Volume 1 Principies of Diagnosis and Management

Texto completo



Contributing Authors xi

Preface to the Fourth Edition XXIII

Volume 1 Principies of Diagnosis and Management

Part 1. Approach to Common Neurological Problems 1

1 Diagnosis of Neurological Disease

Walter G. Bradley, Robert B. Daroff, Gerald M. Fenichel, and Joseph Jankovic 3

2 Episodic Impairment of Consciousness Joseph Bruni 11

3 Falls and Drop Attacks Bernd F. Remler and Robert B. Daroff 23

4 Delirium Mario F. Mendez and David N. Gershfie/d 29

5 Clinical Approach to Stupor and Coma Joseph R. Berger 43

6 Approaches to Intellectual and Memory Impairments Howard S. Kirshner 65

7 Global Developmental Delay and Developmental Regression David


Michelson and Stephen Ashwal 75

8 Behavior and Personality Disturbances Jane S. Paulsen and Carissa Nehl 85

9 Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice John A. Berte/son and Bruce H. Price 103

10 Intentional Motor Disorders and the Apraxias

Kenneth M. Heilman, Edward Valenstein, Leslie


Gonzalez Rothi, and Robert T. Watson 117

11 The Agnosias Todd E. Feinberg and Martha J. Farah 131

12 Language and Speech Disorders

A. Aphasia Howard S. Kirshner

B. Dysarthria and Apraxia of Speech Howard S. Kirshner

141 161

13 Neurogenic Dysphagia Ronald F. Pfeiffer 165

14 Vision Loss Robert L. Tomsak 177

15 Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve and Retina Roy W. Beck and Laura J. Balcer 185

16 Eye Movement Disorders: Diplopia, Nystagmus, and Other Ocular Oscillations Patrick J. M. Lavin 195 17 Pupillary and Eyelid Abnormalities Terry A. Cox and Robert B. Daroff 223

18 Dizziness and Vertigo B. Todd Troost 233

19 Hearing Loss and Tinnitus without Dizziness or Vertigo B. Todd Troost and Lisa C. Arguello 247

20 Disturbances of Taste and Smell Pasquale F. Finelli and Robert G. Mair 257



22 Brainstem Syndromes Michael Wall 273

23 Ataxic Disorders S. H. Subramony 287

24 Movement Disorders: Diagnosis and Assessment joseph jankovic and Anthony E. Lang 293

25 Gait Disorders Philip D. Thompson 323

26 Hemiplegia and Monoplegia Karl E. Misulis 337

27 Paraplegia and Spinal Cord Syndromes Thomas N. Byrne and Stephen G. Waxman 351

28 Proximal, Distal, and Generalized Weakness

David C. Preston, Barbara E. Shapiro, and Michael H. Brooke 367

29 Muscle Pain and Cramps Waqar Waheed and Alan Pestronk 387

30 The Floppy Infant Thomas O. Crawford 393

31 Sensory Abnormalities of the Limbs, Trunk, and Face Karl E. Misulis 407

32 Neurological Causes of Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction Clare


Fowler 419

33 Acm and Neck Pain Michael Ronthal 433

34 Lower Back and Lower Limb Pain Karl E. Misulis 445

Part 11.Neurological lnvestigations and Related Clinical Neurosciences 457

35 Laboratory Investigations in Diagnosis and Management of Neurological Disease

Walter G. Bradley, Robert B. Daroff, Gerald M. Fenichel, and joseph jankovic

36 Clinical Neurophysiology

A. Electroencephalography and Evoked Potentials Ronald G. Emerson and Timothy A. Pedley

B. Clinical Electromyography Bashar Katirji


465 491

37 Neuroimaging

A. Structural Neuroimaging

Evelyn M. L. Sklar, Armando Ruiz, Robert M. Quencer, and Steven F. Falcone

B. Computed T omographic and Magnetic Resonance Vascular Imaging

Brian C. Bowen, Gaurav Saigal, and Armando Ruiz

C. Neuroangiographic Anatomy and Common Cerebrovascular Diseases

johnny S. Sandhu and Ajay K. Wakhloo

D. Ultrasound Imaging of the Cerebral Vasculature

Viken L. Babikian and Charles H. Tegeler

E. Functional Neuroimaging

Darin D. Dougherty, Alan j. Fischman, and Scott L. Rauch






38 Neuropsychology jane S. Paulsen and Karin Ferneyhough Hoth 675

39 Neuro-Ophthalmology: Ocular Motor System Patrick j. M. Lavin and Sean P. Donahue 701

40 Neuro-Ophthalmology: Afferent Visual System Robert L. Tomsak 727

41 Neuro-Otology B. Todd Troost and Lisa C. Arguello 739


43 Neuroepidemiology Mitehell T. Wallin and John F. Kurtzke

44 Clinical Neurogenetics Thomas D. Bird and Stephen J. Tapseott

45 Neuroimmunology Tanuja Chitnis and Samia



46 Neurovirology John R. Corboy and Kenneth L. Ty/er

47 Neuroendocrinology Pau/ E. Cooper

48 Management of Neurological Disease

Wa/ter G. Brad/ey, Robert B. Daroff, Gera/d M. Feniehe/, and Joseph Jankovie

49 Principies of Neuropharmacology and Therapeutics Miehae/



50 Principiesof Pain Management Pau/L. Moots and PadmajaKandu/a

51 Principiesof NeurointensiveCare E/iahuS. Feen,Osama O. Zaidat, and José l. Suarez

52 Principies of Neurosurgery

Roberto C. Heros, Deborah O. Heros, and James M. Sehumaeher

53 Principies of Endovascular Surgery

Ajay K. Wakh/oo and Johnny S. Sandhu

54 Principies and Practices of Neurological Rehabilitation

Bruee H. Dobkin

Volume II The N eurological Disorders

Part IIl. Neur%giea/ Diseases

55 NeurologicalComplicationsof SystemicDisease A. In Adults MiehaelJ. Aminoff

B. In Children Bruee O. Berg

56 Trauma of the Nervous System

A. Basic Neuroscience of Neurotrauma W. Da/ton Dietrieh and He/en M. Bramlett

B. Craniocerebral Trauma Dona/d W. Marion, Miehae/ C. Sharts, and E/izabeth C. Ty/er-Kabara

C. Spinal Cord Trauma Pau/ Santiago and Riehard G. Fess/er

D. Peripheral Nerve Trauma Brian Murray

57 Vascular Diseases of the Nervous System

A. Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease José Bi//er and Betsy B. Love B. Intracerebral Hemorrhage Carlos S. Kase

C. Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Warren R. Selman, Jeffrey L. Sunshine, Robert W. Tarr, and Robert A. Rateheson

D. Arteriovenous Malformations

Warren R. Se/man, Robert W. Tarr, Jeffrey L. Sunshine, and Robert A. Rateheson

E. Stroke in Children Meredith R. G%mb and José Biller

F. Spinal Cord Vascular Disease David S. Ge/dmaeher and Brian C. Bowen

G. Central Nervous System Vasculitis James W. Sehmid/ey

58 Cancer and the Nervous System Traey T. Batehe/or

A. Epidemiology of Primary Brain Tumors

Traey T. Batehelor, Molly V. Dorfman, and David J. Hunter














1073 1101

1115 1127 1149 1179

1197 1251


1285 1299 1313 1323



B. Pathology and Molecular Genetics of Nervous System Tumors

Arie Perry, Reid R. Heffner,Jr., and David N. Louis

C. Clinical Features and Complications Pierre Giglio and Mark R. Gilbert

D. Neuroimaging John W. Henson and R. Gilberto Gonzalez

E. Management of Primary Nervous System Tumors in Adults JoachimM. Baehringand Fred H. Hochberg

F. Management of Primary Nervous System Tumors in Infants and Children

Alfredo D. Voloschin,Tracy T. Batchelor,and Jeffrey C. Al/en

G. NervousSystemMetastases DavidSchiffand PatrickWen H. Paraneoplastic Disorders of the Nervous System

Myrna R. Rosenfeldand Josep Dalmau

1341 1363 1371


1423 1441


59 Infections of the Nervous System Ashok Yerma

A. Bacterial Infections Ashok Verma and Marylou V. Solbrig

B. Viral Infections Roberta1. DeBiasi,Marylou V. Solbrig,and Kenneth1. Tyler C. Fungallnfections Madhuri Behari, Manjari Tripathi, and Ashok Yerma

D. ParasiticInfections MadhuriBehari,Sumit Singh,and Ashok Yerma

E. Neurological Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Adults

Ashok Verma

F. Neurological Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Children Ashok Yermaand Anita 1. Belman

G. Prion Diseases

Marcin Sadowski, Ashok Yerma, and Thomas Wisniewski


1475 1515 1545 1555




60 Multiple Sclerosis and Other Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System



Olek and David M. Dawson 1631

61 Hypoxid Anoxic and Ischemic Encephalopathies

BruceD. Snyderand Robert B. Daroff 1665

62 T oxic and Metabolic Encephalopathies

Alan H. Lockwood 1673

63 Deficiency Diseases of the Nervous System

Yuen T. So and Roger P. Simon 1693

64 Effects of Toxins and Physical Agents on the Nervous System

A. Effects of Occupational Toxins on the Nervous System Michael



B. Effects of Drug Abuse on the Nervous System Yuen T. So

C. Neurotoxins of Animals and Plants Neil E. Schwartz and Yuen T. So

D. Marine Toxins Neil E. Schwartz and Yuen T. So

E. Effect of Physical Agents on the Nervous System MichaelJ. Aminoff

1709 1719 1727 1735 1741

65 Brain Edema and Disorders of Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation Gary A. Rosenberg 1745

66 Developmental Disorders of the Nervous System Harvey B. Sarnat and Laura Flores-Sarnat 1763

67 Developmental Disabilities Ruth Nass 1791

68 Inbom Errors of Metabolism of the Nervous System GregoryM.Pastores and Edwin H. Kolodny 1811

69 Mitochondrial Disorders Ashok Yermaand Carlos T. Moraes 1833

70 Channelopathies: Episodic and Electrical Disorders of the Nervous System

RobertA. Lenzand Louis J. Ptácek 1847


72 The Dementias Steven T. DeKosky, Daniel l. Kaufer, and Osear L. Lopez 1901

73 The Epilepsies William H. Treseher and Ronald P. Lesser 1953

74 Sleep and Its Disorders Sudhansu Chokroverty 1993

75 Headache and Other Cranioíacial Pain



Boes, David


Capobianeo, F. Miehael Cutrer, David W. Dodiek, Erie f. Eross,

and ferry W. Swanson 2055

76 Cranial Neuropathies Patriek


Sweeney and Mauriee R. Hanson 2107

77 Movement Disorders Kathleen M. Shannon 2125

78 Disorders oí the Cerebellum, Including the Degenerative Ataxias S. H. Subramony 2169

79 Disorders oí Bones, Joints, Ligaments, and Meninges Riehard B. Rosenbaum and David P. Ciaverella 2189

80 Disorders oí Upper and Lower Motor Neurons

Brian Murray and Hiroshi Mitsumoto 2223

81 Disorders oí Nerve Roots and Plexuses David A. Chad 2267

82 Disorders oí Peripheral Nerves E. Peter Boseh and Benn E. Smith 2299

83 Disorders oí the Autonomic Nervous System Christopher


Mathias 2403

84 Disorders oí Neuromuscular Transmission Donald B. Sanders and fames F. Howard, fr. 2441

85 Disorders oí Skeletal Muscle Anthony A. Amato and Miehael H. Brooke 2463

86 Neurological Problems oí the Newborn Alan Hill 2511

87 Neurological Problems oí Pregnancy D. Maleolm Shaner 2531