NATIONAL REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS

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NATIONAL REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION

OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS

National Reports to be submitted to the 12

th

Meeting

of the Conference of the Contracting Parties,

Uruguay, 2015

Please submit the completed National Report in Microsoft Word format (.doc, 97-2003), as an electronic file (not a printed copy) and preferably by e-mail, to Alexia Dufour, Regional

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The structure of the COP12 National Report Format

The COP12 National Report Format (NRF) is in four sections:

Section 1 provides the institutional information about the Administrative Authority and

National Focal Points for the national implementation of the Convention.

Section 2 is a ‘free-text’ section in which the Party is invited to provide a summary of

various aspects of national implementation progress and recommendations for the future.

Section 3 provides the 66 implementation indicator questions, grouped under each

Convention implementation strategy in the Strategic Plan 2009-2015, and with an optional

‘free-text’ section under each indicator question in which the Contracting Party may, if it

wishes, add further information on national implementation of that activity.

Section 4 is an optional annex to allow any Contracting Party that so wishes to provide

additional information regarding any or all of its Wetlands of International Importance

(Ramsar Sites).

General guidance for completing and submitting the COP12 National Report Format

IMPORTANT – PLEASE READ THIS GUIDANCE SECTION BEFORE STARTING TO COMPLETE THE NATIONAL REPORT FORMAT

1.

All Sections of the COP12 NRF should be completed in one of the Convention’s official

languages (English, French, Spanish).

2.

The deadline for submission of the completed NRF is 1 September 2014. It will not be

possible to include information from National Reports received after that date in the

analysis and reporting on Convention implementation to COP12.

3.

All fields with a pale yellow background must be filled in.

4.

Fields with a pale green background are free-text fields in which to provide

additional information, if the Contracting Party so wishes. Although providing information

in these fields is optional, Contracting Parties are encouraged to provide such additional

information wherever possible and relevant, as it helps us understand Parties’ progress and

activity more fully, to prepare the best possible global and regional implementation reports

to COP.

5.

The Format is created as a form in Microsoft Word. You are only able to submit replies

and information in the yellow or green boxes, as all other parts of the form are locked to

ensure that the structure and wording of indicators will remain uniform and comparable

for all Parties.

6.

To select a yellow or green field you wish to complete, move the cursor over the relevant

part of the form and left-click the mouse. The cursor will automatically move to the next

field available.

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8.

For a ‘free-text’ field, you can type in whatever information you wish. Note that there is

only limited facility within the Microsoft ‘form’ format to make editorial changes in the

‘free-text’ box once text has been entered. Therefore, if you wish to amend any of the text

you have put in a green or yellow ‘free-text’ box, you should cut and paste the existing text

into a separate document, make all the amendments, and then cut and paste the revised

text back into the box.

9.

Certain keyboard characters interfere with the automatic entry of data into the Secretariat’s

database. For that reason, please do not use double quote marks “ ” in the ‘free-text’

fields. Please only use single quote marks ‘ ’. For the same reason, please only use

simple text in the ‘free-text’ fields: they cannot accept formatting, colours or objects

such as tables and images.

10. For each of the ‘indicator questions’ in Section 3, a drop-down menu of answer options is

provided. These vary between indicators, depending on the question, but are generally of

the form: ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Partly’, ‘In progress’. This is necessary so that statistical comparisons

can be made of the replies.

11. For each indicator question you can choose only one answer. If you wish to provide

further information or clarification, do so in the green additional information box below

the relevant indicator question. Please be as concise as possible (maximum of 500 words

in each free-text box).

12. To select an answer to an indicator question, use the Tab key, or move the cursor over the

relevant yellow box and left-click the mouse. The drop-down menu of answer options will

appear. Left-click the mouse on the answer option you choose, and this will appear in the

centre of the yellow box.

13. An NRF is not usually completed by one person alone: for many indicators it is best for

the principal compiler to consult with colleagues in their agency and others within the

government and, as appropriate, with NGOs and other stakeholders who might have fuller

knowledge of aspects of the Party’s overall implementation of the Convention. The

principal compiler can save the document at any point and return to it later to continue or

to amend answers. Compilers should refer back to the National Report submitted for

COP11 to ensure the continuity and consistency of information provided.

14. After each session, remember to save the file in Microsoft Word, .doc, 97-2003 format.

A recommended filename structure is: COP12NRF [Country] [date], for example:

COP12NRFSpain13July2014.doc

15. After the NRF has been completed, please send it in this format to Alexia Dufour,

Regional Affairs Officer, Ramsar Convention Secretariat, preferably by e-mail

(dufour@ramsar.org).

16. The completed NRF must be accompanied by a letter or e-mail message in the name

of the Head of Administrative Authority, confirming that this is the Contracting

Party’s official submission of its COP12 National Report.

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NATIONAL REPORT TO RAMSAR COP12

SECTION 1: INSTITUTIONAL INFORMATION

Important note: the responses below will be considered by the Ramsar Secretariat as the definitive list of your focal points, and will be used to update the information it holds. The Secretariat’s current information about your focal points is available at www.ramsar.org/contacts_en.

NAME OF CONTRACTING PARTY:

BRAZIL

DESIGNATED RAMSAR ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY Name of Administrative

Authority:

Ministry of the Environment/Secretariat of Biodiversity and Fores

ts

Head of Administrative Authority - name and title:

Giovanna Palazzi, Director

Mailing address:

SEPN - Quadra 505 - Bloco B - Sala 503, CEP: 70.730-542 – Brasília/DF -

Brazil

Telephone/Fax: (55) 61 2028-2133

Email: giovanna.palazzi@mma.gov.br

DESIGNATED NATIONAL FOCAL POINTFOR RAMSAR CONVENTION MATTERS Name and title: Roberto Ribas Gallucci

Mailing address: SEPN - Quadra 505 - Bloco B - Sala 501, CEP: 70.730-542 – Brasília/DF -

Brazi

l

Telephone/Fax: (55) 61 2028-2032

Email:

roberto.gallucci@mma.gov.br

DESIGNATED NATIONAL FOCAL POINT FOR MATTERS RELATING TO THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REVIEW PANEL ( STRP)

Name and title: Not designated.

Name of organisation: ...

Mailing address: ...

Telephone/Fax: ...

Email: ...

DESIGNATED GOVERNMENT NATIONAL FOCAL POINT FOR MATTERS RELATING TO THE PROGRAMME ON COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION, PARTICIPATION AND AWARENESS (CEPA) Name and title: Jader alves Oliveira

Name of organisation: Ministry of the Environment – Secretaria de Articulação Institucional e

Cidadania Ambiental

Mailing address:

Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco B, 9º andar, CEP 70068-900 -

Brasília/DF – Brazil

Telephone/Fax: (55) 61 2066-1560

Email:

HYPERLINK "" \n _bla

nkalex.bernal@mma.gov.br

DESIGNATED NON-GOVERNMENT NATIONAL FOCAL POINT FOR MATTERS RELATING TO THE PROGRAMME ON COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION, PARTICIPATION AND AWARENESS (CEPA) Name and title: Not designated.

Name of organisation: ...

Mailing address: ...

Telephone/Fax: ...

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SECTION 2: GENERAL SUMMARY OF NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION

PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES

REMINDER: Please do not use double quote marks “ ”: use single quotes ‘ ’ instead.

In your country, in the past triennium (i.e., since COP11 reporting):

A. What have been the five most successful aspects of implementation of the Convention? 1) National dissemination of wetlands in academia

2) Designation of new Ramsar Sites

3) Partnership with HIDROEX (UNESCO) to promote capacity building

4) Leadership in international cooperation of La Plata River Basin Regional Initiative 5) Strengthening of public participation in decision making under the National Wetland Committee (CNZU)

B. What have been the five greatest difficulties in implementing the Convention? 1) Lack of human and financial resources

2) Commitment of States to protect the Ramsar Sites

3) Mapping of the intersectoral linkages about wetlands and the productive sector envolvement

4) High costs generated by the geographical distance between Ramsar Sites and the Administrative Authority

5) Appropriation and dissemination of the Ramsar Convention

C. What are the five priorities for future implementation of the Convention? 1) Preparing the National Wetland Inventory

2) Designating new Ramsar sites that ensure the representativeness of the various wetland types that exist in the country

3) Mapping of the intersectoral linkages

4) Boosting the Technical Commissions (Coral Reefs and Mangroves) under the National Wetland Committee

5) Disseminating the Ramsar Convention within the government and society in order to obtain the involvement of other sectors beyond the environmental one.

D. Do you (AA) have any recommendations concerning implementation assistance from the Ramsar Secretariat?

The country needs greater financial support for the capacity building of the Sites

managers and for the work of the National Technical Focal Point. It is also desirable that experience is shared between managers and the Focal Point with other Contracting Parties.

E. Do you (AA) have any recommendations concerning implementation assistance from the Convention’s International Organisation Partners (IOPs)? (including ongoing partnerships and partnerships to develop)

It is desirable that IOPs participate more actively in CNZU meetings and its Technical Commissions.

F. How can national implementation of the Ramsar Convention be better linked with

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The National Biodiversity Targets for 2020 reflect the Aichi Targets, as they were based in the CBD Strategic Plan for 2011-2020. Efforts to achieve these goals also contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity of wetlands and the consequent

implementation of the Ramsar Convention in Brazil. Currently, the document entitled

'priority areas for conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing of Brazilian biodiversity' (http://www.carvaomineral.com.br/abcm/meioambiente/legislacoes/bd_carboniferas/geral/p ortaria_mma_09-2007.pdf) produced in 2007 and used by all federative entities to guide the licensing process is in the review stage. The areas defined in this document express a synthesis between different MEAs present in the biodiversity cluster. Additionally, in 2013, Brazil translated and published the 'Factsheets on Access and Benefit-Sharing'

(http://www.mma.gov.br/publicacoes/patrimonio-genetico) produced by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

With respect to the UNFCCC, the position advocated by Brazil is that one Convention cannot overlap the other. In this sense, the Ramsar Convention is limited to addressing climate change in terms of adaptation, and not mitigation, which is a role of the UNFCCC itself. Linked to the Subnet Coastal Zones of the Climate Network (MCT) and to the National Science and Technology Institute for Climate Change (Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para Mudanças Climáticas - INCT-MC), the Coastal Benthic Habitat Monitoring Network (Rede de Monitoramento de Habitats Bentônicos Costeiros -

ReBentos) was created, bringing together researchers with a focus on coastal

environments. The ReBentos aims at creating and implementing an integrated network of studies on benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast to detect the effect of regional and global environmental changes on these organisms, beginning a historical data series on benthic biodiversity along the Brazilian coast.

Regarding the use of water resources, the actions anticipated by in the sectoral mitigation plans have a crosscutting approach on the subject, as water is an important input to most production processes. In the update of the National Water Resources Plan, within the programs and subprograms listed as priorities for the 2012-2015 period, the definition of the guidelines for introducing the theme of climate change on water resources plans was established.

In 2009, the National Water Agency (ANA) organized an internal Working Group to examine the assumptions, predictions and statements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that, over the twenty-first century, the hydrological behavior of some basins in the national territory may suffer changes. In 2010, this group proposed the adoption of five fronts of adaptive responses in the implementation of the National Water Resources Policy, to address the possible impacts of global climate change on:

• Water resources planning activities. • Hydrological monitoring.

• Monitoring and mediation activities of the critical hydrological events. • Regulation, particularly on the analysis and granting of water use license.

• Social communication and capacity building of stakeholders of the National Water Resources Management System (Singreh).

In 2013, the Brazilian Senate approved the country's accession to the Convention on Migratory Species, which is an important step towards integration with the Ramsar Convention, that includes the participation of the non-governmental environmental

organization BirdLife International Brazil as a member of the National Wetland Committee (see answer to question 3.5.3).

It is worth noting that the country periodically publishes updated information on endangered species from all ecosystems, including wetlands, such as the Brazilian Red List of

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G. How can implementation of the Ramsar Convention be better linked with the implementation of water policy/strategy and other strategies in the country (e.g., on sustainable development, energy, extractive industries, poverty reduction, sanitation, food security, biodiversity)?

Brazil needs to improve dissemination of the Ramsar Convention in the Basin

Committees so that the water resources management better incorporate its guidelines. The National Wetland Inventory is a strategy that will allow the incorporation of the Ramsar Convention on integrated planning mechanisms of existing public policies (eg, the Ecological Economic Zoning, River Basin Plans, Agenda 21 and the Multi-year Plan More Brazil), through explicit and spatial of the wetland typologies that exist in Brazil. It is noteworthy that the thematic program on Productive and Environmental Development Policies of the Multi-year Plan More Brazil (Plano Plurianual Mais Brasil - PPA 2012 - 2015) considers the conservation of wetlands indispensable to the maintenance of biodiversity, sustainable expansion of livestock, deployment of irrigated agriculture, recovery of the fish stocks, aquaculture development and tourism expansion.

H. Do you (AA) have any other general comments on the implementation of the Convention? No

I. Please list the names of the organisations which have been consulted on or have contributed to the information provided in this report:

Ministry of the Environment National Water Agency.

Brazilian Institute of Environment.

Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.

Managers of Ramsar Sites (Secretariat of Environment of the State of Maranhão, Office of the Pantanal Matogrossense, Abrolhos Marine, Cabo Orange, Lagoa dos Patos and Araguaia National Parks and Rio Doce State Park, owners of SESC Pantanal and

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SECTION 3: INDICATOR QUESTIONS AND FURTHER IMPLEMENTATION

INFORMATION

REMINDER: Guidance for completing this section

1. For each ‘indicator question’, please select one answer from the ‘drop-down’ list in the yellow box.

2. If you wish to add any additional information on a specific indicator, please provide this information in the green ‘free-text’ boxes below the indicator questions.

3. If you wish to amend any of the text you have put in a green ‘free-text’ box, you should cut and paste the existing text into a separate file, make the amendments, and then cut and paste the revised text back into the green box.

4. Some characters used in the free text box prevent the automatic data entry into our database National Reports. For that reason, please do not use double quote marks

“ ”

in the free text boxes. Use single quotes ‘ ’. Text in the ‘free text’ boxes should be simple text only: they cannot accept formatting, colours or objects such as tables and images.

5. To help Contracting Parties refer to relevant information they provided in their National Report to COP11, for each appropriate indicator a cross-reference is provided to the equivalent indicator(s) in the COP11 NRF, shown thus: {x.x.x}

6. Where appropriate, a cross-reference is also provided to the relevant Key Result Area (KRA) relating to Contracting Parties implementation in the Strategic Plan 2009-2015.

7. Only Strategic Plan 2009-2015 Strategies and KRAs for which there are significant

implementation actions for Contracting Parties are included in this reporting format; those parts of the Strategic Plan that do not refer directly to Parties are omitted.

GOAL 1. THE WISE USE OF WETLANDS

STRATEGY 1.1 Wetland inventory and assessment. Describe, assess and monitor the extent and condition of all types of wetlands as defined by the Ramsar Convention and wetland resources at relevant scales, in order to inform and underpin implementation of the Convention, in particular in the application of its provisions concerning the wise use of all wetlands.

1.1.1 Does your country have a comprehensive National Wetland

Inventory? {1.1.1} KRA 1.1.i

C - In progress

1.1.1 Additional information:

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1.1.2 Is wetland inventory data and information maintained and made

accessible to all stakeholders? {1.1.2} KRA 1.1.ii

D - Planned

1.1.2 Additional information:

During the work done in 2014, the updated National Inventory has been one of the objects of attention of the National Wetland Committee (CNZU) participants. Once concluded, the inventory will be made available on the Ministry of the Environment’s website and widely disseminated to policy makers, environment and water

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1.1.3 Has the condition* of wetlands in your country, overall, changed since the last triennium? {1.1.3}

a) Ramsar Sites b) wetlands generally

Please comment on the sources of the information on which your answer is based in the green free- text box below. If there is a difference between inland and coastal wetland situations, please describe. If you are able to, please describe the principal driver(s) of the change(s).

* ‘Condition’ corresponds to ecological character, as defined by the Convention

a)

O - No change

b)

O - No change

1.1.3 Additional information on a) and/or b):

a) In the most recent Ramsar Information Sheet no significant changes in the ecological character of the Brazilian Ramsar Sites were reported. In section 4 (optional attachment), also no changes in the ecological character of Ramsar sites were indicated by their managers.

b) There is no systematized ecological monitoring information for all non-Ramsar wetlands in Brazil. There are punctual initiatives monitoring water resources or isolated wetlands aspects, but systematized data on ecological monitoring in the country are limited. Some of the observation and monitoring needs of water

resources in Brazilian environments are discussed by Clarke and Silva Dias (2002, available at: http://www.finep.gov.br/fundos_setoriais/ct_hidro/documentos/ct-hidro01obs_e_monit_amb_rh.pdf). The state and national water agencies monitor the quality and quantity of water in checkpoints spread throughout the country, but with a focus on human use (for household consumption and economic sectors). Most data does not refer exclusively to wetlands, and the majority has focus on protected

areas. In this sense, the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) structures and coordinates biodiversity monitoring actions and, through partnerships with various sectors of society, established guidelines for a National Monitoring Program on Federal Protected Areas (PAs). The development of this monitoring program was initiated in 2010 and will generate qualified information for an effectiveness evaluation of the conservation actions, as well as influence policy and decision-making, both at local and regional scale. The monitoring program is organized by biomes and ecosystems, in the case of the Coastal Marine biome. Currently, the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes, and the coral reef, mangrove and rocky shore ecosystems are covered by the program. Some initiatives will be detailed, as follows:

1) National Coral Reefs Monitoring Program: With the assistance of partner institutions (Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE and Instituto Recifes Costeiros - IRCOS), the Ministry of the Environment (MMA) and ICMBio have been monitoring coral reefs since 2002 in six pilot areas: Abrolhos National Park; Fernando de Noronha National Park; Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve; Corumbau Marine Extractive Reserve; Costa dos Corais Environmental Protection Area and; Recifes de Coral Environmental Protection Area. The program has the following

components: (i) coral reefs monitoring, using the ReefCheck methodology (http://www.reefcheck.org/); (ii) mapping of coral reefs located within PAs; (iii) environmental information and education campaigns, and (iv) the Live Coral Project (Projeto Coral Vivo) (http://coralvivo.org.br/), which conducts research on coral reproduction, dispersal and recruitment, as well as educational activities on conservation and sustainable use of coral reefs.

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3) Rocky shore: Since 2013, ICMBio initiated the establishment of guidelines for monitoring in three PAs with rocky shores (Arvoredo Biological Reserve,

Tupiniquins Ecological Station and Tupinambás Ecological Station), selected as pilot for harboring significant areas of the ecosystem, as well as having a history of involvement in monitoring activities. Based on studies being conducted in these areas, a monitoring protocol will be developed and adopted, as was done for the coral reefs. By hiring a consultancy (UNDP BRA/08/023), completed in 2013, the major involved research institutions, their researchers and the types of research being carried out both on rocky shores and coral reefs were mapped.

STRATEGY 1.3 Policy, legislation and institutions. Develop and implement policies, legislation, and practices, including growth and development of appropriate institutions, in all Contracting Parties, to ensure that the wise use provisions of the Convention are being effectively applied.

1.3.1 Is a National Wetland Policy (or equivalent instrument) in place? {1.3.1} KRA 1.3.i

(If ‘Yes’, please give the title and date of the policy in the green text box)

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1.3.1 Additional information:

As informed in the previous report, although there is no specific policy on wetlands, Brazil has a well-developed environmental policy that is applied in all Brazilian ecosystems. The Brazilian government believes that the best strategy for the country is to concentrate efforts on the implementation of the extensive existing environmental legislation rather than creating a new policy exclusively for wetlands.

Some of the most relevant policies are: the National Protected Areas Plan (Plano Nacional de Áreas Protegidas - PNAP - 2006), which includes a chapter on "National Strategies for Internationally Recognized Areas"; National Biodiversity Policy (2002); National

Environmental Policy (1981); Law 12.727/12 (regulates the protection of native vegetation); Atlantic Forest Law (Law 11.428/06); National Water Resources Policy; National Basic Sanitation Plan; Brazil Without Poverty Plan; Watershed Integration Program; Revitalization of Vulnerable and Degraded Watersheds Program; Conservation and Recovery of Brazilian Biomes; Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Genetic Resources. Following are quoted, by Ministry, programs derived of those policies (about the tourism see 1.4.2):

1 Ministry of the Environment. (I) Agenda 21; (ii) Program to Combat Desertification; (iii) Traditional Communities; (iv) Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies; (v) Prevention and Combat to Deforestation and Forest Fires; (vi) Environmental Quality; (vii) Sustainable Fisheries Resources; (viii) Ecological-Economic Zoning and (ix) Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Preparing the Country for the Effects of Climate Change.

2 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. (I) Research, Development and Innovation in Aquaculture and Fisheries.

. 3 Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply: (i) Promoting sustainable development in the country through the Agribusiness; (ii) Ensuring Food Security; (iii) Increasing the participation of Agro-energy in the Country's Energy Mix; (iv) Low Carbon Agriculture Program; (v) Research and development of sustainable agriculture technologies and (vi) Integrated Production in Agricultural Systems.

. 4 Ministry of Cities: (i) Fisheries and Aquaculture Network; (ii) Program on Environmental Education and Social Mobilization on Sanitation and (iii) National Basic Sanitation Plan. . 5 Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation: (i) Project Scenarios for the Amazon: Biodiversity, Land Use and Climate; (ii) Research Network for the Sustainable Use and Conservation of the Cerrado; (iii) Science and Technology Sub-Program under the Pilot Program to Conserve the Brazilian Rain Forest; (iv) Development of Strategic Research for Brazilian Biomes; (v) Support to the Development of the Production Chain of Amazon Fisheries Resources; (vi) Sustainable Amazon Plan; (vii) Applied Science and Technology for the Use of Marine Resources; (viii) Applied Science and Technology on Biodiversity and Natural Resources; (ix) National Climate Change Program; (x) National Science and Technology Institute on Wetlands and (xi) Water Resources and Amazon Sectoral Funds. 6 Ministry of Education: (I) IV National Children and Youth Conference on the

Environment.

. 7 Ministry of National Integration: (i) Program for the Promotion of Sustainability of Sub-regional Spaces; (ii) Water for All Program and (iii) Program for the Integrated and Sustainable Development of the Semi-Arid Region.

. 8 Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRE): (i) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); (ii) Cartagena Protocol; (iii) United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD); (iv) Ramsar Convention; (v) Inter-American Convention for the Protection and

Conservation of Sea Turtles (vi) Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (under the Convention on Migratory Species).

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1.3.2 Have wetland issues been incorporated into other national strategies and planning processes, including:

a) Poverty eradication strategies

b) Water resource management and water efficiency plans c) Coastal and marine resource management plans

d) National forest programmes

e) National strategies for sustainable development f) National policies or measures on agriculture

g) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans drawn up under the CBD

{1.3.3} KRA 1.3.i

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1.3.2 Additional information:

a) Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has been a widely used mechanism both in rural, such as Green Grant and Producer of Water (described in question 4.1.9), and urban contexts. In urban areas, the PES policy benefits waste pickers, based on the guidelines expressed in the National Solid Waste Policy.

- Closed Season Insurance (Seguro-Defeso): Law No. 10,779/03 guarantees the benefit of Closed Season Insurance (equivalent to a monthly minimum wage) to artisanal

fisherman, during periods of restricted fishing for stock-breeding purposes, established for different species. The Closed Season Insurance is not a PES policy, and is managed by the Ministry of Labour and Employment, through the Worker Support Fund.

- Regional Sustainable Territorial Development and Solidarity Economy Program:

Implemented by the Ministry of Labour intends an expansion of the federal government's territorial action strategy for the expansion of the employment and income generation options with respect to the strengths and vulnerabilities of regional ecosystems. The solidarity economy is constituted as socio-economic dynamization strategy under development processes, promoting social cohesion and the preservation of cultural and environmental diversity.

b) Law 9,433/97, also known as "Water Law", instituted the National Water Resources Policy (PNRH) and created the National Water Resources Management System

(Singreh). The PNRH considers water as a public good and a limited natural resource with economic value. The legal instrument also provides that the management of water

resources should provide the multiple uses of water in a decentralized and participatory manner, with the participation of the government, users and communities. The law also provides that in situations of scarcity, the priority use of water is for human consumption and livestock watering. In support, the river basin is the unit for the Singreh’s operation and PNRH’s implementation.

c) In its Article 3, the National Water Resources Policy (Law 9.433/1997) provides for the integration of watershed management with estuarine systems and coastal areas.

Moreover, the country has a National Coastal Management Plan (Law 7.661/88) and State Coastal Management Plans. The VIII Sectoral Plan for Sea Resources was prepared by the Inter-Ministerial Commission for Sea Resources effective between 2012 and 2015 (see answer 1.3.5 and 1.8.2).

d) The National Forest Program was established by Decree 3,420, of 20 April, 2000, with the objective of coordinating sectoral policies to promote sustainable development, balancing use and preservation of Brazilian forests. It consists of projects that are designed and implemented in a participatory and integrated manner by federal, state, provincial, municipal governments and civil society organizations. This linkage is made by MMA, and among the PNF’s goals are: (i) recover permanent preservation forests in legal reserves and altered areas and (ii) restrain illegal logging, control accidental fires and prevent forest fires.

e) Wetlands are directly or indirectly included in various planning processes for sustainable development, even though most of these instruments were not designed specifically and exclusively for wetlands. In addition to the planning processes previously highlighted, whose ultimate goal is to achieve sustainable development, other programs and plans developed by different ministries are listed in the question 1.3.1.

f) Wetlands are being incorporated into policies for agriculture through projects executed by both the MMA and the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA). See also answer 1.7.4 and 1.6.1.

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1.3.3 Are Strategic Environmental Assessment practices applied when reviewing policies, programmes and plans that may impact upon wetlands? {1.3.4} KRA 1.3.ii

C - Partly

1.3.3 Additional information:

Although Brazil has not yet developed legal instruments to require the use of Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for programs, plans and policies, some practices are being applied. SEA standards and criteria still need to be developed to ensure that the maintenance of the good health of wetlands systems (and other ecosystems) is regarded as the main assessment guideline. In Brazil, the national SEA initiatives are restricted to the energy sector, being developed by the Energy Research Company, a federal state-owned company linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy under Law No.

10,847/04.

1.3.4 Are Environmental Impact Assessments made for any development projects (such as new buildings, new roads, extractive industry) that may affect wetlands,? {1.3.5} KRA 1.3.iii

A - Yes

1.3.4 Additional information:

The Brazilian environmental legislation (Law No 6,938/81 and CONAMA Resolution 001/86) requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Assessment as a

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1.3.5 Have any amendments to existing legislation been made to

reflect Ramsar commitments? {1.3.6}

B - No

1.3.5 Additional information:

The recommendations published by the National Wetland Committee (CNZU) seek to exert stronger influence on legal reforms. The CNZU’s Technical Commission on Mangroves and the GEF Mangroves (see question 1.1.3b and 1.6.2) emphasized the need to maintain the status of mangroves as Permanent Preservation Areas during the last revision of the Forest Code (Law No. 12,727/12). The CNZU’s Technical Commission on Mangroves and the National Coral Reefs Monitoring Program are mobilizing

information from the coral reefs monitoring held since 2002 in pilot areas, to expand the national network of marine protected areas.

The data from the consultancy about rocky shore (see question 1.1.3b) will be used to support evaluation of the lack of research in certain regions and facilitate contact with new partnerships to conduct research.

In the Multi-year Plan More Brazil (PPA 2012 - 2015) the development of a national program for the conservation of coral reefs and marine ecosystems is expected. The project Integrated Management of the Coast (Coastal Project - Projeto Orla) is an action of the Secretariat of Water Resources and Urban Environment (SRHU / MMA) and the Secretariat for Federal Heritage (Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management). Its actions seek to contribute to regulate the use and occupation of the coastal zone, approaching the environmental and heritage policies with broad links between the three spheres of government and society. The purpose of the Coastal Project is to develop and implement an Integrated Management Plan for the marine and inland coast of Brazilian municipalities. This project seeks to answer a number of challenges due to the fragility of the ecosystems of the coast, increase in use as well disordered and irregular occupation, increase of erosion and contaminant sources.

The country has strengthened the monitoring and surveillance system on the extraction of coastal and marine resources through the acquisition of patrol boats and the National Program for Satellite Tracking of Fishing Vessels (PREPS). The PREPS targets the monitoring of all foreign vessels and nationals vessels with an overall length exceeding 15 meters or exploiting certain species subject to specific regulations. The PREPS aims to fisheries management and control of the fishing fleet operations authorized by the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (MPA), and the potential to improve the safety of fishermen on board.

Two goals of the More Brazil Multi-year Plan (PPA 2012 - 2015) are related to coastal resources and wetlands: serving 80,000 families through fishing and aquaculture extension and deploying 9 public fishing terminals.

Moreover, as a signatory to the CBD, Brazil is committed to the objectives of preserving and effectively managing 10% of coastal and marine areas through Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by 2020 (Aichi Target 11). Only 1.57% of nearly 3.5 million km2 of the waters under Brazilian jurisdiction are protected by conservation units. The

GEF-supported Marine and Coastal Protected Areas Project (GEF Mar) supports the creation and implementation of a system of coastal and marine protected areas in Brazil, aiming to reduce the loss of marine biodiversity. The project is divided into three components: (1) Creation and implementation of coastal and marine protected areas; (2) Design of financial mechanisms to support coastal and marine protected areas system and (3) Project coordination, monitoring and management.

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cultural heritage, and scientific research, by developing and disseminating methodologies to achieve wise use of wetlands.

1.4.1 Has an assessment been made of the ecosystem

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1.4.1 Additional information:

Punctual assessments on ecosystem services provided by protected areas that are not designated Ramsar Sites, and not focusing exclusively on water-related services were performed. The government has established a Payment for Environmental Services (PES) policy, through programs such as theGreen Grant

(http://www.mma.gov.br/publicacoes/desenvolvimento-rural/category/140-bolsa-verde), River Basins Clean-up (http://www.ana.gov.br/prodes/documentos.asp) and Water

Producer (http://produtordeagua.ana.gov.br//), which are monitored through environmental indicators (eg, vegetation cover and home visit questionnaires) for further evaluation. MMA: Runs a fund called ‘Project Portfolio’, aiming at funding projects related to

production, processing and trade of agriextractivist products, creation and consolidation of sustainable use protected areas, sustainable development projects and extractivist

settlements, organization and strengthening of extractivist communities as well as capacity building.

Created by Law No. 12,651/12, the Rural Environmental Registry is a strategic database to control, monitor and fight against deforestation of native vegetation within

representative rural properties in wet zones of all Brazilian ecosystems. National Agribiodiversity Program.

- Green Grant (Bolsa Verde) Program: Coordinated by the Ministry of the Environment (MMA), the Green Grant Environmental Conservation Support Program grants a quarterly financial aid of US$136 to families in extreme poverty who live in priority areas for

environmental conservation. Created by Law 12,512/11 and regulated by Decree

7,572/11, it is one of the incentives that the federal government implemented to eradicate poverty and benefit traditional peoples and communities (as defined by Decree 6,040/07) that conserve natural resources. It is part of the Brazil without Poverty Plan (Plano Brasil sem Miséria) coordinated by the Ministry of the Social Development (MDS). Recipient families participate in socio-economic diagnosis and environmental monitoring of the properties. Strategies for economic transformation are defined together with the MDS, the National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA), the Chico Mendes

Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) and Secretariat for Federal Heritage (SPU). According to December 2013 data, the Green Grant Program assisted 51,200 families with an investment of US$ 30.4 million since the program began. Currently, it reaches 65 federal protected areas, 767 settlement projects and 57 municipalities with areas administered by the SPU. The North region and the state of Pará have the largest number of recipients (about 75%). The Green Grant Program used as base the land use and occupation maps produced by the Monitoring Program of Brazilian Biomes (Programa de Monitoramento dos Biomas Brasileiros - MBBs), launched in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA).

- Water Producer (Produtor de Água) Program: This is an initiative of the National Water Agency (ANA) which aims at reducing the erosion and siltation of water sources in rural areas through the PES policy. The voluntary membership program provides technical and financial support for implementing water and soil conservation actions, for example, the construction of terraces and infiltration basins, the upgrading of local roads, water sources protection and recovery, reforestation of permanent protection areas and legal reserves, environmental sanitation, among others. To farmers that demonstrably contribute to the protection and recovery of watersheds, the program also provides financial compensation, generating benefits for the basin and the population. In March 2013, the Water Producer Program received the Dubai International Award for Best Practices.

1.4.2 Have wetland programmes or projects that contribute to poverty alleviation objectives or food and water security plans been implemented? {1.4.2} KRA 1.4.i

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1.4.2 Additional information:

There are several projects located in wetlands that contribute to food security and poverty reduction by improving the productive chains and introducing sustainable practices (see answer to question 1.1.3 b and 1.4.1).

Launched in 2004, the Freshwater Program (Programa Água Doce - PAD) is an action of the federal government coordinated by the Ministry of the Environment, through the Secretariat of Water Resources and Urban Environment, in partnership with federal, state, and municipal institutions and the civil society. It aims at establishing a permanent public policy of access to good quality water for human consumption, promoting and disciplining deployment, restoration and management of desalination systems to serve primarily low-income populations in diffuse communities of semiarid region. With a commitment to ensure sustainable use of water resources, promoting coexistence with the semiarid region from the environmental and social sustainability, the Program benefits about 100 thousand people in 150 diffuse communities distributed in the 10 states of the semiarid region with access to quality water.

The Água Brasil Program is an initiative of the Bank of Brazil, which aims to conserve soil and water to ensure water and food security in the seven river basins where it operates. The program involves farmers, extension workers, governments, universities and local institutions through the dissemination of good farming practices and forest restoration (http://www.bbaguabrasil.com.br/ #! / environmental-projects).

Law 11,284 of 2006 regulates the management of public forests for sustainable

production, establishing the Brazilian Forest Service (Serviço Florestal Brasileiro - SFB) within the MMA structure, and creates the National Forest Development Fund (Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento Florestal - FNDF). Among the principles of public forest management are the protection of ecosystems, soil, water, biodiversity and associated cultural values, as well as the respect for the local communities’ right of access to the public forests and the benefits arising from their use and conservation.

The Ministry of Tourism have the following programs: (i) Program for Structuring of Tourism Segments: Ecotourism; (ii) Green Passport; (iii) Sustainable Tourism and Childhood Program; (iv) Programs for Integration to Tourism-Associated Production; (v) Structuring of Tourism in Prioritized Areas and (vi) Program for Structuring the Tourism Segments - Nautical tourism.

In some Ramsar sites that are full protection conservation units there are proposals (eg. agroforestry and aquaculture) to the surrounding region. As these are restricted areas (no-take areas), projects for human populations are not applicable therein. The Ramsar Site Rio Doce State Park carries out the project Doce Loja through a partnership with the NGO Association of Friends of the Rio Doce State Park. The project promotes the artisanal and handmade production of products from the Park’s surrounding for sale in a store located inside it. The Ramsar Site SESC Pantanal has projects for income generation through sustainable use of products and by-products from the forest. In Ramsar Site PARNA Pantanal local drivers were trained to develop ecotourism activities, requiring continuity of actions. The Ramsar Site RDS Mamirauá is promoting food security by strengthening the processes of fishery resources co-management, with emphasis on the already established management of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) along the floodplain lakes

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1.4.3 Have socio-economic and cultural values of wetlands been included in the management planning for Ramsar Sites and other wetlands? {1.4.4} KRA 1.4.iii

A - Yes

1.4.3 Additional information (If ‘Yes’ or ‘Partly’, please indicate, if known, how many Ramsar Sites and their names):

Procedures for the preparation of management plans for Brazilian protected areas (which is the case for all Ramsar sites in the country) include the requirement to conduct

socioeconomic inventories of the area and its surroundings. The management committee of protected areas includes community representatives and as the committee generally participates in preparing or approving the management plan, this is also a way to

incorporate their cultural values. The only Brazilian Ramsar site with a management plan that responded negatively to this question was the Araguaia National Park, which has conflicts with Indigenous Lands. For details on the situation of management plans of the Brazilian Ramsar Sites verify responses to questions 2.4.1 - 2.4.3.

STRATEGY 1.5 Recognition of the role of the Convention. Raise the profile of the Convention by highlighting its capacity as a unique mechanism for wetland ecosystem management at all levels; promote the usefulness of the Convention as a possible implementation mechanism to meet the goals and targets of other global conventions and processes.

1.5.1 Since COP11, have you brought the ‘Changwon Declaration’ (Resolution X.3) to the attention of your:

a. head of state b. parliament c. private sector d. civil society

{1.5.2}



B - No



A - Yes



A - Yes



A - Yes

1.5.1 Additional information:

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STRATEGY 1.6 Science-based management of wetlands. Promote successful implementation of the wise use concept by ensuring that national policies and wetland management plans are based on the best available scientific knowledge, including technical and traditional knowledge.

1.6.1 Has research to inform wetland policies and plans been undertaken in your country on:

a. agriculture-wetland interactions b. climate change

c. valuation of ecoystem services {1.6.1} KRA 1.6.i

a.

A - Yes

b.

A - Yes

c.

A - Yes

1.6.1 Additional information:

Research on those three themes has been and continues to be performed by the Brazilian government and academia to inform public policies, although most policies have not been developed specifically for wetlands. The RAMSAR magazine on 'climate change and wetlands' and 'wetlands care for the waters' was translated and widely disseminated. Moreover, in the many collegiate in which the Focal Point participates (eg River Basin Plans of the National Water Agency), when the subject has connection with wetlands, the Ramsar theme is informed.

We highlight six goals of the More Brazil Multi-Year Plan (PPA 2012 - 2015) that are related to agriculture and wetlands: (i) to deploy 900 test and demonstration units of sustainable agricultural production systems within the Low Carbon Agriculture Plan; (ii) to map priority areas for the implementation of sustainable production systems; (iii) to expand the private sector’s current irrigated area by 100% over the next four years to meet increased demand for food arising from population growth forecast for the country by 2030; (iv) to implement the National Information System on Irrigated Agriculture; (v) to establish control of the national transit of aquatic animals in all federative units and (vi) to extend from 26 to 90 the centers for agroecology studies in the federal network of science and technology education.

Since 1999, Brazil has Sectoral Funds coordinated by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), with funds from public and private companies, aimed at ensuring solid and permanent investments in Brazilian scientific and technological research. The Sectoral Funds are administered by Managing Committees that include the participation of the regulatory agencies, the scientific community and the private sector. A Sector Fund (CT-HYDRO) is intended to supply studies and projects in the area of water resources for improving the various uses of water. The rational use of water proposed by the studies seeks to ensure a high quality standard to current and future generations. The projects are aimed at sustainable development, prevention and defense against critical

hydrological phenomena or those related to inappropriate use of natural resources. The funds come from the financial compensation currently taken by companies generating electricity.

The Center for Research and Management of Fishery Resources of the Northeast Coast (Centro de Pesquisa e Gestão de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Nordeste - CEPENE), headquartered in Tamandaré (State of Pernambuco), is one of the Specialized Centers of ICMBio directed to the study, research and management of fishery resource. The

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1.6.2 Have all wetland management plans been based on sound scientific research, including research on potential threats to the wetlands? {1.6.2} KRA 1.6.ii

A - Yes

1.6.2 Additional information:

All Brazilian Ramsar Sites are officially protected areas (conservation units) and as such, follow the Ministry of the Environment’s rules on the preparation of management plans, which include conducting scientific research focused on that specific area, covering themes such as existing biodiversity, environmental situation and threats, social aspects and zoning. Wide range government programs, such as integrated marine and coastal management, also using the best available scientific data and taking into account the existing and potential threats to wetlands.

Other planning instruments that affect wetlands (eg, River Basin Plans) are prepared with a focus on the types of use and follow guidelines that include environmental threats assessments.

The Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) coordinates, along with experts, the development of National Action Plans (Planos de Ação Nacionais - PANs) for the conservation of taxonomic groups or habitats under threat

(http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/biodiversidade/fauna-brasileira/planos-de-acao-nacional.html?limitstart=0). During 2012, Action Plans were for the Conservation of Killifish Threatened with Extinction and Migratory Shorebirds, two groups highly

dependent on wetlands and whose threats are associated with the conversion of these natural environments. During 2013, the Plan for the Conservation of Birds of the Cerrado and Pantanal, where there also is important Brazilian wetlands, was prepared.

In June 2013 and January 2014 two preparatory meetings were performed for defining the scope of the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Coral Reef Environments (Coral PAN). These meetings were attended by experts and the focus areas, focus and benefited species, focal points and other individuals to be involved in each of the distinct areas were defined. In 2014 April, a five-day meeting attended by over 100 participants from various civil society sectors and government spheres was conducted for the drafting of the Coral Plan. Eighteen strategic areas of action of the Plan were mapped, including coastal and deep sea areas, from the State of Maranhão to the State of Santa Catarina. Several pressures and threats generated by human action in these environments were identified. More than 100 conservation actions were prepared, and actions that could be

implemented within a period of five years were agreed.

In 2012 the National Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves (Mangroves PAN) elaboration was started based on the threatened species evaluation process, with

reference to the threats indicated by experts and the priority areas for conservation of this group. This project has the following objectives: (i) to develop and strengthen a network of mangrove protected areas; (ii) to implement the ecosystem management principles into fisheries activities in mangrove areas; (iii) to match territorial planning instruments for the management of PAs and (iv) to disseminate the value and ecological functions of

mangroves.

The ecosystem approach adopted in recent PANs is an institutional learning about the greater effectiveness of strategies for ecosystems to the detriment of taxonomic groups.

STRATEGY 1.7 Integrated Water Resources Management. Ensure that policies and implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), applying an ecosystem-based approach, are included in the planning activities in all Contracting Parties and in their decision-making processes, particularly concerning groundwater management, catchment/river basin

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1.7.1 Do your country’s water governance and management

systems treat wetlands as natural water infrastructure integral to water resource management at the scale of river basins? {1.7.2} KRA 1.7.ii

A - Yes

1.7.1 Additional information:

According to Law No. 9,433/97, the unit for water management is the river basin. The planning of infrastructure and development plans occurs at the river basin scale. To support the preparation and monitoring of these plans, Brazil is instituting the basin committees (the 174 existing in 2012 account for an area of 2,17 million km2, covering more than 25% of the Brazilian territory) whose governance system provides the participation of representatives from civil society, government, private sector, NGOs, traditional communities, water users, universities, and other relevant stakeholders. River basin committees are considered the 'water parliaments', having as objective the

participatory and decentralized water resources management, through the implementation of management technical tools, conflict negotiation and promotion of multiple uses of water in the basin.

1.7.2 Have Communication, Education, Participation and

Awareness (CEPA) expertise and tools been incorporated into catchment/river basin planning and management (see

Resolution X.19)? {1.7.3}

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1.7.2 Additional information:

The river basin committees are collegiate members of the National Water Resources System where water resources management-related issues are discussed. Its actions predict participation and communication both vertically, between institutions and local actors, and horizontal, through the sector boundaries. To ensure the effective participation of society, basin committees work at federal, interstate and state levels (see

http://www.cbh.gov.br/ and the Brazil Network of Basin Organizations - http://www. rebob.org.br /). If the conflict by the use of water is not solved within the committee it may be appealed to the relevant Water Resources Councils, as the second administrative level, hierarchically superior to the committee. The National Water Agency (ANA) publishes a monthly 'waters newsletter', disclosing news about the actions of basin committees.

The target audience of the capacity-building activities promoted by ANA consists of management agents of water resources organizations, leaders and members of basin organizations, water users, in addition to the general public, with emphasis on young people. Since 2011, some administrative issues increased ANA’s capacity to invest in CEPA actions. Since 2011, ANA began to publish the 'Training Notebooks on Water Resources' in six volumes and recently, campaigns and informational videos about (i) the importance of water in people's lives and care with this natural resource and (ii) water waste, including tips for saving in agriculture, industry and households, were performed. Between 2001 and 2010 about 10 thousand people were trained, the same number of the period between 2011 and 2012, according to the systematic implementation of long-distance courses. The hours of capacity-building activities offered increased from

approximately 5,400 between 2001 and 2010 to more than 5,700 hours in 2011 and 2012. This same increase also occurred to the number of classes, which increased from 112 between 2001 and 2010 to more than 170 in 2011 and 2012. In 2012, more than 16,500 vacancies were offered in about 50 courses on the following topics: Safety of Dams; hydrology / hydrometry; water quality; planning and management of water resources; education and social participation in water resources management and; GIS and remote sensing. In 2013, ANA has trained 12,534 people and, for 2014, the expectation is to beat this record with 14,500 students. The ANA website offers free long-distance courses on water management without tutoring (http://capacitacao.ana.gov.br/Paginas/default.aspx). In October 2012, a presentation on the CNZU and the Ramsar Convention was held in the Technical Commission on Legal and Corporate Affairs of the National Water Resources Council (CNRH). In addition, the RAMSAR magazine on wetlands and climate change was translated and widely disseminated among relevant stakeholders (see answer to question 1.6.1).

1.7.3 Has your country established policies or guidelines for enhancing the role of wetlands in mitigating or adapting to climate change? {1.7.5} KRA 1.7.iii

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1.7.3 Additional information:

The National Policy on Climate Change, instituted by Law No 12,187/2009, established principles, objectives, guidelines and tools, among them the National Fund on Climate Change (Climate Fund - Fundo Clima). The Climate Fund (http://www.mma.gov.br/apoio-a-projetos/fundo-nacional-sobre-mudanca-do-clima) aims at funding projects, studies and ventures directed to climate change mitigation and adaptation to its effects. In 2012, a public call (MMA / FNMC No. 01) in the amount of US$ 4,260,000.00 was opened to project submissions. Although no specific policy with the purpose of enhancing the role of wetlands in the mitigation and / or adaptation to climate change is being elaborated, the National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change has been developed. This was an assignment of the Executive Group (GEX) of the Interministerial Commission on Climate Change (CIM). Under this Executive Group a Working Group on Adaptation

(Adaptation) was established, and began operations in February 2013. Through the WG-Adaptation, the Ministry of the Environment hired a consultancy team to systematize the information relevant to the understanding of the interface between biodiversity and climate change. The expected date of delivery of this consultancy work and a draft National Adaptation Plan is December 2014 (see answer to question 1.1.3 for details on the initiatives for biodiversity monitoring). The Brazilian Forum on Climate Change (Fórum Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas - FBMC) is the official representative body of civil society and acts as a permanent channel to accept the suggestions, questions and information from the society, being a member of the WG Adaptation.

The National Science and Technology Institute on Tropical Marine Environments (Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Ambientes Marinhos Tropicais - AMBTROPIC) has as its central objective the evaluation of how the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of tropical marine environments may determine the patterns of response of these environments and their resilience to the climate change that will affect the north-northeastern Brazil this century.

Regarding the water resources planning, since 2009, ANA introduced a simulation of climate change effects on water availability in its methodology for development of river basin water resources plans. The simulation is made for the effects of one of the

scenarios, often the critical one, in case of occurrence of the changes predicted by climate models.

The monitoring of coral reefs (see answer to question 1.1.3) is particularly important in relation to global climate changes due to the correlation between bleaching events of coral reefs and the rise in sea temperature, caused by the higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The research group on coral reefs and global change at the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) has been analyzing the alteration caused by climate change in the symbiotic relationship and photosynthesis of the reef-building organisms such as corals and coralline algae. The results indicate a reduction in calcification of these organisms and consequently reducing the growth potential of the reef ecosystem.

Moreover, as this response varies with the species (corals, Symbiodinium, and algae) and their interactions, changes in the community structure of corals and algae can occur. Both thermal anomalies and water carbonate chemistry changes promote these effects and their interaction can enhance the impact of these changes.

1.7.4 Has your country formulated plans or projects to sustain and enhance the role of wetlands in supporting and maintaining viable farming systems? {1.7.6} KRA 1.7.v

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1.7.4 Additional information:

Through the adoption of good practices in agriculture, the country is adapting the actions of the productive sector to the paradigm of sustainability throughout the Ministry of the Environment (MMA) and the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA).

MMA: Performs a fund called 'Project Portfolio', with the purpose of financing projects related to the production, processing and marketing of agro-extractive products, creation and consolidation of sustainable use conservation units, sustainable development and extractive settlements projects, organization and strengthening of the agro-extractive communities and capacity building.

Created by Law 12,651/12, the Rural Environmental Registry (Cadastro Ambiental Rural - CAR) is a strategic database for the control, monitoring and combating the deforestation of native vegetation located in rural properties representative of the wetlands of all Brazilian ecosystems.

National Agrobiodiversity Program: The National Conservation, Management and

Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity Program aims to recognize and promote the practices of traditional communities which, anchored in agroecology, contribute to the conservation of agrobiodiversity (cultivated component of biodiversity), promote food sovereignty and security and enable the autonomy of the farmers itself for the production, use, ownership, management, regulation, circulation, exchange, sale, breeding and processing of the cultivated biodiversity components, stimulating new experiences in different parts of Brazil. MDA: In 2008, prepared the National Socio-biodiversity Plan and performs actions aimed at strengthening of productive chains and consolidation of sustainable markets for

products coming from the Brazilian socio-biodiversity. The Promotion of Socio-biodiversity Products Chains has the following objectives: (i) aggregation of environmental value; (ii) income generation and (iii) food security of peoples, traditional communities and family farmers. In the first two years of PNPPS (2009 and 2010) specific actions related to the Brazil-nut and babassu chains were prioritized.

Other MDA in-progress actions which benefit extractive products are the Food Acquisition Program (PAA) and the Minimum Prices Warranty Policy (PGPM).

PAA: Enables the inclusion of socio-biodiversity products in school meals. The mode Formation of Strategic Stocks of the Family Agriculture provides access to fairer markets, becoming an aggregation of income for extractive families living in areas far from urban centers and with poor infrastructure, as is the case for most producers of the Amazon region.

PGPM: Allows for the payment of the Extractivist Direct Subsidy. This program seeks to ensure the price maintenance of some extractive products such as Brazil-nut, babassu almond, natural rubber, açaí berry, pequi fruit, carnauba wax and fiber of palm fiber. The National Plan for Agroecology and Organic Production (Plano Nacional de Agroecologia e Produção Orgânica - Planapo), effective between 2013 and 2015 and forecasted investment of US$ 3.9 billion, is a public policy designed to expand and implement actions to guide the sustainable rural development. The coordinated actions among the ten Plan partner ministries form a set of 134 initiatives, distributed in 14 goals and organized based on the strategic axis: I. Production; II. Use and Conservation of Natural Resources; III. Knowledge and IV. Marketing and consumption.

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STRATEGY 1.8 Wetland restoration. Identify priority wetlands and wetland systems where restoration or rehabilitation would be beneficial and yield long-term environmental, social or economic benefits, and implement the necessary measures to recover these sites and systems.

1.8.1 Have priority sites for wetland restoration been identified?

{1.8.1} KRA 1.8.i

A - Yes

1.8.1 Additional information:

The list of the Priority Areas for Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Brazilian Biodiversity (dated 2007, but currently under review), recommends priority activities in each of the biomes, including recovery activities. Many of the priority areas are or include wetlands. In the planned protocol for the wetlands inventory (see point 1.1.1) the intention is to reach the level of indicating where restorations should occur.

The Department of Watershed Revitalization (Departamento de Revitalização de Bacias Hidrográficas - DRB) of the Ministry of the Environment has the role to identify the priority areas to be restored within the river basin.

In the Ramsar Site PARNA Cabo Orange there are areas where the exclusion of exotic species will be required, mainly pasture, but the planning of this action is waiting for the settlement of farms. In the Ramsar Site SESC Pantanal this action is also planned and in the Rio Doce State Park areas are well conserved. In the Ramsar site APA Baixada Maranhense a project to restore riparian vegetation has already been run and, currently, projects for the restoration of mangrove areas and sustainable fishing incentive programs are being planned. In the other Ramsar Sites, priority areas for restoration were not identified.

1.8.2 Have wetland restoration/rehabilitation programmes or

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1.8.2 Additional information:

As studies comissioned by the Live Coral Project indicated that it is much cheaper to conserve coral reefs than restoring these systems, efforts are currently being directed to environmental education activities and other conservation actions. The Live Coral Project seeks to create a network of environmental and social research related to conservation and sustainable use of Brazilian reef environments (http://coralvivo.org.br/). The operation of the project occurs in southern Bahia, involving three courses of action: knowledge generation, teaching / environmental education and society awareness / mobilization. The Mangrove Recovery Center of the Federal University of Maranhão (CERMANGUE) has its focus on environmental education for the recovery of degraded mangrove areas in the coastal zone. The restored mangrove areas are monitored by the CERMANGUE staff to promote environmental education.

The National Science and Technology Institute - Mineral Resources, Water and

Biodiversity (ACQUA) focus on impact evaluation of the mineral industry activities on the quality of water, soil and biodiversity conservation in the state of Minas Gerais. Its broader goal is to contribute to minimize the impacts of sectoral activities, the selection of

remediation techniques and particularly to the conservation of aquatic biodiversity. The MMA and the Ministry of National Integration (Ministério da Integração Nacional - MI) within the São Francisco River Basin Revitalization Program (Programa de Revitalização da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio São Francisco - PRSF), created the Reference Centers for Rehabilitation of Degraded Areas (Centros de Referência em Recuperação de Áreas Degradadas - CRADs). The objectives of the CRADs are linked to the development of degraded areas recovery models in demonstration areas, the definition and

documentation of procedures to facilitate the replication of degraded areas recovery actions and the promotion of capacity building courses for human resources training (seed collecting, seedling production, planting, silvicultural treatments). Currently, there are seven CRADs, all located in the basin of the São Francisco River.

The Revitalization of Vulnerable and Degraded Watersheds Program has actions directed to the São Francisco, Tocantins-Araguaia, Paraíba do Sul, Alto Paraguai, Parnaíba and Paranaíba River Basins. The watershed revitalization has an interface with various federal programs and is also being implemented through actions of the Growth Acceleration Program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento - PAC). The planning and

management units used are the 12 national hydrographic regions defined by the National Water Resources Council (Resolution No. 32, dated 15 October, 2003) from which

programs and organized projects are developed at basin, sub-basin and watershed levels. In 2010, the National Action Plan for the conservation of aquatic species in the Paraíba do Sul Basin (PAN Paraíba do Sul) was carried out. Although its goal focus on the recovery and maintenance of aquatic species threatened with extinction, new PANs are adopting an ecosystem approach

(http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/biodiversidade/fauna-brasileira/plano-de-acao/146-pan-paraiba-do-sul).

STRATEGY 1.9 Invasive alien species. Encourage Contracting Parties to develop a national inventory of invasive alien species that currently and/or potentially impact the ecological character of wetlands, especially Ramsar Sites, and ensure mutual supportiveness between the national inventory and IUCN’s Global Register on Invasive Species (GRIS); develop guidance and promote procedures and actions to prevent, control or eradicate such species in wetland systems.

1.9.1 Does your country have a comprehensive national inventory of invasive alien species that currently or potentially impact the ecological character of wetlands? {1.9.1} KRA 1.9.i

Figure

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