Looking at these results it can be observed that the introduction of the new software into the learning process has made a positive difference for the student's experience. However, the original main design feature was supposed to be a new debugging system conceived to create in the students the habit of taking advantage of debugging as a process not only for finding and fixing their own bugs, but also for analyzing right programs in order to investigate their behaviors and get a better understanding of many theoretical and practical topics introduced in the course [4-9]. In the presented work, the students only have had access to a limited and basic debugging system. This feature was still under heavy development, and that's one reason why it's impact is expected to be actually bigger with the new versions. It also must be said that in those courses there was another tool being tested that had significant influence in the comparison (PseInt[10,11], a pseudo-code interpreter employed in the four first weeks to introduce the most basic and general logical aspects before getting contact with a real programming language), reason why the student's qualifications can't be taken as a direct indicator of how ZinjaI affects the final results.
cessing platforms. Specifically, a grid portal was developed that acts as a single point of entry to the geographically distributed computers used in the course and as a high-level, user-friendly environmentfor the students to manage transparently their par- allel jobs. No reported practical experiences on the application of a grid portal to support the teaching of a course were found, but a few projects focused on setting up a grid infrastructure for teaching purposes, such as ISILab  and ULabGrid . ISILab is a distributed environment that allows students to carry out remote laboratory experiments with real electronic instru- ments and circuits via the Web. The authors propose to map ISILab functionalities on a layered grid model: from the grid in- frastructure composed of diverse resources geographically scat- tered (computers, storage systems, catalogues, networks, sen- sors, and devices) to the user application layer that controls the experiment execution. However, this grid-oriented approach is under development using proprietary protocols and applica- tion program interfaces (APIs), which limit reusability for other projects. ULabGrid is an architecture based on standard grid technologies that enables educators to design collaborative dis- tant laboratories for students using a grid infrastructure. It al- lows students to run the software required for the laboratory from everywhere at any time. This approach was not conceived, however, to access supercomputing facilities, and it does not provide Web access via a portal. A prototype of this architec- ture applied to a flight simulator of an aeronautics laboratory is still being developed.
the action of electric and magnetic fields . Therefore, it also studies devices linked to electrons, such as diodes, valves, transistors or integrated circuits and is responsible for the design and application of electronic circuits whose operation depends on the flow of electrons to generate, transmit, receive, exchange or store information contained in electrical signals . There is an enormous diversity of electronic circuits with different functionalities such as, for example, wave generation, signal amplification or attenuation, or the control and modulation of these and their logical operations.
The course program consisted of 12 classes. The first lesson analyzed the characteristics of the computer operating system and types of programs, turn on and off the computer, start the program "notepad", work with the window, keyboard, switch between languages, print punctuation marks, characters, letters, save texts on the desktop. The second lesson: basic skills in the Windows program (the concept of a file and folder, the concept of the desktop, working with a folder on the desktop, creating a file in a folder on the desktop, storage media). The third lesson: working with text editors. The fourth lesson: the main work with the text, the rules of printing paragraphs, paragraph formatting, an example of working with a letter. Lesson five: correcting errors, creating lists, setting page parameters, preparing for printing and printing a document, setting up a screen saver program. The sixth lesson: setting the speed of the mouse, setting the date and time, working with the program guide. Lesson seven: working on the Internet (the concept of a browser, browsing browsers, connecting to the Internet, installing a browser on a computer, creating a mailbox, logging in to mail). Lesson eight: creating a letter and attaching files to them, receiving letters, responding to a letter, deleting one letter and groups of letters, exiting the mailbox, downloading books from the Internet. Lesson nine: use Skype, use YouTube. Lesson ten: use of cards, search for goods on the Internet, shopping in online stores. Lesson eleven: searching for information, saving a site’s page, saving graphic and textual information, registering public services on a site, entering the site and using its resources (generating a payment document, entering readings of water devices and electricity meters, making payments). Session twelve: registration and work in social networks.
Similarly to what happened with the imperative programming and the structured systems development, at the beginning the Object Oriented (O-O) paradigm was applied exclusively to the programming. The following phase, more or less in the 80s, was characterized by the interest explosion in the interfaces of the user. The most evident effect is reflected in the current abundance of libraries of classes for the development of interfaces.
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Despite the considerable improvement that has been achieved since the paradigm was first thought out , agent-oriented programming languages are still in their early stages of development and have clear shortfalls as far as their use in the software in- dustry is concerned. One such shortfall of AgentSpeak has to do with the unrealistic simplicity of the way in which belief bases are implemented. A belief base that is simply an unstructured collection of ground predicates is just not good enough if we consider that mobile services and the semantic web make use of ontologies for rep- resenting knowledge (through more elaborate languages such as OWL, the Ontology Web Language). Due in part to this lack of structure, reasoning in AgentSpeak is lim- ited to the unification mechanism applied to explicit knowledge. Another shortfall of AgentSpeak, that reduces its applicability for the development of semantic web multi- agent systems, is the absence of mechanisms to indicate the ontologies that have to be considered by agents in their reasoning. This shortfall imposes the assumption (that we had to adopt in , for instance) that all communicating AgentSpeak agents in a multi-agent application have a common understanding about terms that are used in the content of exchanged messages. This assumption is clearly unrealistic for semantic web applications as they typically require the integration of multiple ontologies about different domains.
The main advantages of DLA are that it supports intuitive adaptation to different physical agents and simple expansion of their capacities via addition of new modules. This feature is specially interesting because it allows addition of different sensors and actuators in the same way that we could add a new robot with its own set of sensors. DLA combines the responses of different delibera- tive and reactive algorithms through the interaction of freely distributed pro- cesses in an asynchronous way. This is particularly interesting to implement the AmI paradigm of Ubiquitous Computing, where different devices may present different computing capacities and processors may also be distributed in the network.This architecture provides transparency to the user through a high sim- plicity and portability. Besides, it has a very low computational load. There are alternatives to DLA, specially in the robotics field. ROS (Robotic Operating System) is probably, the most popular one, but there are others like OpenRDK, OROCOS or MARIE. However, most of them are very oriented to robotic appli- cations and neglect integration of domotic devices. Besides, they usually provide a full software framework to operate. While this means that they support a wide variety of hardware and software, the require more computational resources than DLA, that can run perfectly on devices like, for example, a Raspberry Pi. Be- sides, most frameworks tend to favor a specific OS. ROS, for example, runs on Ubuntu Linux and it is reported to have limited support on Mac OSX, but it is not easy to configure on Mac. DLA supports Unix, Linux and Windows alone or combinedly and devices simply need an API library to connect to the system. It also supports applications in C, Java and Matlab and can easily be extended to any programming language supporting sockets. Finally, regarding scalabitity, we can improve the system processing capability by adding new processing units on demand and extend functionality but progressively adding new equipment and behaviors to the system. We have already used DLA in different robotic platforms to achieve autonomous behaviors . In this work we are going to add two new capabilities to a DLA based system: i) interaction with standalone hardware; and ii) interaction with a KNX bus.
Objective: To develop an application on primary nursing care for users with diabetes mellitus and to assess its usability in the light of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Materials and methods: A methodological study, which used a quantitative and cross-sectional approach, based on the Systematic Design of Instruction method. The product was validated for usability by 11 specialist nurses, using the System Usability Scale questionnaire, based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 by Venkatesh, Thong and Xu. Results: The application was developed through open and free frameworks, based on the updated content of the Nursing Protocol in Primary Care on Diabetes Mellitus, plus the International Classification of Nursing Practices in Public Health. In assessing usability, the application reached a score of 90 points, being classified on a scale of best achievable, with dimensions that ground the theoretical constructs. Conclusions: The technology named Diabetes em Foco (Diabetes in focus in English) is promising to improve and advance theoretical and practical knowledge, in addition to quick and easy access to the protocol, timely support for decision-making and strengthening the systematization of nursing care in primary health care.
Regarding the content, the students pointed out as positive aspects the way the module was structured and how it addressed the topics discussed. The connections between concepts were highlighted and the examples and additional information seemed appropriate. Regarding the proposed exercises, we noticed some expectation for practical tasks where the students could actively participate. Although practical exercises involving the use of testing tools had already been integrated into the module, the short time available in the course made them intractable in the context of the course. The results pointed to the need for more concise exercises that can be explored in this kind of course. In terms of usability, the schema of colors, the distribution of information through the pages/slides and the representation of the interface functions were, in general, well accepted by the students. Specific comments indicated some disappointment with respect to the size of fonts and figures. Regarding the navigational aspects, we observed a positive attitude toward the flexibility on choosing the sequence of presentation. Despite the large amount of information available, the students did not “get lost” in the module. Finally, aspects such as the instructor’s energy, enthusiasm and objectiveness were also reported.
11. The space X is connected, so H 0 (X) ' Z . Each of the two handles has a 1-cycle that is a circle around the handle, like the circle a in Fig. 42.13. We let a be such a 1-cycle on the left handle and a 0 an analogous one on the right handle. Then we have 1-cycles b on the left handle and b 0 on the right handle, which go along the handle, onto the sphere, and then back on the handle at its other end. These are analogous to the circle b on the annulus in Fig. 42.13. We should also consider the 1-cycle z that is the “equator” of the sphere in Fig. 42.18, going through the holes made by the handles. If we cut the space along this equatorial circle z, it does not fall into two pieces; the handles hold it together, and the boundary of the resulting 2-figure consists of two copies of the circle with opposite orientation, whose algebraic sum in C n (X) is then zero, so the equatorial circle z is not a 1-boundary.
In a distributed environment, it is extremely important to have a possible procedure of data collection and measurement of the work developed. It is important since it aims development process and final product improvement. Being a physically distributed environment, it is particularly important to know what people physically distant from the software development process think about the process, since they will be the users or clients of the generated results. Thus, this will only be possible after the creation of some procedures made for this kind of environment. It was possible to verify in RUP, and some variants, such as Microsoft Solution Framework (MSF) , that both didn’t have clear evaluation procedures, for the process as well for the final product. In relation to the evaluation mechanisms they refer to software tests and conformity verification with specific quality standards of the software engineering area (CMM, SEI, ISO norms, etc.). Thus, there isn’t a specific phase where a complete evaluation relating the aspects cited previously can be done. For this reason, the idea was to propose in this model the creation of a phase called evaluation, where the main objective is evaluates the software developed in both aspects cited earlier, aiming to focus the process in the relation among the business process that will be supported by the system, the system itself and the technology used.
In addition, inside the heat exchangers a dirt layer grows during normal op- eration, caused by the deposition of organic material present in the products. This fouling effect slowly decreases the heat-transmission coefficient over time. Hence, a complex model to predict the evolution of these coefficients was identi- fied experimentally and introduced into an economic optimization. In that way, an optimal cleaning policy for a single plant operating in isolation was already proposed in Pitarch et al. (2017). However, when considering several plants and products in a network, other aspects such as optimal assignment of products to plants or coordination of the maintenance operations have to be considered. Formulating such problem via MINLP becomes computationally challenging if the grey models developed in the above reference are used to represent the plants.
of the most famous contemporary American nature writers and from the very beginning he’s been on the advisory board of ASLE, and what he had done is take our paper directory, with scissors cut out every single name and address, put it on an envelop with tape and then mailed letters to every member. He mailed everyone a letter that he wrote asking them for help in protecting the wild part of the United States, North Western Montana, where he lives, called the Yaak Valley. And this one scholar was very offended that her name was being used for the purposes of environmental activism. That’s to me the extreme example of someone who is interested in scholarship but doesn’t want to be bothered by the practical worldly context. So, I wrote back to her and I sent her money back, allowed her to leave, but I also said, “This letter that you received comes from a very distinguished literary practitioner in the field of environmental writing and by receiving a letter from him you can learn some interesting things about his work: his attitude towards the environment, his attitude towards writing. You can compare the writing of his activist letter with literary essays and his stories. Basically, it’s a personal contact with the actual struggle that this writer devotes much of his energy to.” So I think you can learn interesting literary things even from the activist work of people in the field. In any case, we see all extremes and to me they all belong together in some kind of conversation.
H1b. The firm’s competitive environment is not significantly related to the extent of e-commerce. Work on the diffusion of IT, and particularly that of e-commerce on the Internet, has studied the influence of various characteristics of the firm’s organizational structure on the adoption of these innovations. Among these we might mention: the firm’s level of internationalization [Arnott & Bridgewater, 2002; Bertschek & Fryges, 2002; Daniel et al., 2002; Kula & Tatoglu, 2003]; its level of decentralization [Grover & Goslar, 1993]; the methods the firm establishes for controlling work [Avlonitis et al., 1994]; the flexibility and adaptive capacity of the work teams [Durkin & McGowan, 2001; Arnott & Bridgewater, 2002]; the degree of collaboration or establishment of external alliances [Coviello & Munro, 1995; Hsieh & Kowang, 1996; Knight & Cavusgil, 1996; Chen, 1999; Cagliano et al., 2003]; as well as the extent to which the firm outsources activities that are not critical to the running of its business [Webster, 1992; Achrol & Kotler, 1999]. Taken together, it seems that companies with more complex and advanced organizational structures (those that are present in multiple markets, are more decentralized, non-hierarchical and flexible in structure, and build collaboration networks with other firms) adopt and implement e-commerce more easily. And it is logical to assume that those firms that have developed beyond simple and linear organizational models and adopted designs facilitating information flows will find it easier to take decisions aimed at adapting more closely to the evolving market (for example, adopting e-commerce), and subsequently leading, coordinating and supervising the implementation of the changes they have decided.
8. Wetland ecosystem services (the benefits people derive from wetlands) form an integral part of the livelihood strategy of wetland-dependent communities. Their livelihood systems often involve adapting to the overall ecological character of the wetland so as to optimize livelihood outcomes. The ways in which ecosystem services integrate with other livelihood capitals, particularly the social, economic and political contexts under which ecosystem services accrue to the livelihoods of dependent communities, become important variables in influencing the sustainability of livelihood strategies as well as poverty within wetland communities.