The use of supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL clases

Texto completo

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UNIVERSIDAD TÉCNICA PARTICULAR DE LOJA

ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN

MENCIÓN INGLÉS

DISTANCE SYSTEM

The Use of Supplementary Materials for Teaching

Children in EFL Classes

AUTHOR:

Bravo Bravo Wendy Lorena

ADVISOR:

Mgs. Paladines Benítez Jhoana Elizabeth

UNIVERSITY CENTER MACHALA

2012

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CERTIFICATION

Magíster. Jhoana Paladines, Thesis Advisor

Certifies that:

This research study has been thoroughly revised by the graduation committee.

Therefore, it authorizes the presentation of this thesis, which complies with all the norms

and internal requirements of the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.

Loja, March, 2012

Magíster Jhoana Paladines

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CONTRATO DE CESIÓN DE DERECHOS DE TESIS DE GRADO

Yo, Wendy Lorena Bravo Bravo declaro ser autora del presente trabajo y eximo

expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales

de posibles reclamos o acciones legales.

Adicionalmente declaro conocer y aceptar la disposición del Art. 67 del Estatuto

Orgánico de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja que de su parte pertinente

textualmente dice: forman parte del patrimonio de la Universidad la propiedad

intelectual de investigaciones, trabajos científicos o técnicos y tesis de grado que se

realicen a través, o que el apoyo financiero, académico o institucional (operativo) de la

Universidad .

_________________ Wendy L. Bravo B.

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AUTHORSHIP

The thoughts, ideas, opinions, and the information obtained through this research are the

only responsibility of the author.

____________________ Wendy L. Bravo B.

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DEDICATION

I dedicate this thesis to:

My parents, Rodolfo and Emilia. You always taught me the value of hard work

and perseverance. Thank you for always showing me unconditional love and support

through this tremendous effort.

My brother and sister, Christian and Karen. Thanks for the love, support, and

patience they have given me. They had always believed in me and motivated me to

accomplish more than I ever thought I could.

My beloved daughter Emily, who has been the motivation and inspiration of my

work; to continue forward, day in and day out.

Finally, my friends and advisors, Javier and Penélope, for their unconditional

friendship and for always being there for me.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This thesis was only completed through the combined efforts of the author and

few friends, whom I am exceedingly grateful. First of all, I must thank God, for the

strength and the wisdom to continue every day with the confidence and a blind faith that

everything will be fine.

I would like to thank my thesis advisor Magister Jhoana Paladines for supervising

my work throughout the process. I deeply appreciate her willingness to assist me in

writing the thesis by providing valuable suggestions and productive comments. I am

very grateful to her for sharing her knowledge with me and being always ready to guide

me with the research confusions and her remarkable patience.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to Penélope Sánchez, Director of

Lincoln English Center in Machala-El Oro, and all the people who helped me obtain

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CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION .. ii

CONTRATO DE CESIÓN DE DERECHOS ... iii

AUTHORSHIP . iv

DEDICATION .. v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... ... vi

CONTENTS. .. vii

ABSTRACT . . 1

INTRODUCTION 2

METHOD .. 5

DISCUSSION .... 9

Literature Review 9

Results 23

Description, Analysis, and Interpretation of Results .. 28

Conclusions 63

Recommendations .. 65

REFERENCES . 66

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Abstract

This study was carried out in Machala El Oro Ecuador. A bilingual private

school was chosen to identify and analyze the type of supporting materials used for

teaching children in EFL classes.

The participant in this research study was a private school. The teachers observed

were from the 4th, 5th, 6th grades. The data were collected in a total of thirty class

observations; which were divided into ten observations per each grade, during the period

of three months. This research study combines qualitative and quantitative methods to

accomplish the main objective of this study. Once the data gathered were placed in

tabulation charts, the results obtained were analyzed very carefully to get the

corresponding conclusions.

The findings of this thesis show that the teachers in this school constantly make

use of the white board as a means of instruction; without taking into account other

supplementary materials like: flashcards, power point presentations, videos, posters,

songs, among others. Consequently, it is important that teachers take some time to

prepare meaningful materials in order to awake and keep students` motivation and

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Introduction

The use of supplementary materials to teach children in EFL classes is a topic that

concerns teachers, students and everyone related to the educational community. Perhaps,

one of the most important roles supporting materials play in EFL Ecuadorian classrooms

depends on their accurate elaboration and use.

One of the most important things at the time of teaching a foreign language is to

keep in mind factors such as: What I am going to teach, to whom, and how I am going to

do it. These questions help teachers to get an idea of the class they will have to deal

with; and also to be aware of the use of supplementary materials in EFL classes.

The main reason to conduct this research study on Teaching Children in EFL

Classes is to recognize the difference and variety of the Supplementary Materials used

by teachers, and how those materials help improve the quality of the education in

Ecuadorian EFL classrooms.

The objectives of this study are to identify and analyze supporting materials used

for teaching children in EFL classes. Another objective proposed was to describe and

analyze each one of the supplementary materials used in EFL classrooms in terms of

pertinence (content), appropriateness (students` needs), and quality. Finally, as the last

objective proposed was to determine the frequency and variety of the supplementary

materials used in the observed classes.

One of the important facts about this topic is that many teachers acknowledge the

role of supplementary materials in their classes; however few of them make use of them.

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the learning of a foreign language. Moreover this topic is of great importance to discover

some of the reality in Ecuadorian schools.

Likewise, some researchers have concluded several studies about the use of

supplementary materials for teaching children in EFL classes. The study conducted by

Min and Hsu (2008) was proposed to demonstrate that intermediate teenage learners of a

foreign language, adopt more vocabulary by performing reading activities. They also

intended to prove that instructional contexts are more helpful at the time of acquiring

and conserving a new vocabulary. Furthermore, they proposed to determine what are the

differences of the known words, between the groups tested? Which were not reliable

enough due to limitations in the research study like the fact that the experimental group

were not randomly assigned, and that the tested group were only male samples.

Another study is the one conducted by Tsubaki and Nakayama`s (2008 2009)

whose purpose was to discover if by giving students a piece of reading outline in a way

of a higher standard organizer produce any changes at the time of working with listening

comprehension exercises. It is also intended to figure out if by having a good level of

listening competence or facility can help students anticipate reading understanding and if

by having a previous knowledge affect them directly at the time of working with

listening comprehension. Furthermore, this research study intended to prove the fact that

repeated exposure provokes, in students, better reading interpretations. As it is natural in

a study research, there were some limitations like: the number of the students was too

small for this kind of statistical analysis also the fact that the participants had a fairly

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fact, only one type of advanced listening organizer was examined during the process. To

conclude, the participants were not allowed to take notes while listening to the lecture.

This study will benefit school administrators, since they can get useful

information about what their teachers might need in order to improve the quality of

education. People working for the Ministry of Education in Ecuador, will definitely

benefit from this study, because they can be aware of the problems teachers go through

every day in Ecuadorian EFL classrooms and the inappropriate use of supplementary

materials; so they can promote workshops to prepare teachers in this matter. The

teaching field and the learning community that is involved directly in this study will

benefit as well, by awaking the interest in them to perform further investigations about

the topic.

The limitations at the time of conducting this research study were two. First, the

sample was too small in relation to the magnitude of the study. Also due to the time

factor to conduct this investigation; probably a year-round research would be more

reliable. Second, teachers did not have their class plans to verify if the class objective

was met when using the supplementary materials, in terms of pertinence (content).

For further investigations, it is advisable to enlarge the sample and probably go

beyond that and conduct a comparative research in which schools and high-schools,

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Method

Setting and Participants

This research study was conducted in Machala El Oro Ecuador. The school

chosen is a private school, located in an urban area of the city. This school was chosen

randomly out of four other schools around the same place. This school has an English

teacher per grade and around 25 students per class. The classrooms are well equipped

and have enough space for students and teachers to interact freely during class.

Procedures

In order to conduct this research study, it was necessary to obtain information

related to the topics supplementary materials used to teach children and teaching vs.

learning a foreign language . The information selected was chosen according to its

relevance and content through an analytic and detailed investigation. Also it was

required to find information on previous studies related to the proposed topic on this

research; in order to identify all the parts and steps to be followed when elaborating and

writing a study.

To continue with this research study, observation sheets and surveys were

designed in order to be applied in a public or private school and to evidence the reality

on the use of supplementary materials in EFL schools; so the data gathered could be

compared to the ones found in previous studies and the topics mentioned in the literature

review. The analysis and interpretation of the results were written based on the

bibliographic information found in contrast with the data gathered from the direct

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Thirty class observations were carried out in the 4th, 5th and 6th grades and the first

hand data was recorded in observation sheets. Furthermore, as an extra data collection

technique, additional information was obtained through note taking during the class

observations. Also thirty surveys were applied to different children after each observed

class (two per class observed).

At the end of the observations, a survey was completed by the teacher of each

grade.

The presentation of the results from the information gathered was tabulated on 5

qualitative and quantitative tabulation charts. Four charts were used to represent the

qualitative results and one chart for the quantitative results.

The following paragraphs describe the distribution of the condensed information

in qualitative charts.

Chart one presents thetype of supplementary materials used to teach children. In

the first column shows the variables (visual, audio, audiovisual, realia and online); the

second column, the indicators (flashcards, maps, pictures, and so on); the third column,

indicates the material used; and finally, the fourth column indicates the material not

used.

Chart two presents the pertinence and appropriateness of the supplementary

material used to teach childrenin the fourth grade. the first column shows the variables;

the second column the indicators; the third to twelfth columns indicate if the material

used was pertinent and appropriate. In the same way charts 3 and 4 present the

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Chart five presents the quantitative condensed results to evidence the frequency of

the supplementary materials used, as follows. The first column indicates the variables;

the second column the indicators; the third to fifth columns indicate the number of times

the supplementary materials were used for the 4th, 5th and 6th grades respectively. The

sixth column indicates the total of the times a material was used in all the grades; and

finally the seventh column indicates the global percentage of the supplementary

materials used in the 4th, 5th and 6thgrades.

For the description, analysis and interpretation of the results a qualitative and

quantitative analysis were performed, considering some important aspects, describe in

the following paragraphs.

The aspects taken into account for the qualitative analysis were the pertinence,

appropriateness, and quality of the supplementary materials used in the classes observed.

The pertinence which involved the importance of the material used in relation to the

contents reviewed in each class observed. The appropriateness indicated the relationship

between the material used and the students` level of understanding. And the quality was

predetermined by the way the teacher designed and used the supplementary materials in

each class. Also it is important to indicate that the additional information obtained,

through note taking during observations, provided valid support in this qualitative

analysis.

Finally the aspects taken into account for the quantitative analysis were the

frequency in which each material was used and the types of supplementary materials

used to teach children. Regarding frequency, it was determined by the how many times

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supplementary materials, it was determined by the teacher`s preferences at the time of

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DISCUSSION

Literature Review

The concept of being a good teacher, perhaps for most of us involves factors such

as: mastering the subject, being flexible or strict, having good class management, and so

on, but there are other aspects that make a good teacher; for instance, the use of

supplementary material in the classrooms. Truth is that every teacher worldwide is

aware of the importance of supplementary materials in their classes; but they do not use

them due to several actors. Their knowledge of elaboration of supplementary materials is

not enough and they do not use such materials appropriately during the planning and

teaching stages.

Supplementary materials are a vital part in any classroom. They are not only on

textbooks or teachers´ guides. They are mostly taken from teachers´ creativity, ability

and effort giving students an interesting, educational and successful class.

Teaching a foreign language

Vez (2002) states that teaching a foreign language requires teachers to be always

aware of the student s necessities at the time of teaching them English or any other

language as a foreign one. In addition he states that, in many countries around the world

people have noticed that learning English as a foreign language is not just a boom or a

trend, but it is a tool that can help them with their needs like: businesses, daily

interactions with out-of-country friends, computer programs, pleasure trips, and so on.

The same way Robertson (1964) notes that nowadays there are a wide and varied range

of techniques and methods available to help students react favorable to the acquisition of

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students in a classified and organized way, in order to avoid future problems with

memorization of grammar rules and vocabulary words.

Furthermore Puhahl, Rhodes, & Christian (2001) report that it is better for people

to start learning a foreign language at an early age; consequently, acquiring proficiency

becomes faster and easier for children than adults.

Finally, the authors mentioned before concluded that, teachers need to find new,

interesting and revolutionary ways to teach students any foreign language they desire

according to their abilities and personal needs.

Learners

According to Rubin (1975), every person is born with the ability to learn any

language besides their own. Also he remarks that every person learns things in different

ways. A language learner will develop more than another according to the influences in

his/her surrounding making him/her special and particular among the same group of

learners.

In relation to the age factor on the teaching and learning of a second or foreign

language field, Gomleksiz (2001) states that people from different ages learn differently

due to their brain functions and the way they process the information at the time of

acquiring a second or a foreign language. Also he supports this idea by adding that when

a person is an adult (around 20 years of age) it is harder for him or her to acquire a

second language. By transferring the accent of their native language, the learning

process of the foreign or second language is compromised. Concluding that when people

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accurate way; but as we get older our brain tends to lose plasticity making language

learning harder.

Likewise Global English (2001) suggests that when the learner is a child,

willingness to is dependent upon parental support. On the other hand adult learners have

to go through many socio-economical obstacles, in order to enroll him/her in classes to

learn the language of their choice.

When talking about learner differences, Rodiki (2006) reports that people learn

and acquire a second or foreign language depending on some influencing social factors.

Contrary to Gomleksiz (2001), who assures that there are not only differences on the

learning of a foreign or second language process among children-adolescents-adults; but

also amongchildren, at the time of selecting their learning habits and methods.

In fact, at the time of talking about motivation in learners Gomleksiz (2001),

Global English (2001) and Rodiki (2006) agree that learning a new language is not an

easy task, but an enthusiastic approach can make the difference from boring and hard to

enjoyable and nice. Coming to the conclusion that motivation is an important step to

take into consideration when teaching young children a foreign language. The more fun

the activities planned are, the higher the motivation will be. For that reason, it is

important to use pictures, videos, colorful presentations, realia, and so on in order to

keep the learners´ attention.

Learning styles

Felder (1993) agrees with Montgomery & Groat (1998) that people learn

differently according to their attitudes toward the language; they are learning and also to

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certain situations. Similarly, they point out that teachers in the classroom not always pay

attention to the student´s needs at the time of teaching them a language.

Haynes (1998) on the other hand suggests that teachers should help students along

the learning process in order to identify their students learning styles; visual, auditory,

kinesthetic, analytic, and so on. The visual ones are students who learn and memorize

any new information by looking at images and pictures and relating them to the

vocabulary or grammatical structures learned. The auditory ones learn things better by

listening to a rhythm or a song and usually have the ability to appreciate and produce

musical forms as well. The tactile ones learn by using their sense of touch and relating

the new knowledge with older ones stored in their brains by using their memories. They

also have the ability to handle objects skillfully. The kinesthetic ones have the ability to

control their body movements, and learn new things by synchronizing a set of

movements. The analytic ones, learn things by discerning logical or numerical patterns,

and also have the capacity to handle long chains of reasoning problems. Besides the

previously learning styles, there is the case of students who can have a combination of

several learning styles.

Teaching techniques

According to McGraw-Hill (2002), students learn differently, which means

teachers need to find different and better teaching techniques to apply in a classroom

with their students. Moreover, it states that teaching techniques are the different tools

teachers have in their curriculum area.

Cornerstone (2010) and Brown (2004) agree with the fact that teaching children

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Also, they add that in order to teach children to read and write in a foreign language,

teachers must be resourceful. While Brown highlights the importance of creating

interesting and fun activities to teach reading and writing to children, Cornerstone

believes that using teaching techniques as: predicting, guided reading, comprehension

questions, and so on is excellent to introducing children to literature.

On the other hand Kreger (2002), states that the best teaching techniques a

teacher can use to work with active children is by letting them participate actively

throughout the class and assigning them several responsibilities like being the teacher´s

helper.

Different contexts for teaching

The two authors Wideman (2010) and Hunt (1998) agree on the fact that it is not

easy to work in different contexts when teaching a foreign language; but that, it is

always necessary to understand how to work for the student´s benefit especially when

they need extra work. Working with large group of students requires teachers to plan

different context such as: planning the class atmosphere, moving students to different

seats and creating innovative projects inside and outside the classroom. Changing the

class atmosphereinvolves changing the setting. Classes can be taught in different places

like a cafeteria, a park, a library, a museum, a mall, and so on; which helps maintain

students´ attention. Moving students to different seats allows them to interact with their

peers and share their personal and particular talents. Creating innovative projects gives

students the opportunity to become more independent and have a more personalized

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Furthermore, Hunt assures that working in different contexts is a process that

takes inexperienced teachers some time to get used to; while Wideman claims that

focusing on the classroom diversity is the key for teachers to know when to apply a

specific context.

Benson (2007) on the other side, shares that an e-learning context is one of the most

effective contexts to teach students who can not be in the classroom setting for several

reasons. Benson also supports the idea of training teachers in the use of new educational

platforms like the ones used at distance teaching systems, like many colleges do

nowadays. In the same way he invites teachers to explore, share, and apply the

e-learning context, to help students learn a second or foreign language.

Supplementary materials

Supplementary materials refer to the extra materials used in a classroom, other

than the regular books or programs that an institution provides teachers for their classes.

The main objective of supplementary materials is to create a more motivational

atmosphere where students feel encouraged to participate actively during the whole

learning process.

In relation to the importance of supplementary materials Davanellos (2010)

strongly agrees with Araya (2007) about their effectiveness in the process of learning a

second or a foreign language, and the way they develop critical thinking in language

constructions. In the same way Kenji (1997) supports the idea that searching and making

new and creative materials, that enhance student s motivation in their learning process,

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Moreover, when talking about the importance of supplementary materials

Davanellos (2010) suggests that there should be a relationship between the activities in

the student s text book and reality; the types of activities meant to teach students by

experimenting, touching, creating, and so on; rather than just sitting and listening to the

teacher.

A different point of view, by Kenji (1997), states that the importance of

supplementary materials is not just to make a whole set of new activities for every class;

but to know exactly what type of materials would be appropriate for the student´s age,

and how it relates to the topic and objectives of the class.

Furthermore, Davanellos (2010) believes that the role of supplementary materials

in a classroom is to highlight the topic of the class, and mostly to support the learning of

language structures and vocabulary. In addition, he states that teachers should present

nice and attractive materials in order to promote students´ interest in learning the target

language.

Contrary to that, Araya (2007) argues that supplementary materials can be culturally

damaging because they transmit different types of messages during the teaching-learning

process. Teachers should be cautious when selecting and making supplementary

materials with the aim that they do not fall into stereotypes. In other words, Araya

explains that teaching materials can become a message deliverer. For example, if the

class is about the topicfamilyand the teacher finds aChinese babyto use as a flashcard;

this can lead to racial problems, if one or a considerable minority in that class belongs to

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Davanellos (2010), Araya (2007), and Kenji (1997), agree that, each one of the

materials used in a class has its unique characteristics and applications according to the

age of the students and to the topic of the class. Also, they strongly believe that it is

better to use visual and audio materials for vocabulary presentations, especially when

working with young children. Furthermore, they state that audiovisual is the perfect

choice for practicing grammatical structures in context. In addition, they assure that

realiais the best option when working with older learners, since they need to be more in

contact with the real world.

In contrast the authors mentioned before, found that although internet is a good

source of information and a common learning space, where teenagers and adults can

practice and develop their knowledge in a better way, it is not one of the most

recommended supplementary materials to use in a class. It presents a wide range of

disadvantages, especially when they are not under adult supervision.

The use of supplementary materials for teaching has created a great and profound

curiosity in some researchers worldwide, who in order to understand the reality of the

process for teaching and learning a foreign or a second language in the classroom have

conducted several studies. Most of the research studies have gone beyond the

researcher´s expectations having discovered new and fascinating ways of working with

learners from all kinds and contexts. Through the years researchers have been carefully

studying and analyzing the information obtained in their study in order to show their

valuable discoveries in the teaching field.

Indeed, one of the studies selected to be included in this literature review, is the

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if giving students a piece of reading outline in a way of a higher standard organizer

produced any changes at the time of working with listening comprehension exercises. It

also intended to figure-out if by having a good level of listening competence or facility

can help students anticipate reading understanding, and if by having a previous

knowledge affected them directly at the time of working with listening comprehension.

Furthermore, this research study intended to prove the fact that repeated exposure

provokes, in students, better reading interpretations.

For this research study 63 students from a Japanese university, (EFL learners)

with a relatively lower English ability for lecture listening, were chosen randomly. The

students were tested for a first time in order to separate them into two groups; the more

proficient ones (MP) and the less proficient ones (LP). Later the two groups were

separated a second time into the experimental group and the control group. The

experimental group had to listen to the outline for three minutes before solving the

comprehension tasks, but the control group did not have the outline; both groups were

not able to take notes or use dictionaries.

As a conclusion for this research study, the authors mentioned before found many

contradictory theories about lecture listening outlines, since they discovered that it is not

such a good idea to use them with lower English proficient students. They also realized

that outlines have to be appropriate for the students´ level, and that having a prior

knowledge is not helpful either, since most of group was integrated by less proficient

students.

Min and Hsu (2008) study was proposed to demonstrate that intermediate teenage

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activities. They also intended to prove that instructional contexts are more helpful at the

time of acquiring and conserving new vocabulary. Furthermore, they proposed their

study to determine what the differences of the known and unknown words, between the

groups tested were.

The subjects for this study were 50 male Chinese speaker students, at an

intermediate level of English proficiency. The students had studied English for 5 years

in order to reach the intermediate level required for the experiment. Some tests were

administrated to the participants in order to make sure that all of them were at the same

English level of proficiency. Finally subjects were given a final test in which they had to

show their reading and vocabulary skills.

The result was that students did benefit from the study research in their lexical

knowledge, not only through reading plus vocabulary-focused activities but also through

narrow reading activities.

The authors mentioned before concluded, that the application of the

quasi-experimental test was a success in the sample students, since they could prove that

intensive vocabulary exercises are the best option for those teachers, who want their

students to enhance their receptive and productive word knowledge acquisition and

long-term retention. Researchers also found interesting the fact that by selecting,

organizing, and grouping certain vocabulary words, similar in category, can help

students enhance significantly their range of acquisition and comprehension of each

word in any reading contexts. Demonstrating like this that the objectives of the study

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Arikan and Ulas (2010) gave an interesting purpose to their research study, by

proposing to examine the accurateness of authentic animated cartoons in teaching

grammar and vocabulary to young Turkish learners of English. Similarly the authors

intended to analyze its effectiveness at the time of teaching, and if there was any

learning difference between the groups to be studied in this research.

The participants in this study were young English learners, from a Turkish school.

They were selected randomly. The control group was exposed to the traditional curricula

approved by the National Ministry of Education. Later researchers paid special attention

primarily to grammatical structures and vocabulary in separate ways, ignoring the

communicative class focus on sharing meaning. The young learners were taught every

new vocabulary or language in a mechanical way by practicing questions and answering

exercises. For example, if the teacher wanted to present the vocabulary days of the week,

then she/he would point at the calendar on the classroom wall to explain to students what

each one of them was making at the same time the relationship between the Turkish and

the target language. Then students repeated a similar action for the grammar structure

planned for that day by asking students to repeat the drills; either for affirmatives,

negatives, and interrogatives with its corresponding questions and answers.

Even when Turkish pupils managed to interact and work in class with their

teacher, motivation was something that was way beyond the objectives of the class.

Teachers usually performed short reading and role plays according to the learner s age

and level, with varied activities in order to have everyone in class involved in the usage

of the target language. Researchers had thought that in order to run with their plan of

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language and vocabulary to young English learners? They had to carefully choose from

a series of cartoons available in the market. After a survey between the same group of

students, they selected one gathered the appropriate language, the required pedagogical

perspective and did not go against the students´ moral and religious beliefs.

The experiment took place, by presenting pupils the first episode. Students

watched it for at least three times until they began to get used to the language and to

capture the grammar in context they had already learned in class with their teacher. After

that, the teacher prepared some power point presentations, by using some of the pictures

from the cartoon, in order to ask learners about the plot, setting, and characters in the

story. Finally the students roles played the scene and were encouraged to participate in

the communicative learning process.

As a conclusion authors found that at the end of the research study the

experimental group exceeded the control group in knowledge and usage of the target

language. The hypothesis met the objectives, by having proved that, cartoons are a good

option for teacher to use with young learners as a part of the audio-visual supplementary

materials in a class.

Chwo, Jonas, Tsai & Chuang (2010) proposed that teachers need to ask

themselves first; who the students they are going to work with are considering their ages,

foreign language level. The reason why they are in that determined classroom, the things

they expect to learn during the course and most important of all the way the teacher is

expected to teach his/her classes. In addition, researchers intended to find out if there

were any changes at the time of implementing the supplementary materials for listening

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For this research study, four sophomore listening and speaking classes were

randomly selected from non-English speaking classes. Students were taught with their

regular textbooks and listening material, created by the same teachers from the English

department. At the beginning of the semester, the participants were pre-tested, through

surveys, to see what the students´ general learning styles were before the instruction

began.

Each group was tested individually, and given a post-test in a survey format. After

that the results were analyzed and determined more effectively. Participants were

informed of the texts and listening materials they were going to use for this study.

Learners and teachers worked with the given materials through the methodology

proposed for listening and speaking. Each unit developed progressively with all the

activities and after each unit lesson there was a quiz to evaluate the learning progress.

The phonological awareness tasks were implemented to the program along with the

supplementary materials, in order to complement the existing materials.

The authors, previously mentioned, analyzed and compared the results and came

to the conclusion that; between the experimental and the control groups, the differences

in their improvement for listening and speaking skills were significantly important due

to their excellent development on their surveys. They also demonstrated that, the

implementation of extra materials for these skills, worked perfectly.

The results of the study were not outstanding in relation to what the authors

expected from the hypothesis proposed at the beginning of the study. But, they were

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better strategies to learn and acquire effective recycling vocabulary skills and also

motivated them to use oral presentations in groups.

Peacock (1996) stated in his research study that his main objectives were to prove

and experiment about the use of authentic materials in EFL learners and how their levels

of motivation increase or decrease significantly.

Thirty-one students were selected for this study. The learners were separated into

two groups; 16 in one and 15 in another one. Their ages ranged between 18 and 24 and

the average age was 20. There were 18 males and 15 females participants for the

research.

The participants first, went through the process of observation, to obtain

information about their behavior, concentration, participation, and so on. Then students

were given some questionnaires to determine the intensity of motivational level at the

moment of the presentation of authentic materials in the class. The pilot experiment

lasted nine days, and after that, more tests were given to the participants in order to

make the study more reliability.

The author came to the conclusion, that students prefer artificial learning materials

rather than authentic ones. The study also reflected that students felt more motivated to

participate actively, during activities like constructing sentences and writing paragraphs,

due to the exposure of artificial materials. Indeed other authors that support the idea of

authentic materials. As a matter of fact, other authors, who support the idea of authentic

materials as being good for motivation, had not been specific enough about the subject.

Peacock´s suggestion is to perform deeper researches regarding students´ motivation

(30)

Results

Qualitative Tabulation

Chart One:Type of supplementary material used to teach children.

Variable Indicators Yes No

Visual

flash cards √

power point presentations

maps √

pictures √

charts √

handouts √

posters √

word cards √

white/black board √

Audio

songs √

dialogues √

stories √

tales √

Audiovisual

videos √

movies √

documentaries √

Realia objects (toys, plants, fruits) √

Online websites √

Author:Wendy L. Bravo B.

(31)

Chart Two:Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary material used to teach children.

Author:Wendy L. Bravo B.

Source:4th(8 years old approx.) grade

V a ri a bl e Indicators 1 st cl a ss 2 nd cl a ss 3 rd cl a ss 4 th cl a ss 5 th cl a ss 6 th cl a ss 7 th cl a ss 8 th cl a ss 9 th cl a ss 1 0 th cl a ss P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p P er t. A ppr o p . V is ua l flash cards power point presentations Maps Pictures

charts X

Handouts

posters word cards

white/black board

√ √ √ X X X X X X X X √ √

A udi o Songs dialogues stories Tales A udi o v is ua

l videos √ √

Movies documentaries

R

ea

li

a objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

O

nl

(32)

Chart Three:Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary material used to teach children.

Author:Wendy L. Bravo B.

Source:5th(9 years old approx.) grade

V a ri a bl e Indicators 1 st c la ss 2 nd cl a ss 3 rd cl a ss 4 th cl a ss 5 th cl a ss 6 th cl a ss 7 th cl a ss 8 th cl a ss 9 th cl a ss 1 0 th cl a ss P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p P er t. A ppr o p . V is ua l flash cards power point presentations Maps Pictures charts Handouts posters word cards white/black board

X X X X X

A udi o Songs dialogues stories Tales A udi o v is ua l videos Movies documentaries R ea li

a objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

O

nl

(33)

Chart Four:Pertinence and Appropriateness of the supplementary material used to teach children.

Author:Wendy L. Bravo B.

Source:6th(10 years old approx.) grade

V a ri a bl e Indicators 1 st c la ss 2 nd cl a ss 3 rd cl a ss 4 th cl a ss 5 th cl a ss 6 th cl a ss 7 th cl a ss 8 th cl a ss 9 th cl a ss 1 0 th cl a ss P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p . P er t. A ppr o p P er t. A ppr o p . V is ua l flash cards power point presentations Maps Pictures charts

Handouts X

posters word cards

white/black board

X X X √ √ X X X

A udi o Songs dialogues stories Tales A udi o v is ua l videos Movies documentaries R ea li

a objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

O

nl

(34)

Quantitative Tabulation

Chart Five:Frequency of use supplementary material.

Variable Indicators 4th grade (8 years old approx.) 5th grade (9 years old approx.) 6th grade (10 years old approx.) TOTAL PERCENTAGE

f f f f %

Visual flash cards power point presentations Maps Pictures

charts 1 1 3,23

Handouts 1 1 3,23

posters

word cards

white/black board

9 9 9 27 87.09

Audio Songs dialogues stories tales Audiovisual

videos 1 1 3,23

movies

documentaries

Realia objects (toys,

plants, fruits)

1 1 3,23

Online websites

TOTAL 31 100%

Author:Wendy L. Bravo B.

(35)

Description, Analysis, and Interpretation of Results

The following section describes, analyzes, and interprets the results collected in

qualitative and quantitative charts. The qualitative analysis is described in terms of

pertinence, appropriateness, and quality. And the quantitative analysis takes into account

the frequency of the supplementary materials used in every observed class.

Qualitative Analysis

4thGrade

Along the10 observed classes, the teacher used charts, white board and videos as

supplementary materials to teach children in EFL classes. These materials were analyzed

in the same order as they appear in the qualitative charts.

Charts

In the first class observed The garden scarecrow problem vs. solution a flow

chart was used to explain part of the class topic. The objective of this class was to

identify the problem and solution of the story in order to understand it better. The chart

was used in a pertinent way, because the teacher summarized the story with some

examples. Also the chart was used to help students identify what the problem and

solution in the story was. In addition, the chart was used to help students classify the

important details from the story, which successfully met one of the objectives of the

class.

The use of the flow chart in this class was not appropriate for the students` age

and level because there were a few misspelled words that confused students at the time

(36)

Regarding the quality of the material, students were considerably bored and sleepy

in this class, since the material presented was not elaborated with originality. Teacher

used too many words for each part of the flow chart; the size of the letter was small and

placed in a perpendicular position which made the chart look extense. To conclude,

teacher did not design the flow chart with creativity which did not encourage students`

participation or interest in the class.

White board

In the first class observed, the white board was used in a pertinent way according

to its topic The garden scarecrow problem vs. solution and its objective to identify

the problem and solution of the story in order to understand it better. The teacher drew a

picture of a scarecrow to introduce the topic of the class. Then the teacher explained to

the students what a problem is and what could a possible solution to that problem be by

dividing the board in two parts with a vertical line from top to bottom. In one side the

teacher wrote some common conflicts or problems and in the other some solutions to

those problems. Also the teacher drew some pictures to clarify the meaning of the

unknown words that appeared in the reading as the class progressed.

The use of the white board was appropriate in relation to the students` age and

level, as Gomleksiz (2001), Global English (2001) and Rodiki (2006) agreed children

learn things better by the presentation of graphics, rather than speeches or written

explanations. Teacher was also dynamic at the time of the explanations by encouraging

students to participate actively at the time of the explanations by encouraging students to

(37)

The white board used by the teacher was acrylic, and it had a grid expanded across

its dimensions; which was very original and helpful at the time of drawing and writing

anything. The quality of the used material was very good because the teacher drew

pictures big enough for all the students in the classroom to see. In addition, teacher used

different color markers to explain what a problem and a solution was, so students could

differentiate things easier. Furthermore, teacher used a normal size letter so students

were able to read without too much effort. Finally teacher used the board in an organized

way to help students understand the topic better and met the objectives of the class.

In the second class the board was used to explain the grammar structures,

have/has, in a pertinent way in order to meet its objective to explain students how to

identify the use of have/has. Teacher wrote on the board some sentences with have/has

and explained, step by step, when and how to use them. After that, teacher asked

students to pass in front of the class and match the grammar structures learned with their

corresponding personal pronouns, by drawing some lines with a marker on the board, in

order to check understanding.

The used material was not appropriate for the students` age and level, due to the

teacher`s lack of organization for explaining and writing the grammar rules. Students

could not understand the topic of the class at first, since the white board was so full of

words that confused them and made them lose interest in the subject. Moreover students

were not motivated at all and interrupted the classes constantly; which according to

Gomleksiz (2001), Global English (2001) and Rodiki (2006) students need to be highly

(38)

In terms of quality, the white board was not presented with creativity or

originality, mostly because the teacher used small size letters and a light color marker to

write. There was not organization at the time of writing on the board which made it

difficult for students to write down the information in their notebooks.

In the third class observed, the white board was used properly in terms of

pertinence since the teacher achieved successfully the objective proposed, to learn new

vocabulary about the story Lazy Town. In fact, the white board was used to draw

pictures about the vocabulary prepared for this class, related to the story Lazy Town .

In relation to the quality of the used material; the board was not applied with

originality, because the teacher was not good at the complexity of certain words like:

energy booster, underground, neighborhood, among others did not help either. Also the

teacher used a red color marker for all the drawings, which made it difficult for the

students to see especially for the ones on the back seats. Students were not motivated by

the presentation of the drawings and for that reason they made noise during the whole

class.

In the fourth class, the white board was used to explain the topic countable

nouns- food . The teacher drew a pertinent chart to meet the objective of the class to

learn about countable nouns by writing sentences using the food vocabulary. Also the

teacher explained each part of the chart on the board and drew some food vocabulary. In

addition, teacher asked students to pass in front of the class and circle the correct

countable noun in sentences written on the board. Likewise, teacher gave students some

rules to form affirmative, negative, questions and answers with the countable nouns,

(39)

Concerning the appropriateness of the used material, it was not good at all in

relation to the students` age and level. The teacher wrote so many words in the chart that

students took a long time to understand what a countable noun was. Moreover, after the

explanation of countable noun , teacher confused students with so many rules on the

board that made students progressively lose interest in the class.

Students were not motivated during the presentation of the countable nouns

chart on the white board, since the teacher was not creative enough at the time of

presenting it. The teacher used so many color markers for all the charts and the food

items were drawn in a messy way. In this class, the quality of the material was

inappropriate and boring.

Cornerstone (2010) and Brown (2004), state that teachers must be resourceful at

the time of teaching children to read and write in order to meet the objectives of the

class. In The fifth class observed, the board was used to write and explain the topic

Academic words and to meet the objective to learn about academic words and to

identify them in a paragraph. The teacher did not use the board in a pertinent way like

drawings or sentences; to help students understand the topic.

In terms of appropriateness, the board was not used in an effective way since the

teacher`s explanations and definitions of academic words were confusing. The

students felt frustrated during the whole class. Moreover students were not able to

construct their own sentences using academic words.

The material used did not awake students` interest or motivation at all. The

teacher wrote some examples on the board and expected students to comprehend

(40)

six words and their meanings and felt the rest of the board in blank. The quality of the

white board used in this class was just not didactic or adequate for teaching children.

In the sixth class observed, the used of the white board was pertinent because the

teacher did everything to get students` attention at the time of explaining the topic of the

class ordinal and cardinal numbers and to meet the objective to identify and classify

ordinal and cardinal numbers according to their characteristics. The teacher also drew

some pictures to let students know there exists a classification among numbers and the

specific use of each one of them. Furthermore, teacher wrote on the board the sequence

of the ordinal numbers in words and explained how to use the abbreviations when

writing dates. The teacher also wrote the date in the top center of the board and did a

dictation for the students.

According to McGraw-Hill (2002), every student learns differently, which means

that teachers need to find different and better teaching techniques to apply in a

classroom with his/her students. When analyzing the appropriateness of the used

material, it was found that the white board was not used in relation to the students` age

and level due to its overuse. Moreover the teacher`s messy notes about ordinal and

cardinal numbers on the board did not help students understand the topic immediately.

The teacher had to repeat the process a lot of times. Finally, some drawings helped

students a little bit. The entire board was full of words when the teacher finished

explaining the topic which made students bore.

The material use was not applied with creativity in this class. The teacher

confused students using a lot of words and complex explanations. The teacher wrote

(41)

could not understand them, so the teacher drew a chart to explain the topic better, but it

did not work either and finally the teacher decided to explain the topic by drawing a

picture about the usual places in a contest. Besides the fact, that the teacher wasted so

much time writing boring things on the board, students were disappointed and stressed

that in the middle of the class they were distracted with other things.

In the seventh class observed, the use of the white board was pertinent enough in

relation to the topic and the objective of the class. The teacher could explain the topic,

long vowel pairs-phonics and meet the objective to learn the correct pronunciation of

the long vowel pairs and to discriminate sounds in a dictation, by writing and explaining

on the board the correct pronunciation of the long vowels /a/, /e/ and /i/ and the reason

why they are like that. First the teacher wrote the phonetic symbols of the vowels on the

board and produced the corresponding sound for each one of them. Then students

imitated the pronunciation. Then the teacher wrote some words that contained the long

vowels just taught in order for students to identify and discriminate sounds. After that,

the teacher did a run dictation by dividing the board into three parts. The first side was

used to write words with long /a/pairs, the second side to write words with long /e/ pairs,

and a third part to write words with long /i/ pairs. This last exercise helped students

recognize the long vowel sounds and accomplish the objectives of the class.

The board in this class was not used appropriately according to the students` age

and level. The teacher could not get the students` attention at the time of the

explanations on the board and had to repeat the process several times. Also teacher used

a lot of unknown words as examples, which confused the students. Moreover students

(42)

tired during the class explanations. They were playing and talking instead of listening,

repeating or looking at the board.

Kenji (1997) supports the idea that searching and designing new and creative

materials that enhance students` motivation in their learning process is teacher`s every

day work. This is the reason why students did not feel motivated about the presented

material in terms of originality and creativity. The teacher used one and almost worn-out

marker. This was not appropriate for the students sitting in the back of the classroom.

Indeed the teacher did not use the board differently from other occasions. The teacher

filled it with a lot of words. This did not help students to write down the information in

their notebooks.

In the eighth class, the white board was used in a positive way, in terms of

pertinence. The teacher drew some pretty nice pictures to explain the topic of the class,

the reading A Big Mess . The teacher combined some of the pre-reading vocabulary

words with pictures drawn on the board and gestures in order to keep students

concentrated in the story. Later the teacher used the board to write the plot and the

conclusions of the story. This helped the students with their understanding and met the

objectives of the class to help students with their reading habits and to develop their

reading skills for comprehensive reading, at the same time.

About the appropriateness of the materials used, it was not really good for the

students` age and level. The teacher wasted quite a lot of time drawing some words that

could have been better just mimed. In addition to what has been said, students were lost

in the middle of the story even though the teacher made a big effort trying to explain it

(43)

According to the creativity and originality of the material applied, it did not awake

students` interest or curiosity. The teacher wrote the whole story on the board, and asked

students to read it. The students did not want to participate in the reading and decided

not to pay attention to the teacher`s instructions during the whole class which create

chaos.

In the tenth class observed the use of the white board was pertinent at the time of

explaining the topic, have/has forming sentences and meeting its objective to learn and

use appropriately have/has according to the noun in the sentences given. First the teacher

wrote on the board the list of personal pronouns, then drew some lines to match them

with the corresponding form of have/has, and explained to the students everything about

their usage.

The board was used appropriately in relation to the students` age and level in this

class. The teacher used only a few words on the board and was clear and specific with

the explanations. The students felt confident to come to front of the class and work with

the exercises on the board either by circling or completing the correct structure.

The quality of the material used in this class was good, because the teacher used

two different color markers at the time of the explanation and wrote only the necessary,

which helped the students in their understanding. The teacher also use the space in the

board in a proper way and wrote in big size letters which helped students sitting at the

back of the classroom to read without much effort.

Videos

In the ninth class a video was used in a pertinent way according to the topic

(44)

and to understand what is wrong with them. The teacher showed students the vocabulary

words related to the topic of the class, through a video that contained a song. The video

was used to review the vocabulary learned in previous classes and also to identify and

understand what was wrong with the animals in it. Moreover, teacher used the video to

socialize with students about the topic and to know a little bit more about students`

passion for animals. The students were practicing verbs at the same time they were

watching the video. The teacher stopped the video every time a new animal appeared to

ask the students information about that animal.

Arikan and Ulas (2010), share that the use of authentic audio visual material to

teach English as a foreign language to children, offers an invaluable way of

contextualizing and introducing authentic language. Indeed, the material used for this

class was appropriate in terms of the students` age and level because the teacher selected

the video carefully, taking into account the language used and the students` preferences.

Also, the video, the video was spoken in American English with native accent very clear

and neat for students` better understanding.

The quality of the material used in this class was great, since the teacher applied

the video with creativity and originality. The students were motivated to participate

actively in the class and also awoke their curiosity to find out what would come next. In

addition, the video had bright colors that captured students` attention right away and the

songs were so contagious that encouraged students` to sign along. Furthermore, the

video helped the teacher to create a nice environment of happiness and peace to work

(45)

Learning styles

According to Haynes (1998), he suggested that teachers should assist students all

the time during the learning process, in order to help them identify their own learning

styles. Keeping always in mind that there are different types of learners however, in this

class, the teacher used the white board as the main supplementary material to explain

almost everything in the classroom, without taking into account the students` necessities.

Sometimes it is difficult to create and select the supplementary materials for every

class, although it is always rewarding to see the students` progress class after class. In

these ten observed classes; the teacher was not considering the types of learning styles in

the classroom. The teacher s main focus was more on reaching the class objectives

through the use of a few supplementary materials rather than prioritize the students`

needs. I believe the teacher could improve his classes by getting to know his students`

preferences at the time of learning. So that he can design or elaborate the adequate

supplementary materials for successful classes.

5thGrade

Ten classes were observed in this grade. During this time the teacher used the

white board and other objects as supplementary materials to teach children in EFL

classes. These materials were analyzed in terms of pertinence, appropriateness, and

quality.

White board

In the second class the teacher taught the components of a story with the topic

My favorite story . In this class the board was used in a pertinent way in order to meet

Figure

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Referencias

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