Top PDF Why Have so Many Disinflations Succeeded?

Why Have so Many Disinflations Succeeded?

Why Have so Many Disinflations Succeeded?

The task of understanding the determinants of sustainable disinflations has only begun. As stated in the paper, the determinants used in our analysis explain a small part of the improvement in the sustainability record of LAC countries during the 90s. We suggest that one of the missing links might be that related to the independence of Central Banks —a typical component of the structural reforms introduced by many LAC countries in the past decade. Should indices of CBI (long time series) become available, research could be aimed at testing their impact on the sustainability of disinflations. Another missing link is the role of (increasing?) competition. Of course, exploring this would require the use of microeconomic data, a task beyond the goals of our paper and one harder to implement in a cross-country setting. Nevertheless, it is certainly a factor worth exploring in the future.
Show more

35 Read more

Why Resurrection?

Why Resurrection?

In those days, the angel Uriel responded and said to me: “Behold, I have shown you everything, Enoch, and I have revealed every- thing to you (so that) you might see this sun, this moon, and those that guide the stars of heaven as well as all those who interchange their activities and their seasons and rotate their processions. In respect to their days, the sinners and the winter are cut short. Their seed(s) shall lag behind, in their lands and in their fertile fields, and in all their activities upon the earth. He will turn and appear in their time, and withhold rain: and the sky shall stand still at that time. Then the vegetable shall slacken and not grow in its season, and the fruit shall not be born in its (proper) season. The moon shall alter its order, and will not be seen according to its (normal) cycles. In those days it will appear in the sky and it shall arrive in the evening in the extreme ends of the great lunar path, in the west. And it shall shine (more brightly), exceeding the normal degree of light. Many of the chiefs of the stars shall make errors in respect to the orders given to them: they shall change their courses and functions and not appear during the seasons which have been prescribed for them. All the orders of the stars shall harden (in disposition) against the sinners and the conscience of those that dwell upon the earth. They (the stars) shall err against them (the sinners); and modify all their courses. Then they (the sinners) shall err and take them (the stars) to be gods. And evil things shall be multiplied upon them: and plagues shall come upon them, so as to destroy all.” (1 Enoch 80:1–8)
Show more

238 Read more

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INWARD AND OUTWARD FDI IN TURKEY, A

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INWARD AND OUTWARD FDI IN TURKEY, A

This article presents a comparative analysis of the inward and outward foreign direct investment in Turkey. It is hypothesized that the country’s negative business climate caused by both economic and political factors is a major determinant of both. This article investigates why, compared to many developing countries that have attracted and benefited from significant inflows of foreign direct investment, Turkey is conspicuous as a country that has not done so, despite its increasing openness to international trade. After showing that Turkey’s outward investment has surged recently, it relates the causes of such surge, especially compared to the meagre inward investment flows. It concludes that recent institutional reforms and increasing economic and political stability can make Turkey an important host country for foreign direct investment in the future.
Show more

28 Read more

Why are there so many orchid species?

Why are there so many orchid species?

Telipogon belongs to the Subtribe Telipogoninae with 3 other genera. Stellilabium has about 25 species, some of which have flowers so insect-like that the natives call them "La Mosca" ('the fly' in Spanish). The species tend to be distributed at slightly lower elevations than Telipogon and are known from Mexico to Bolivia. The genus only differs from Telipogon by smaller flowers. Trichoceros is a genus of 4 or 5 species distributed from central Ecuador to Bolivia. All of its species have obvious pseudobulbs with elongate rhizomes between the pseudobulbs so that the plants are subviney. The flowers are very insect-like. Hofmeisterella is a monotypic genus occurring in the Andes from Venezuela to Bolivia. Its flowers are bald and only in recent years has been recognized that the genus belongs to the Telipogoninae. All species of the Subtribe have a vis- cidium that is hook-shaped to catch on the legs of the pollinator.
Show more

5 Read more

On the Use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by Means of Large-Scale Assessments

On the Use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by Means of Large-Scale Assessments

Changes in the relationship between individuals’, state and society have paved the way for the so-called audit society and the increasing amount of in- spections and evaluations in and of education. The objectives, content and design of education are determined by the evaluation of student achievement and in this especially different «achievement gaps» (Lindblad et al. 2015) are emphasized. With the impact of comparative knowledge assessments it is reasonable to raise the question if Bernstein’s (1975) view on the relationship between curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation expressed in his work should be reformulated. It ap- pears in the contemporary like the strength of the structure of the signaling sys- tem of evaluation will determine the strength of classification and framing rather than vice versa. Even though we have an empirical example in this paper on how educational numbers frame discussions on education, more examples are needed and further studies are in need to address the question. However, it is clear that the selection and arrangement of the content of education today are increasingly discussed and politicized on the basis of the results in knowledge assessments and that it also manifested itself into the practices of national education assessments. Elsewhere (Forsberg & Pettersson, 2014), the shift in terms of knowledge, against internationally anchored competency-based knowledge discourses resi- dent in the EU, the OECD and the UNESCO, in other words, the same spaces that contains the ideology of meritocracy and comparisons, have been demon- strated. If education is narrowed down to what is measured in assessments there will also be a narrowing down of the goals in education. We can see how the what (topics and content) that are tested and how they are tested (assessments) and how the results are disseminated and used restricts what is seen as desirable skills, norms and values of education. Through these practices practitioners are also formed concerning identities and ways of looking at oneself, others and the world around us.
Show more

26 Read more

Hydrotalcite-like compounds for the valorisation of renewable feedstocks

Hydrotalcite-like compounds for the valorisation of renewable feedstocks

The different LDH phases were characterised by X-ray diffraction. Figure 4.2.1 A shows the normalised XRD patterns of the prepared LDHs and some differences have been observed among the as-synthesised sample and the reconstructed ones. Note that XRD patterns for all the samples show sharp and intense (00l) reflections; however, the basal reflections in the parent material (HT1as) are broader than those presented by the hydrothermally treated samples. Moreover, the reflections found at intermediate angles become sharper when ultrasound is applied. The sharpness and symmetry of the (0kl) reflections of the hydrothermally treated LDHs evidence their better crystallinity and probably these samples present a very low stacking fault density. On the other hand, new peaks in the mid-2θ region (2θ ≈ 32º and 2θ ≈ 37º) were found corresponding to ZnO phase (Zincite ICDD: 89-0510). The hydrothermally treated samples presented (00l) peaks slightly shifted to higher 2θ angles compared to the as-synthesised sample (HT1as) probably due to a higher amount of crystallisation water molecules located into the interlayer of the later. The resulted diffraction patterns were refined by applying the Rietveld method (Figure 4.2.1 B) to get accurate information about structure of the samples. The corresponding structural data obtained by this method is reported in Table 4.2.1. The space group generally observed for this kind of compounds is R3m, so the cell parameter c is equal to 3d 003 . This cell parameter depends on the nature and charge of the
Show more

203 Read more

Experiencias colaborativas apoyadas en e-learning para el espacio europeo de educación superior: Un estudio de seis casos en la Universidad de Valladolid (España)

Experiencias colaborativas apoyadas en e-learning para el espacio europeo de educación superior: Un estudio de seis casos en la Universidad de Valladolid (España)

Summary: The deep process of change needed to achieve the goal of generating a  European   Higher   Education   Area   (ESHE)   is   currently   based   on   the   curricular  innovations  developed by university  teachers  in their  own courses.  At  this  time  many Spanish universities are dealing with the promotion of pilot experiences with  the aim of facilitating the convergence process. Many of these experiences have  reported problems concerning the integration of ICT to promote student­centered  learning.   To   deepen   in   this   situation   we   have   been   evaluating   six   different  innovations that use technology to support teaching and learning processes during a  year and a half at the University of Valladolid (Spain). The main goal of the project  was to better understand different ways of different ways of using ICT´S to improve  higher education courses. All the evaluated experiences have been funded by the  Spanish government as well as by the Castilla y León regional government. In this  paper   we   present   a   synthesis   of   the   evaluation   performed   by   the   GSIC­EMIC  transdisciplinary research team at the University of Valladolid.
Show more

18 Read more

←
				
											Return to Article Details
									
				Implicit deservingness: Implicit association test for belief in a just world

← Return to Article Details Implicit deservingness: Implicit association test for belief in a just world

The IAT is criticized for its validity. The association task would be influenced by factors such as word use frequency (or standardization of the images), rhymes, cultural familiarity with the evaluated categories, which makes it have a significant source of error variance. Furthermore, it is questioned if the IAT would be a measure of indiviual attitude or if, in fact, its result would represent an answer in accordance to a cultural pattern of socialization (see Fiedler, Messner, & Bluemke, 2006, for a review of some criticism of the IAT). Despite the criticism, the IAT is the indirect measure with the best psychometric properties. In comparison with seven other implicit measures, IAT demonstrated better psychometric properties when conjunctly evaluating internal consistency, sensitivity in detecting known differences among groups, relationship to other implicit measures and to explicit ones (Bar-Anan & Nosek, 2012).
Show more

10 Read more

Estereoquimica SO

Estereoquimica SO

Si la flecha va en el sentido de las agujas del reloj, el átomo de carbono asimétrico se conoce como ( R ) (del latín, rectus , «a la derecha»); si la flecha va en sentido contrario al d[r]

64 Read more

Disinflations in Latin America and the Caribbean: a free lunch?

Disinflations in Latin America and the Caribbean: a free lunch?

Nevertheless, the disinflation costs of the 90s are on average negative. The puzzling result contradicts the evidence for developed countries and stands in sharp contrast with the SRs for the LAC countries for the 70s and 80s. We show in this paper that there are three elements that are able to quantitatively explain most of this puzzle. First, the structural reforms of the 90s increased trend output. Since the techniques used to calculate SRs are likely to miss such a shift in trend growth, they mismeasure the SRs. Correcting for that underestimation leads to SRs that are positive, though still very small. Second, the exchange rate appreciation —fueled by the capital inflows that the region experienced during the early 90s—, facilitated less costly disinflations. Finally, the recent inflation history (lagged inflation was much higher during the 90s than during the earlier decades) eroded the nominal rigidities, thus enabling inflation reductions with a lower output trade-off. Had these elements remained at levels comparable to those held during the 70s and 80s, the disinflation costs would have been similar across all three decades.
Show more

27 Read more

Distinguishing schemes and tasks in children's development of multiplicative reasoning

Distinguishing schemes and tasks in children's development of multiplicative reasoning

A mathematical task pertains to a pedagogical tool used to promote student learning, that is, advancing from current to intended schemes (Watson & Sullivan, 2008). Typically, a task consists of depictions of relationships among quantities, some given and some unknown, including a question for figuring out the latter (Watson & Mason, 2007). In recent years, tasks have become a primary tool through which to foster mathematics learning, as opposed to a way of apply- ing taught concepts after learning takes place (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000; Watson & Mason, 1998). In our constructivist framework, to solve a task, a child has to (a) assimilate it into the situation part of an existing scheme, (b) identify the quantities (mental objects) involved, (c) set a goal com- patible with the question, (d) initiate mental activities on those quantities that (in the child’s mind) correspond to the depicted relationships, and (e) constantly compare the actual effects of the activity to the goal to determine conclusion of the activity.
Show more

17 Read more

HOW TO GET A RETURN ON YOUR INVESTMENT IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

HOW TO GET A RETURN ON YOUR INVESTMENT IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRAINING

Many project management training programs just focus on best practices and toolkits delivered in a context free environment. While knowledge of specific practices is useful, risk management for example, it is of relatively little direct value until it is complemented with details of the company standard expected and details of the risks and mitigations that were encountered in a recent project under similar contract conditions. No-one in their right mind would put an experienced EPCM Project Manager into an EPC Project Manager role and expect a high probability of success. While the person may have excellent knowledge of the PMBoK Principles they would have little situational or contextual judgement to be successful.
Show more

11 Read more

Modelos de diseño del SO Cómo se implementa un SO

Modelos de diseño del SO Cómo se implementa un SO

implementan fuera del núcleo, como procesos externos a nivel de usuario. Primer micronúcleo: Mach (1980).[r]

42 Read more

Business model challenge: Learnings from a local solar company in Germany

Business model challenge: Learnings from a local solar company in Germany

The drivers, barriers and challenges of the diffusion of PV in Germany have been extensively discussed in the literature. Early studies have focused on the institutional and political challenges behind the diffusion that had occurred before 2004, the year the German National Renewable Energy Act (EEG) was amended. Jacobsson and Johnson (2000) developed an analytical framework on diffusion of renewable energy technologies, based on illustrative examples from Sweden and Germany. From a technological system perspective, they pointed out the importance of actors, networks and institutions on the successful transition to renewable energy technologies. In a later study, Jacobsson and Bergek (2004) also explained the success and failures in such transitions, analyzing the diffusion of renewable energy sources in Netherlands, Sweden and Germany. They identified the three major challenges that policy makers faced: difficulties in foreseeing the outcome of policy intervention; the long time scale of the diffusion process; and the political struggle to overcome the opposition from incumbent actors. Another study, focusing only on the German case (Jacobsson and Lauber, 2006), described the formation of political support for renewable energies as a “battle over institutions”. The regulatory frameworks supporting wind energy and PV in Germany faced the opposition from both coal and nuclear interests.
Show more

17 Read more

Women’s political equality: theoretical approaches to affirmative action

Women’s political equality: theoretical approaches to affirmative action

some penalties for those parties that do not meet the percent- age of female candidates established by the law. Reserved seats for women can be open to competition with women candidates only; their advantage is that they guarantee a minimum number of women in office through spaces especially created or reserved for them. However they are weak in the sense that, since they do not imply election through public vote, they do not encourage women’s electoral competition. Thus, they do not give women equal status as their counterparts elected via public vote and they do not necessarily guarantee their independent decision- making power, for they have been appointed by other authority. This sidelines women’s political leadership. Finally, voluntary party quotas are implemented, controlled, and monitored by each political party. Parties decide the percentage of women they are willing to support, the type of election in which they are ap- plying the quota (national government, parliamentary elections, local government, or internal elections), and they also decide to apply or not potential sanctions when the quota is not satisfied via internal party regulations. Therefore, though voluntary par- ty quotas are a good practice and show some will for women’s political equality, they remain under parties’ will, interests, and benevolence. On the contrary, legal policies of statutory quotas are implemented by law and are aimed to rule all parties. Never- theless, the effectiveness of statutory gender quotas will depend on their design, on factors such as how they are put into practice, the level of gender quota specified by the law, if they regulate all types of elections at all levels, whether the law also regulates the rank order of female candidates, the district magnitude, if the party lists are open or closed, and whether the law establishes or not penalties –and what kind of sanctions– for parties that do not comply with the quota and its requirements (Ibid.: 11-15).
Show more

28 Read more

Risks and Rewards for Building Sustainable Hotels.

Risks and Rewards for Building Sustainable Hotels.

Even with some projects threatened by the economic recession and failure to stay on track for LEED certification, it is expected that there will still be many new LEED- certified hotels in the United States over the next few years. These numbers don’t include, of course, the many hotels that have sustainable features (like solar panels, organic food offerings, sustainable personal care products, etc.) but that are not formally certified.

12 Read more

Bag of features for imagined speech classification in electroencephalograms

Bag of features for imagined speech classification in electroencephalograms

The imagined speech data set was built by [Torres-Garc´ıa et al., 2013]. The EEG of twenty seven native Spanish speaker subjects were registered through the EPOC kit of Emotiv, which has fourteen recording channels (i.e. AF3, AF4, F3, F4, F7, F8, FC5, FC6, P7, P8, T7, T8, O1, O2) and a 128 Hz sample rate. The data consists of five imagined speech Spanish words (”Arriba”, ”Abajo”, ”Izquierda”, ”Derecha”, ”Seleccionar”) repeated thirty three times each one, with a rest period between repetitions. The acquisition protocol consisted in place a subject in a comfortable sit position in front of a monitor, which indicated the word to be imagined. The user must use a mouse to indicate the start and end of its imagined speech. This recordings were taken in a controlled environment without sonic nor visual noise. However, the acquisition protocol have two drawbacks, the users indication of the imagined speech start and end may introduce noise to the recorded signal. Moreover, the words were present to the user in sequence, to reduce bias a random selection of the words would be preferable.
Show more

100 Read more

Teaching and Assessing Writing Skills

Teaching and Assessing Writing Skills

ii Writing as a goal of foreign language learning: students will have to communicate with other people in writing, that is why we could include some writing tasks which have whole pieces[r]

23 Read more

Aproximaciones a la responsabilidad moral de los acreedores.

Aproximaciones a la responsabilidad moral de los acreedores.

In the first moment of the debt problem we had a financial panic. In this cases we usually have some sort of collective action with no clear collective agent. “A collective action demands a certain set of agents, each one of whom carries out a specific individual action that, coordinated with each of the actions of the rest, produces a different state of things than would result from only each one of those individual actions” (Laporta 1986, 60). But we have a non-organized coordination of actions that appears to hinder the assigning of responsibility, inasmuch as the action of each individual lender by itself is not what generates the abrupt economic deterioration of the economic situation in Latin America. We can say that, there is no apparent organized collective subject. Thus we resort to terms such as “systemic”, “mechanism” or “market” 4 If there is no collective subject, whom can we complain to? Even so, we do not have a simple sum of individual responsibilities. To begin with, as the jurist Laporta has written, within the typical framework of the analysis of strategies and games, “each one's responsibility can vary in function of the behavior expected of the rest, to the point that it can increase or decrease in function of the behavior of the rest of the members of the whole” (1986, 61-2). This approximation is useful to the description and analysis of the debt problem because, in effect, in cases of financial panic, we have a series of individual behaviors by firms that result from the behavior expected of the rest and are reinforced each day when these expectations are confirmed. But description is not enough. If the moral case is to be practically useful something has to be done about this type of non-organized collective causal responsibility. ”The market did it” type of reasoning is comfortable to creditors and radical ideologues but not useful for a serious campaigner.
Show more

11 Read more

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Referring to this theme, Leahy (2006) argued that large classes can have undesirable effects on students´ success, due to, there are difficulties in managing learning, poor attention to each student, problems with monitoring and giving feedback, issues in attending all students, and difficulty in moving around the classroom, c onsequently there will be a decrease in students‟ attainment. On the other hand, Costello (1992) claimed that smaller class sizes lead to effective teaching and enhance learning…the curriculum took greater depth and

76 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...