets in Argentina: One size does not fit all

The fixed issue costs of public debt issues are generally much higher than the fixed costs of a bank loan or private placement. One widely cited study of some 250 debt offerings in the US over the period 1979-1983 estimates that the average issue cost per $1000 was $11.65 for public debt, but only $7.95 for private debt (Blackwell and Kidwell 1988). On the other hand the interest rate was lower for public debt than for private debt. Thus, larger firms issuing larger amounts of debt are more likely to issue public debt than smaller firms because they more than compensate the higher fixed costs with the lower costs of lower interest rates given the size of their issues. The average size of firms issuing public debt in the study cited above was 3.4 billion dollars of total assets, as compared to 2.3 billion dollars of total assets for issuers of private debt. Moreover, the size of the average public issue was roughly twice the average private issue (80 million dollars as compared to just under 40 million dollars).
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There are no translations available. Discurso del Dalai Lama. En el premio del Nobel de la Paz

There are no translations available. Discurso del Dalai Lama. En el premio del Nobel de la Paz

Cuando sentimos amor y bondad hacia los demás, esto no sólo hace que los demás se sientan amados y protegidos, sino que nos ayuda también a nosotros a desarrollar paz y felicidad interio[r]

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Urban epidemiology of labor informality in Bogotá: A neighborhood interactions approach

Urban epidemiology of labor informality in Bogotá: A neighborhood interactions approach

These explanations have in common a negative view of informality (Portes & Haller, 2004); it is seen only as a forced alternative to the narrowness of the modern segment of the labor market – and therefore as something involuntary (Atuesta, 2010). Other approaches suggest that informality might be a choice for small business owners who find it as a profitable strategy. Perhaps the first to explore this path was Hirschman (1970), who argues that, given the state s impossibility to provide appropriate enforcement, small firms are more likely to evade labor regulations. De Soto (1989) asserts that state norms generate privileges and immobilize the economy, and labor informality is just a response to this, the return of the real economy, when the individual expects bigger benefits than costs from avoiding state s regulations. Further studies (Feige, 1990; Portes, Castells, & Benton, 1989; Pratap & Quintin, 2006; Quintin, 2008) have contributed to understand informality as a matter of institutions. Maloney (2004), comparing several Latin-American countries, has suggested presence of large informal sectors in countries with more flexible labor markets. This suggests that informality could be a matter of unregulated micro-entrepreneurship activities.
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