In so far as the Thematic Study is embedded in the context of the Open Method of Coordination of the EU Social Inclusion Process concluding remarks need to be made with respect to the possibilities of mutual learning that arise from comparative policy assessment. On the one hand, it is obvious that mechanisms of path dependency set clear limits to the potential to learn from good practice from a different national context. On the other hand, mutual learning creates a space in which national policies both are influenced by alternative concepts and approaches and also come under the pressure of legitimacy in cases where performance is poor. Such spaces may be further developed in terms of assisting single countries in the search for functional equivalents for good practice that is being successful in other contexts. In order to increase institutional reflexivity however, this implies that mutual learning is not organised top-down only, but also involves national as well as local, public, private and NGO actors. The presented study has clearly shown that a key factor for the success of policies is defining policy objectives by starting from the individual’s life perspective and needs – instead of from an institutional perspective and narrow institutional considerations – with sustainable social integration as the key objective. Acknowledging the structural barriers in front of youth integration, the programmes and measures in support of disadvantaged youth should build upon the biographical perspective of the young person, their subjective orientations, values and skills and allow them to act as key actors in their own transitions, their own social integration. Individual motivation to participate or drop out of counselling, education, training or employment determines the sustainability of policy initiatives. The focus on the individual does not mean to put the blame for failures upon the young person but employing the resources of the individual in the changeable and de-standardised process of growing up and achieving autonomy. When setting the objectives and assessing the implementation of measures, it is important that the possible ‘side effects’ (14) are taken
The proposals contained in the White Paper represent a major reform of the 14-19 curriculum and assessment and is to be phased in over a 10 year period. Many of the proposals contained within the White Paper focus on those youngpeople who face barriers to learning; such as those who drop out because existing qualifications and learning styles do not suit them, those with personal problems outside of school and those with specific learning difficulties. It has proposals to ensure a greater focus on Englishand Mathematics to ensure all youngpeople are equipped with the expected standards in these basic skills by the age of 14. Some of the proposals however have been criticised for failing to follow the original working groups recommendations to break down the vocational and academic divide by replacing existing qualifications with a single unified Diploma available over four levels (Tomlinson, 2004). Instead the proposals propose to retain the academic examinations (GCSE’s and A Levels), but aim to provide alternative specialised diplomas in 14 vocational areas covering each occupational sector of the economy, available at three different levels and developed in conjunction with employers. The flexibility over the duration of study, which currently tends to be restricted to age cohorts will be increased to reflect the different pace of learning styles.
The dialogue with youngpeopleand understanding of the situation in which ethnic minority youth is confronted seems to get less and less priority. In stead more and more demands are put on also ethnic minority youth for entering and finishing a qualifying education and assimilate to a Danish reality (Labour Market demands as well as social behaviour). Employers are more reluctant to employ ethnic minority youth both in general as well as regarding apprenticeship placements. In Public Schools in Copenhagen some portions of ethnic minority youth are transferred to other schools to lower the percentage of pupils with other ethnic origin than Danish - which heavily contradicts the principle of a free choice of public school. Limits are put on housing companies regarding the percentage of "foreign people" living in certain buildings etc. The threat of punishing ethnic minority people (andin some respects even their families) for acts of criminal behaviour by sending them back to where they (or their families) originate from are parts of the ongoing public debate from politicians.
The target group of the programme are youngpeople with secondary and university education registered as unemployed in the labour offices. An important aspect is the voluntary principle of involvement which means that the young are not forced by fear of losing their benefits or rights of registration if they are not willing to enter the course. That is why the interest and aspiration of the young to get involved in the programme is a clear indicator that the programme meets client needs. They enrol in training courses and then for the top ten per cent the labour offices provide placement as ‘trainees’ with employers in the real economy. The training of the unemployed youngpeople is conducted according to a curriculum based on the modern accomplishments in the field of information and communication technologies in cooperation with Microsoft and the Bulgarian-German centres for vocational training based in Bulgaria. The employers are stimulated to provide training places by receiving the following sums for the time of the apprenticeship but not longer than 6 months: full pay for the apprentice, the social security benefits, and the benefits for the yearly holidays. The youngpeople receive a training wage as well as sums for travel if the training is done outside of their own town or village. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy has planned
overlooked factor in this exercise is the definition of success. What means successful policies for disadvantaged youngpeople? Do we measure success only in terms of labour market outcomes? Is it the most cost- efficient measures? Or do we need to define success in a broader way? This contribution draws on the results of a Thematic Study, the DG Employment and Social Affairs commissioned in 2004 (5). This study aimed at enhancing the understanding ofdisadvantageinyoung people’s transitions from school to work and the policy approaches developed, applied and evaluated within the enlarged EU context. It provided a comparative analysis of risks in youth transitions and policy interventions for social inclusion in 13 countries. From the countries involved Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain and the UK display noticeable problems with the inclusion of either unemployed youth or early school leavers while Austria, Denmark and Slovenia are referred to as contrast countries with a better performance. The study made use of three main sources: national reports devised along a standardised questionnaire by national experts following policy seminars and consultations with representatives from the academic community, policy makers and stake holders in each country, Eurostat data mainly from the Labour Force Survey in 2004, and descriptions of policies presenting good practices accord-ing to a common structure. A wealth of comparative and contextualised information was gathered about the multiple forms of barriers blocking the social integration ofyoungpeople. Over thirty models of policy interventions were evaluated as good practice and analysed in more detail by the national experts from the thirteen countries participating in the study. The Thematic Study first identified and clustered key problem constellationsin the countries involved; second, assessed current policies and their (mis-)match with problems in each of the countries; third, analysed factors of success or failure of policies for disadvantaged youth; finally, developed recommendations of how the processes of decision making and policy implementation may profit from ‘good practice’ while considering context-bound specificities. This paper focuses on three issues: the constellationsofdisadvantagein youth transitions from education to employment, an overview of policies applied in the countries involved and the conclusions to be drawn from a cross- national analysis.
The progressive decrease of economic resources allocated to education, the scarce development of rules and the increase of economic agreements with private education institutions has as a consequence that public education does not get the necessary resources (although these had already been reduced) to meet the various demands of pupils by means of different ways foreseen in the norms. For instance, reduce the number of pupils in every classroom, increase the Programmes of Social Security and groups of curriculum diversification, as well as a higher number of teachers who are to assist those students with specific needs, incorporate new professionals to the centres as e.g. social workers, introduce new ways to help disadvantaged students... The weak support of the education administration to pupils and disadvantaged youngpeople left the way Figure 2:
There is a risk of permanent social exclusion ofyoungpeople who dropped out the educational system and who are confronted with difficulties entering the labour market particularly in systems with a lower level of problems. Comparing the constellationsofdisadvantage across Europe (Walther/Pohl 2005) a distinction can be made whether youngpeople are disadvantaged, because they are unemployed or they are unemployed, because they are disadvantaged as a result of e.g. early school leaving. The combination named last fits for Austria. In many European countries unemployment is common status in the transition from school to work, therefore fluctuation from unemployment to the labour market is a common process after a while. But if a big majority of the cohort – like in Austria – has no problems concerning the transition from school to work, there is a tendency of negative selection of disadvantaged youth. Consequently these youngpeople have to overbear great
Ge er rm má án n G Giill R Ro od dr rííg gu ue ez z ( (E ES S) ), in his contribution “Constellationsofdisadvantage are becoming visible in Spain”, describes two of the phenomena that are affecting, with more intensity, the life ofyoungpeoplein Spain: early school leaving and temporary and precarious employment. They consider leaving educational institutions as a result of the evolution of society, of the changes that have been taking place in the education system, of the lack of investment in the education system, as well as the low valuation of qualifications and certificates by employers. In spite of the measures applied by educational authorities to answer to the needs stated by youngpeople, these measures have not managed to lower the rates with respect to the EU average. Early school leaving puts youngpeoplein a situation ofdisadvantage for their insertion into the labour market. Insistence on the real causes ofdisadvantage demands the development of integral policies addressed to families, school and the social environment and, above all, to subjects that suffer this disadvantage.
Ideas and views that are not voiced through these formal structures are hardly heard and considered. The lack of acceptance and use of political parties and their youth sections leaves politicians at a loss over the question how to empower the young politically in a sustainable way. Alternative forms of political participation such as demonstrations, boycotts or youth cultural expressions may have some influence on political decision-making or social change, but they do not provide comparable political rights to influence and shape policy making as party membership does, since they are based on the special position of political parties within the constitutions and the structure of political authorities. Via their party membership citizens have an influence on the selection of the political elite on all levels and the content of party programmes (Wiesendahl, 2006). However, it is precisely the party structures and processes within and between parties that discourage youngpeople from getting involved. Most of the interviewees, including politically active youngpeople, formulate a range of arguments against joining a political party. The main reason for not joining is that the youngpeople have not made up their mind as to which is their favourite party or they refuse to make a definite decision. Often, they do not vote for the same party at every election, so that joining one makes even less sense: “Well, parties, … and issues, I mean every party has more or less issues which are appealing somehow. Why should I be fixed on one?” Youngpeople like to remain flexible and autonomous to be able to give and withdraw support whenever they feel it necessary. Even if they feel close to one party they keep a critical distance. Political issues are not black and white, but there are always several perspectives on any one problem. This ambivalent attitude toward parties and ideologies, or ‘objectivity’, is based on the acknowledgement that there is not one infallible truth. Clear cut categories for enemies and “either-or” thinking are no longer credible (Paakkunainen, 2004).
In order to try to explain these different patterns of participation among young Europeans as whole, we carried out a logistic regression where the dependent variable is participation, with the following values: abstention (value 0) and participation (value 1). As independent variables we include attitudinal characteristics and some socio-demographic variables, specifically labour situation (with three values: occupied, unemployed, student), age (codified in three interval: 18-21, 22-25 and 16-29) and a dummy variable that reflects if youngpeople are able to place themselves ideologically or not, independently of the fact if they tend to the right or the left (6). Including these socio-demographic variables allows us to control and widen the analysis of other individual characteristics of the youngpeople. Age has been re-codified in three intervals in order to check differences as age increases. In the case of the labour situation, we try to identify up to which point youngpeople with different labour situations can show more or less participation or abstention in second-rate elections.
have increased in the last five years with more people speaking out about their own personal challenges. These include voices of celebrities, sports figures, and the average person you see walking on the street. When we hear of yet an- other story of suicide, it creates opportunities to talk about what we are feeling and that it’s also okay to ask for help. We know that education and awareness is necessary to bring together the conversations needed to break the cycle of harm to self and others. We must change the discussions and raise the commitment for action. We cannot be afraid to speak out about these issues with words and actions of more honesty and openness. It is important that peo- ple know that there is always someone out there who wants to help. The stigma of asking for help is often seen as a sign of weakness, when in fact, it is a sign of strength. It’s not easy to ask for help. We must change the discussions and raise the commitment for action. We cannot be afraid to speak out about these issues with words and actions of more honesty and open- ness. Channelling Amanda’s Legacy, I hope that one day our world will be filled with kindness, respect, empathy and compassion.”
Introduction:. Physical activity carried out on a regular basis and its practice and inclusion in daily life, as a habit and a healthy lifestyle, is considered a factor in the protection of various pathologies, as well as of unhealthy behaviors or habits. Similarly, adherence to the Mediterranean diet is presented as another pillar related to the quality of life of individuals Aim: To describe the socio-demographic variables and quality of life in terms of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and physical activity in Melillense population Methods: Research work with quantitative design, descriptive and cross-cutting character of a sample of residents in the autonomous city of Melilla. Information was collected about adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED), in addition to including other socio-demographic variables and related to the practice and frequency of physical activity. Results & discussion: More than a quarter of the population stated that they did not perform any kind of weekly physical activity. Likewise, three-quarters of the participants present the need to improve their food pattern.Conclusions: The findings obtained in our research are of interest in the field of study on adherence to the Mediterranean diet and practice of physical activity. As future lines of research it is proposed the implantation of programs of intervention andof education for the health from early ages, about the diet and the physical exercise like healthy lifestyles, follow-up and evaluation of the same ones.
As happens also in other countries the organizational forms of the youth councils may be different. In Italy the councils have developed according to two different concepts of youth participation that corresponds with the two reference models mentioned, one by the “Associazione “Democraczia in Erba” (C. Pagliarini, 1996; V. Baruzzi and A.Baldoni, 2003), the other in a context of reflections initiated in Italy by the urban-designer Francesco Tonucci (1996) and later developed independently by the “Centro psicopedagogico per la Pace” of Piacenza (Coslo Marangon, 2000). The first model is characterized by the importance that the representative political institutions are given in the promotion of participation. The youth councils are organized in close relation with the municipal council for adults, which is its promoter and direct reference. The councils existing under this model in all over Italy are close to 500, most of them in cities with less then 25.000 inhabitants (5). To those we also have to add some “Parlamenti regionali dei giovani”, for example in the Toscana and Piamonte, are constituted through an election system ofyoung representatives of all superior schools of the region (6). The municipal councils of the youth care of the youngpeople until 16-18 years of age (in some cases up to 25 years) and are instituted in the Town Halls: 60% of the councils are organized according to the same rules than the adult’s council: election of its members and organization through working commissions that include internal duties and a formal hierarchy among the members. In some cases the Council is presided by a young Sindaco, in others by an adult that can be the mayor of the city, the young affairs councillor or anyone responsible for the sector. The work issues are selected in 50% of the cases by the adults only by adults andyoungpeoplein 20% of the cases and the other 30% of the cases are exclusively decided by youngpeople. The working method reproduces those of the political institutions, with sessions organized around an order of the day, structured interventions on the base of turns and reports of the
Guidance and Diversity, for the majority of the European countries and North America, are related to the attention to children andyoungpeople with special necessities, that are attend in an educative institution and for those who are elaborated educative programs directed to obtain one better adaptation to the prevailing social system. In most of the cases is considered that the problematic of the special necessities is imputable to genetic or personal factors that only respond to internal factors to the individuals that display them avoiding the external factors that in some cases can be more decisive determinants at the time of the conductual manifestation. In this work is pleaded because the professionals of the Guidance, as much private or public scenes of the European countries, make more specific considerations at the time of taking care of children, youngpeopleand adults, as immigrants, coming of Latin America. In an ample sense one sets out to make Guidance in the Diversity more than Guidance for the Diversity under the conception of a Guidance for All which implies the elimination of the expression “special necessities”, whose connotation in our countries is not most appropriate, and than it includes the idea of an Ethnic Guidance. Perhaps the best way of boarding of these conceptions is promoting a process of Guidance from the School and not only in the School. Key words: guidance in the diversity; guidance for latin American; guidance and special
Analysis of the conditions and structures enabling the success of the systems for the transition of the young into adulthood and their social integration. Research is centred in Denmark, Eastern Germany and Spain and is divided into five sections: adolescents and transition paths towards adult life as a part of educational plans, relation with the logics underlying the division of society, analysis of the educational systems and labour markets, role of education and development of the educational systems through modernisation processes, and analysis of the systemic and subjective risks inherent to the paths of the “young adults”.
Depending on the parents’ ideological orientation and on the different types of political affiliation, we observe differences in the attitudes as well as in the political behaviour ofyoungpeople. The political profile of those who inherit left or right wing tendencies is not the same as those who do not present an ideological continuity. The first group presents more structured political options and more settled behaviours, while the second seems to be more distant, less interested in politics, less involved. 52% of the youngpeople who declare themselves as right-wing and 57% of those who express left-wing tendencies manifest that they are interested in politics. In the case of those who declare themselves as neither belonging to the right nor the left, like their parents, this percentage drops to 25%. Moreover, a political affiliation with the left or the right guarantees the conditions for a firmer political participation: 75% of those who claim to be on the right and 74% of those who claim to be on the left, like their parents, participate in the elections, while this proportion decreases to 50% in the case of those who declare themselves to be apolitical. Young left-wing inheritors are carriers of a protesting culture that is clearly more established than that ofyoung right-wing inheritors: 40% of them have already
Throughout this period of time, the student-workers have received theoretical and practical lessons of the specifíc subject matter of the respective specialities, andof the themes common to all modules, such as compensatory formation in the area of Science and Arts, as well as a monographic course on «Business Management and Techniques for Job Search». In the same way, other complementary activities have been carried out like work visits to other School Workshops (School Workshop of the village La Campana), to the trade fair «FICON 97» (trade fair of business initiatives) in Don Benito (Badajoz) and to the «First Trade Fair of the Professions and Employment in Andalusia», in Seville.
Data analysis. The routine Missing Values Analysis of SPSS version 19.0 was used to assess the pattern of missing values (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). Indices of skewness and kurtosis were calculated for each item. Subsequently, the sample was divided into two parts at random. The first half was selected for the analysis of the potential factor structure of the questionnaire. For this study, the items were analyzed using EFA (polychoric correlations, unweighted least squares ULS extraction, and oblique Promin rotation). This analysis was performed using FACTOR 9.2 software (Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2013). The number of factors extracted was based on the results of a parallel analysis using marginally bootstrapped samples (Horn, 1965) and Hull method for selecting the number of common factors (Lorenzo-Seva, Timmerman, & Kiers, 2011). The second half was reserved to conduct the CFA. Mplus 6.12 (Muthén & Muthén, 2010) software was used and robust weighted least squares (robust WLS) was used to estimate the model. This method better suits factor analyses with ordinal indicators. Multiple indices of the goodness of fit were employed to evaluate the fit of the model: The Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), the Bentler-Bonett comparative fit index (CFI), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and weighted root mean square residual (WRMR). CFI and TLI values equal or greater than 0.90, RMSEA values between 0.05 and 0.08, and WRMR values below 1.00 (Yu, 2002) show an excellent or acceptable model fit. Subsequently, an EFA was performed with the total sample to estimate factor scores.
this approach, which bases the definition of generation on a community of experiences lived by certain individuals who share a date of birth, takes us to the works of other German authors, such as Kummer, who in 1909 defined generation as a set of individuals “comprising all men living approximately coetaneously, born in the same economic, political, and social situation, and therefore equipped with a similar worldview, education, set of morals, and artistic sensitivity” (cited in Laín  (p. 240)). According to Wechssler [5–7], a new generation always expresses a clash between the youthful spirit and the Zeitgeist, the spirit of the time. Each generation is thus a proposal for the renewal of that prior historical life, so the inevitable influence of the past establishes a common element for all of the members of a cohort, and enables them to become an authentic generation. On this point, according to Laín  (p. 257), Wechssler draws from the work of Ranke, who describes the variation in the ‘human spirit’ in each period as the germ of the movement, which causes the flourishing of new generations that serve as a counterpoint to the previous configurations. For Laín, this orientation was also present in the work of Petersen [12,13], where the possibility of a new generation emerging is contingent on the possible contrast between the ‘spiritual disposition’ of the youngpeopleand the conditions established by their education (in other words, their socialisation).
network sites are banned. 8 Conscientious objectors include politically minded teens who wish to protest against Murdoch’s News Corp. (the corporate owner of MySpace), obedient teens who have respected or agree with their parents’ moral or safety concerns, marginalized teens who feel that social network sites are for the cool kids, and other teens who feel as though they are too cool for these sites. The latter two explanations can be boiled down to one explanation that I heard frequently: “because it’s stupid.” While the various conscientious objectors may deny participating, I have found that many of them actually do have profiles to which they log in occasionally. I have also found numerous cases where the friends of non-participants create profiles for them. 9 Furthermore, amongst those conscientious objectors who are genuinely non-participants, I have yet to find one who does not have something to say about the sites, albeit typically something negative. In essence, MySpace is the civil society of teenage culture: whether one is for it or against it, everyone knows the site and has an opinion about it.