Active teaching techniques to foster the reading comprehension skill

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(1)UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA, LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION CARRERA LENGUAS Y LINGÜÍSTICA. EDUCATIONAL PROJECT. TOPIC:. ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES TO FOSTER THE READING COMPREHENSION SKILL. PROPOSAL:. DESIGN OF A DIDACTIC BOOKLET WITH READING EXERCISES. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENCIADA EN CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION, MAJOR IN: LENGUA Y LINGÜÍSTICA INGLESA.. AUTHOR: GINA ALEJANDRINA MOLINA ORTIZ. ADVISOR: MSC. RODRIGO GUERRERO SEGURA GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR 2019.

(2) ii. UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN SISTEMA DE EDUCACION SUPERIOR SEMIPRESENCIAL CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO MATRIZ GUAYAQUIL AUTHORITIES OF THE FACULTY. __________________________. ____________________. MSC. SANTIAGO GALINDO MOSQUERA. MSC. PEDRO RIZZO BAJAÑA. DECANO. ________________________ MSC. CARLOS VALLE NAVARRO DIRECTOR LENGUAS Y LINGÜÍSTICA. VICE-DECANO. ________________________ AB. SEBASTIAN CADENA ALVARADO SECRETARIO.

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(4) iv. DEDICATION I dedicate this educational project to God Almighty Jesus Christ our Lord for giving me wisdom and strength during its elaboration because without his help it would not have been possible to complete it. Only you God who gave your life on the cross to save us from our sins, you deserve all glory and honor for eternity.. Gina Alejandrina Molina Ortiz.

(5) v. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. I thank God who gave me health and perseverance to finish the present project. Thank you very much, Lord Jesus. To my family for the support, they gave me in carrying out this research. Also, I express my gratitude my tutor MSc. Rodrigo Guerrero, who was my guide, and gave me his support with his patience and experience during the development of this research. Finally, I want to say thanks to all my teachers who taught me during my years of studies.. Gina Alejandrina Molina Ortiz.

(6) vi. UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA, LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN SISTEMA DE EDUCACION SUPERIOR SEMIPRESENCIAL ESCUELA DE LENGUAS Y LINGÜÍSTICA. THEME: Active Teaching Comprehension Skill.. Techniques. to. Foster. the. Reading. PROPOSAL: Design of a didactic booklet with reading exercises. AUTHOR: Gina Alejandrina Molina Ortiz TUTOR: Lcdo. Rodrigo Guerrero MSc.. ABSTRACT The aim of this project is to help correct the difficulty of comprehension of English texts faced by the 8th-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte for the 2018-2019 school year. To this end, bibliographical research was carried out to determine the active techniques of adequate teaching to improve it, and which were applied in a didactic booklet with reading exercises. The methodological design used is descriptive, in addition to a field study, with direct observation. The instruments of the survey and the interview were used for the collection of information. Once the analysis of the results and the implementation of this project were elaborated, it was possible to determine that the students are capable of developing their reading comprehension, and in this way, they can continue advancing in their learning of the new language. Keywords: Active teaching techniques, Reading comprehension, field study.

(7) vii. UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA, LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN SISTEMA DE EDUCACION SUPERIOR SEMIPRESENCIAL ESCUELA DE LENGUAS Y LINGÜÍSTICA THEME: Técnicas activas de enseñanza para el fomento de la habilidad de la comprensión lectora. PROPOSAL: Propuesta: Diseño de un folleto didáctico con ejercicios de lectura. AUTHOR: Gina Alejandrina Molina Ortiz TUTOR:. Lcdo. Rodrigo Guerrero MSc. RESUMEN. El objetivo de este proyecto es ayudar a corregir la dificultad de comprensión de los textos en inglés que enfrentan los estudiantes de octavo grado de la Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte para el año escolar 2018-2019. Con este fin, se realizó una investigación bibliográfica para determinar las técnicas activas de enseñanza adecuadas para mejorarla, y se aplicaron en un folleto didáctico con ejercicios de lectura. El diseño metodológico utilizado es descriptivo, además de un estudio de campo, con observación directa. Los instrumentos de la encuesta y la entrevista se utilizaron para la recopilación de información. Una vez que se elaboró el análisis de los resultados y la implementación de este proyecto, fue posible determinar que los estudiantes son capaces de desarrollar su comprensión de lectura, y de esta manera pueden continuar avanzando en su aprendizaje del nuevo idioma. Palabras claves: Técnicas de enseñanzas activas, Comprensión lectora, Estudio de campo..

(8) viii ANEXO 9 UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE FILOSOFIA, LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION ESCUELA DE LENGUAS Y LINGUISTICA Unidad de Titulación. REPOSITORIO NACIONAL EN CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA (ENGLISH) FICHA DE REGISTRO DE TESIS/TRABAJO DE GRADUACIÓN TÍTULO Y SUBTÍTULO:. Active Teaching Techniques to Foster the Reading Comprehension Skill. Proposal: Design of a didactic booklet with reading exercise.. AUTOR(ES) (apellidos/nombres):. Gina Alejandrina Molina Ortiz. REVISOR(ES)/TUTOR(ES) (apellidos/nombres): INSTITUCIÓN:. Msc. Rodrigo Guerrero. UNIDAD/FACULTAD:. Faculty of philosophy, letters and science of education. ESPECIALIDAD EN TERCER NIVEL:. Bachelor in Science of Education, Mention in English language and linguistic. Universidad de Guayaquil. GRADO OBTENIDO: FECHA DE PUBLICACIÓN:. 2019. ÁREAS TEMÁTICAS:. English Language. No. DE PÁGINAS:. 148. PALABRAS CLAVES/ Active teaching techniques, Reading comprehension, Field study KEYWORDS: RESUMEN/ABSTRACT: The aim of this project is to help correct the difficulty of comprehension of English texts faced by the 8th-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte for the 2018-2019 school year. To this end, bibliographical research was carried out to determine the active techniques of adequate teaching to improve it, and which were applied in a didactic booklet with reading exercises. The methodological design used is descriptive, in addition to a field study, with direct observation. The instruments of the survey and the interview were used for the collection of information. Once the analysis of the results and the implementation of this project were elaborated, it was possible to determine that the students are capable of developing their reading comprehension, and in this way, they can continue advancing in their learning of the new language. ADJUNTO PDF:. SI. NO. CONTACTO CON AUTOR/ES. Teléfono: 0939802716. E-mail: ginamolinaortiz@gmail.com. CONTACTO CON LA INSTITUCIÓN:. Nombre: Secretary of the school of languages and Linguistics Teléfono: (04)2294888 Ext 123 E-mail: lenguas.linguisticas.fito@gmail.com.

(9) ix. UNIVERSIDAD DE GUAYAQUIL FACULTAD DE FILOSOFIA, LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION ESCUELA DE LENGUAS Y LINGÜÍSTICA Unidad de Titulación. ANEXO 10 10. REPOSITORIO NACIONAL EN CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGÍA(SPANISH) FICHA DE REGISTRO DE TESIS/TRABAJO DE GRADUACIÓN TÍTULO Y SUBTÍTULO:. Técnicas activas de enseñanza para el fomento de la habilidad de la comprensión lectora. Propuesta: Diseño de un folleto didáctico con ejercicios de lectura.. AUTOR(ES). Gina Alejandrina Molina Ortiz. REVISOR(ES)/TUTOR(ES). Msc. Rodrigo Guerrero. INSTITUCIÓN:. Universidad de Guayaquil. UNIDAD/FACULTAD:. Facultad de filosofía letras y Ciencias de la Educación. ESPECIALIDAD EN TERCER NIVEL:. Licenciatura en Ciencias de la Educación, mención en lengua Inglesa y Lingüística. GRADO OBTENIDO: FECHA DE PUBLICACIÓN:. 2019. No. DE PÁGINAS:. ÁREAS TEMÁTICAS:. Idioma inglés. PALABRAS CLAVES/ KEYWORDS:. Técnicas activas de enseñanza, Comprensión lectora, Estudio de Campo. 148. RESUMEN/ABSTRACT: El objetivo de este proyecto es ayudar a corregir la dificultad de comprensión de los textos en inglés que enfrentan los estudiantes de 8º grado de la Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte en el año escolar 2018-2019. Con este fin, se realizó una investigación bibliográfica para determinar las técnicas activas de enseñanza adecuadas para mejorarla, y se aplicaron en un folleto didáctico con ejercicios de lectura. El diseño metodológico utilizado es descriptivo, además de un estudio de campo, con observación directa. Los instrumentos de la encuesta y la entrevista se utilizaron para la recopilación de información. Una vez que se elaboró el análisis de los resultados y la implementación de este proyecto, fue posible determinar que los estudiantes son capaces de desarrollar su comprensión de lectura, y de esta manera pueden continuar avanzando en su aprendizaje del nuevo idioma.. SI CONTACTO CON LA INSTITUCIÓN:. NO. Nombre: Secretaria de la escuela de Lenguas y Linguisticas Teléfono: (04)2294888 Ext 123 E-mail: lenguas.linguisticas.fito@gmail.com.

(10) x. TABLE OF CONTENT. COVER PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………..i AUTHORITIES OF THE FACULTY…………………………………………………………….ii TUTOR CERTIFICATE…………………………………………..……………………………...iii DEDICATION …………………………………………..………..………………………………iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………..……………………………. v ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………….vi RESUMEN………………………………………………………………………………………..vii REPOSITORY SENECYT (ENGLISH) ………………………………………………………viii REPOSITORY SENECYT (SPANISH) ………………………………………………………..ix TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………..…………………………….x TABLE OF CHARTS …………………………………………..………………………………xiv TABLE OF GRAPHICS…………………………………………..…………………………….xv TABLE OF APPENDIXES…………………………………………..………………………...xvi INTRODUCTION……………………………………….…………..……………………………..1. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM. 1.1. CONTEXT OF INVESTIGATION………………………………………………………...3. 1.2. CONFLICT SITUATION ……………………………………….…………..……………..4. 1.3. SCIENTIFIC FACT…………………………….…………..……………………………….5. 1.4. CAUSES………………………….…………..…………………………………………....7. 1.5. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM …………………………….…………..………..7. 1.6. OBJECTIVES OF INVESTIGATION…………………………….…………..………….7. 1.6.1 GENERAL OBJETIVES…………………………….…………..………………………..7 1.6.2 SPECIFIC OBJETIVES…………………………….…………..…………………………7 1.7. QUESTION OF THE RESEARCH …………………………….…………..……………8. 1.8. JUSTIFICATION ……………………………….…………………………….…………...8.

(11) xi. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. 2.1. BACKGROUND…………………………….…………..…………………………….....10. 2.2. TEACHING TECHNIQUES…………………………….…………..……………………12. 2.3. IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES…………………………….………..13. 2.4. ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES…………………………….…………..………...13. 2.5. TYPES OF ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES…………………………….……….14. 2.6. ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES READING COMPREHENSION……………..14. Preview…………………………….…………..………………………………………………...15 Questioning…………………………….…………..…………………………………………...15 Read…………………………….…………..…………………………………………………….15 Summarizing.…………………………….…………..…………………………………………15 Test…………………………….…………..……………………………………………………..15 Objectives…………………………….…………..……………………………………………..16 Advantages and Disadvantages…………………………….…………..…………………..17 2.7. READING COMPREHENSION…………………………….…………..……………….18. 2.8. IMPORTANCE OF READING AND ITS UNDERSTANDING………………………21. 2.9. READING SKILL…………………………….…………..………………………………21. 2.10 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING READING SKILL……………………………….22 2.11 LEVELS OF READING COMPREHENSION………………………………………...23 Literal level…………………………….…………..……………………………………………23 Inferential level…………………………….…………..……………………………………….23 Critical level…………………………….…………..…………………………………………...23 2.11 READING COMPREHENSION AS A PROCESS…………………………………....24 2.13 THE READER AS AN ACTIVE BUILDER IN UNDERSTANDING………………...24 2.14 PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES TO BE AN ACTIVE UNDERSTANDING BUILDER......25 2.15 EPISTEMOLOGICALFOUNDATION…………………………….…………..………..26 2.16 PHYCOLOGICAL FOUNDATION…………………………….…………..…………...27 2.17 SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION…………………………….…………..…………....28 2.18 LEGAL FOUNDATION…….…………..……………………………………………….. .28.

(12) xii. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS. 3.1 METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN…………………………….…………..………………….29 3.2 TYPES OF INVESTIGATION…………………………….…………..……………………30 3.3 METHOD OF INVESTIGATION…………………………….…………..…………………31 3.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLE…………………………….…………..…………………..32 3.5 OPERATIONALIZATION OF VARIABLES…………….…………..……………………34 3.6 INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF THE INVESTIGATION………………….....36 Observation…………………………….…………..…………………………………………...36 Survey…………………………….…………..………………………………………………….36 Questionnaire…………………………….…………..…………………………………………36 Likert scale…………………………….…………..…………………………………………....37 Interview …………………………….…………..……………………………………………....37 INTERVIEW TO THEDIRECTOR ……………………………………………………………..38 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS THE INTERVIEW TO THE DIRECTOR….…………………………….…………..…………………………………………39 INTERVIEW TO THE TEACHER…………………………….…………..……………………40 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS THE INTERVIEW TO THE TEACHER………………………………………………………………………………………..41 SURVEY TO STUDENTS…………………………….…………..……………………………42 TOTAL SURVEY RESULTS.…………………………….…………..………………………..43 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS THE SURVEY TO THE STUDENTS…………………………….…………..…………………………………………….44 CONCLUSIONS…………………………….…………..……………………………………….54 RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………….…………..……………………………...55.

(13) xiii. CHAPTER IV THE PROPOSAL. 4.1 TITLE …………………………….…………..……………………………………………..57 4.2 JUSTIFICATION …………………………….…………..………………………………...57 4.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSAL…………………………….…………..…………...58 4.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE…………………………….…………..……………………….58 4.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE…………………………….…………..………………………..58 4.4 THEORETICAL ASPECTS…………………………….…………..……………………...58 METHODOLOGY FOR THE PROPOSAL……………….…………..………………………58 EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION…………………………….…………..……………………………59 LINGUISTIC ASPECT…………………………….…………..………………………………..60 PEDAGOGICAL ASPECT…………………………….…………..……………………….....61. LEGAL ASPECT…………………………….…………..………………………………………62 4.5 FEASIBILITY…………………………….…………..……………………………………...63 Human resources…………………………….…………..…………………………………….63 Financial…………………………….…………..……………………………………………….63 Technical…………………………….…………..………………………………………………63 Political …………………………….…………..………………………………………………..63 4.6 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSAL…………………………….…………..………………..64 IMPORTANCE OF THE PROPOSAL…………………………….…………..………………65 REFERENCES …………………………….…………..………………………………………..66 Appendix I: Documents…………………………….…………..……………………………..72 Appendix II: Survey and Interviews…………………………….…………..………………87 Appendix III: Photos …………………………….…………..………………………………..94 Appendix IV: THE PROPOSAL…………………………….…………..…………………….98.

(14) xiv. TABLE OF CHARTS. N° Chart. Page. CHART # 1 POPULATION………………………………………....………...…………………………………………….32 CHART # 2 SAMPLE………………………………………....………...…………………………………………………….33 CHART # 3 OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE VARIABLES………………………………………….....……….35 CHART # 4 STATEMENT 1……………………………………….....………...…………………………………………..44 CHART # 5 STATEMENT 2……………………………………….....………...…………………………………………..45 CHART # 6 STATEMENT 3……………………………………….....………...…………………………………………..46 CHART # 7 STATEMENT 4……………………………………….....………...…………………………………………..47 CHART # 8 STATEMENT .………………………………………......………...…………………………………………48 CHART # 9 STATEMENT 6 ……………………………………......………...………………………………………… 49 CHART # 10 STATEMENT 7………………………………………......………...………………………………………..50 CHART # 11 STATEMENT 8 ………………………………………......………...……………………………………….51 CHART # 12 STATEMENT 9………………………………………......………...………………………………………..52 CHART# 13 STATEMENT 10 ………………………………………......………...………………………………………53.

(15) xv. TABLE OF GRAPHICS. N° Graphic. Page. Graphic # 1 STATEMENT 1…………………………..….………………..................................................44 Graphic # 2 STATEMENT 2………………………………………………………………………………………………..45 Graphic # 3 STATEMENT 3………………………………………………………………………………………………..46 Graphic # 4 STATEMENT 4………………………………………………………………………………………………..47 Graphic # 5 STATEMENT 5………………………………………………………………………………………………..48 Graphic # 6 STATEMENT 6………………………………………………………………………………………………..49 Graphic # 7 STATEMENT 7………………………………………………………………………………………………..50 Graphic # 8 STATEMENT 8………………………………………………………………………………………………..51 Graphic# 9 STATEMENT 9………………………………………………………………………………………………..52 Graphic # 10 STATEMENT 10……………………………………………………………………………………………53.

(16) xvi. TABLE OF APPENDIXES. Appendix1: Documents…………………………………………...………….....................72 Appendix 2: Surveys and interviews ………………………………………..87 Appendix3: Photos…………………………………………………………….94 Appendix 4: The proposal…………………………………………………….98.

(17) INTRODUCTION This project aims to highlight how important it is for a student of a foreign language to read fully understanding the message contained in the text. Whoever wishes to learn any language without understanding what he reads, will be limited in his acquisition. Therefore, understanding is the key to increasing knowledge of the target language.. The research Active Teaching Techniques to Foster the Reading Comprehension Skill carried out at Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte in order to determine if students have difficulty that hinders their reading comprehension of English text. The analysis of the results of the survey applied to the students. of the 8th-grade students at Unidad Educativa. Vicente Rocafuerte of the 2018-2019 school year, showed that they had a low level of reading comprehension and they did not understand the meanings of the readings, and that therefore prevents them from improving the learning of it, because the teachers use traditional methods of instruction, passive teaching techniques and insufficient motivation towards reading. This fact deprives them of their right to receive a quality education contemplated in the Ecuadorian Constitution.. For this reason, the Active Teaching Techniques to Foster the Reading Comprehension Skill project aims to remedy this shortcoming. For this, it applies active teaching techniques to help them in the development of comprehension. To this end, a didactic booklet with reading exercises was designed.. The methodology used in this investigation was a field study, bibliographical, descriptive and statistical research, as well as qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, this study is composed of four chapters that have the following contents:. 1.

(18) CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM. This chapter includes the Context of the investigation, Conflict situation, Scientific fact, Causes, Formulation of the problem, General objective, Specific objectives, Questions of investigation and Justification.. CHAPTER 2: THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. Background, Theoretical basis, Teaching techniques, and its Importance, Active teaching techniques. Reading comprehension, its importance, and levels. Reading skill. Active teaching techniques reading comprehension. Reading comprehension as a process. Fundamentals Epistemological, Psychological, Sociological, and legal.. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. Methodological. Design,. Field. Research,. Applied. Research,. Bibliographical Research, Descriptive Research, Population and Sample, Operationalization of Variables, Method of Investigation, Instruments and techniques of the investigation, Analysis and interpretation of results, Conclusions and Recommendations.. CHAPTER 4: THE PROPOSAL The title of the proposal, Justification, Objectives of the proposal, General objectives, Specific objectives, Theoretical aspects: Methodology for the proposal. Pedagogical, Linguistic, Legal aspects. Feasibility, Description of the proposal, Importance of the proposal.. APPENDIXES: Appendix 1: Documents, Appendix 2: Survey and Interviews, Appendix 3: Photos, Appendix 4: The Proposal. 2.

(19) CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM. 1.1 CONTEXT OF THE INVESTIGATION. The present project developed with eighth-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte. In this establishment it sought to know what is the methodology, the techniques, and strategies used by the teacher to teach reading comprehension, and if these are helping students to capture the messages contained in the English texts. It was discovered that they could not find the meaning of the writings. For this reason, the design of a didactic guide was proposed with reading exercises aimed at improving and promoting the understanding of the readings.. This institution is located in Guayaquil city, on José Vélez 2203; in the Urdaneta parish. It has 4,000 students in its two shifts and 40 teachers. It was created as Colegio del Guayas on February 1, 1842, by the president of Ecuador, Juan José Flores (...) This name was changed to San Vicente del Guayas on December 4, 1847, in homage to Vicente Rocafuerte, who died on May 17 of that year. Finally, it was called Colegio Nacional Vicente Rocafuerte, on December 10, 1900 (Alfonso & Sevillano, 2017).. On October 29, 2015, Vicente Rocafuerte school was reopened once the precarious situation in which its facilities were located in 2014 was detected (...) where its building was remodeled and converted into a Unidad Educativa of Millennium, with an auditorium, theater, laboratories, modern classrooms, stadium, and swimming pool (Correa, 2015, pp. 1-2).. 3.

(20) Despite having a modern English lab today, this is not used by teachers nor students of the Unidad Educativa, because it is employed by students of the Technological Vicente Rocafuerte works in the same facilities. This fact prevents them from taking advantage of the benefits provided by an English language laboratory to learn a language better.. 1.2 CONFLICT SITUATION. Based on the surveys applied to students in the 8th grade of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte, it can be affirmed that they face problems that hinder their reading comprehension in English; because the teachers use traditional methods of instruction, passive teaching techniques and insufficient motivation towards reading.. The methodology used by the teacher is limited to follow the content of the book “English Level A1.1" provided by the Ministry of Education. The educator uses traditional methods of instruction where usually he speaks, and students listen. Later he asks them if they have understood the instructions given to read the text, which almost always responds with silence because they do not have the confidence to ask for clarification of the doubts they have. This situation confuses the steps they should follow. Teaching techniques applied by the professor are passive due these are centered on him and not on the student's need. He gives only a few brief explanations before the lesson of chosen techniques for students to employ. He tells them what to do, but without giving them more details about how they should do it.. Finally, students are not motivated to learn to read because the teacher only asks them to read the paragraphs that appear in the textbook. 4.

(21) to discover the meaning of the words without giving them precise instructions on what to do and how to do it causing confusion and frustration in them. Consequently, not feeling integrated into the class; it becomes tedious and boring by not understanding the material of the texts; so they do not find the usefulness of doing the reading because it does not improve their English learning.. In conclusion, it is a priority to overcome the weaknesses found in 8th-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte: the use of traditional methods of instruction, passive techniques and insufficient motivation towards reading are impeding the learning of reading comprehension of students. Therefore, it is necessary to implement a flexible instruction methodology according to the requirements of the learner, as well as the use of active teaching techniques and strategies to develop the understanding of the message contained in the text and thus increase the learning of English. For this reason, the technical project of teaching to improve the readiness of reading comprehension has the purpose of contributing to the development of the national educational system, trying to correct the low reading comprehension, also detected in the eighth-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte. 1.3 SCIENTIFIC FACT. Insufficient reading comprehension of the 8th-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte the 2018-2019 school year. This insufficient reading comprehension is the product of bad teaching received since the correct understanding of text demands the application of methods, strategies, and techniques so that the reader feels the satisfaction manages to understand the message contained in it and in this way increase his cultural heritage. Moreover, it is precisely a lack of satisfaction that is experienced by the students of the tax colleges of Ecuador, as they can not find the meaning of the readings and therefore 5.

(22) not achieve a more excellent knowledge of English. In order to correct this shortcoming, Ortega and Auccahuallpa (2017) expressed: The project Strengthening the Teaching of English promoted by the Ministry of Education aims to improve the linguistic skills of English teachers as well as their teaching practice. The following are among the general objectives of the project: the implementation of a new English curriculum that responds to the guidelines established in the Common European Framework of Reference for Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation of Foreign Languages (CEFR). The distribution free of English texts aligned to the new curriculum. The creation and implementation of a new evaluation system based on standardized tests for teachers of English in teaching practice and, also, for those who wish to enter the public education sector. The organization of a system of permanent professional development, which included training outside the country, such as the Go Teacher program(…) the efforts made since the nineties, only a minimum of students of the Unified General Baccalaureate (BGU) manage to reach the desired levels of sufficiency of the English language when culminating their secondary studies (p. 55).. On the other hand, Ureña (2014 is cited by Ortega Y Auccahuallpa 2017), has stated: that one must take into account the level of English proficiency required of public sector teachers, who must have a B2 level according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation of Foreign Languages (CEFR). This English level indicates that English teachers only need to be independent users, of high intermediate level, of the language they teach, when they should have a domain over this. That is, they should have at least a C1 level, which indicates that they are competent users with useful operational command of the language.. 6.

(23) This level would be important if students are to achieve the level required by the Ministry of Education (pp.59-60). 1.4 CAUSES • Traditional methodology of teaching to incentive reading comprehension • Inappropriate teaching techniques for reading and its development • Insufficient motivation towards reading 1.5 FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM. How do actives teaching techniques affect the development of reading comprehension of the 8th-grade students of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte in the 2018-2019 school year?. 1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE INVESTIGATION 1.6.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES. To analyze the impact of appropriate teaching techniques to develop the reading comprehension skill, through bibliographical study and field study to design of a didactic booklet with reading exercises for the students of 8th-grade of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte in the school year 2018-2019.. 1.6.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES. • To define the incidence of active teaching techniques to improve reading comprehension, through a literature review, statistical analysis, and student survey.. 7.

(24) • To diagnose the reading comprehension level of the students through a thorough survey. • To implement adequate active teaching techniques to develop reading comprehension in students. 1.7 QUESTIONS OF INVESTIGATION. • What are the most appropriate techniques to improve reading comprehension? • What levels of reading comprehension exist? • What is the content of the didactic booklet? 1.8 JUSTIFICATION. This work is based on the Ley Orgánica de Educaciòn Intercultural in article 4 of chapter 1 on the right to education expresses: Education is a fundamental human right guaranteed in the Constitution of the Republic and necessary condition for the realization of other human rights. They are holders of the right to quality, secular, free and free education in the initial, basic and baccalaureate levels, as well as permanent education throughout of life, formal and non-formal, all the inhabitants of Ecuador (p.12).. Reading a text and understanding its meaning is of vital importance in learning a new language. So to improve reading comprehension, it is necessary to implement adequate techniques as Preview, Question, Reading, Summary, and Test to understand English texts. The present project, therefore, seeks to correct the deficient capacity to achieve the meaning of short readings of the 8th-grade students in the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte, found in the research carried out through a. 8.

(25) field study based on surveys, direct observation to the students and interviews to the teacher and director.. In order to correct the poor reading ability of students, a didactic booklet with short readings has been prepared, with simple language, which will include the appropriate reading techniques: Preview, Question, Reading, Summary, and Test to improve the understanding of the written text.. This project is essential for the students, because the Preview, Question, Reading, Summary and Test didactic techniques contained in the booklet, will allow them to quickly understand the funny little stories by having a language according to their level of English. It is also important for teachers because it uses an innovative methodology called explicit instruction where students are guided through the learning process with clear statements about the purpose and rationale for learning the new skill, precise explanations which will support the presentation of their class and help improve the reading comprehension of students.. Finally, it is useful for the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte because it will have an additional tool to learn the new language due it is a complementary resource to the textbook English Level 1.A delivered by the Ministry of Education. Moreover, that will help his students to develop their reading comprehension.. In conclusion, this research aims to develop the educational practice, by providing convenient reading techniques as Preview, Question, Reading, Summary, and Test to be applied in the classroom to improve reading comprehension, which makes it a powerful pedagogical resource for the development of the understanding of the texts, and it will be essential for students, teachers of the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte.. 9.

(26) CHAPTER II THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 BACKGROUND A teacher must be pedagogically competent to teach his students to achieve the goal of the lesson, especially if it is a matter of teaching a new language. This is not easy because there are factors that hinder their learning such as environmental, teacher-related and individual. Among the environmental factors, the following are mentioned: the use of good materials and resources, the number of students. In relation to the teacher, if he is native, it will be beneficial to know the structure of the language, but he does not understand the problems that a foreigner has to study; while, for a non-native teacher, there are barriers that he also had to overcome in order to learn it, so he can help an apprentice. In addition, their training is important. To command the language is not enough but to be able to teach it. As for the individual factors, the younger the student's age the quicker and easier he will learn. It also mentions factors such as motivation, interest, attention, which influence the teaching of a language (Valero & Jiménez, 2015).. And there are precisely some of the aforementioned factors that prevent the eighth-grade students at Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte from obtaining a good learning process. They had problems such as little motivation and interest to take advantage of the material given by the Ministry of Education since these lacked the linguistic tools because the teacher did not teach them, so students did read without understanding the texts. Therefore, they needed to improve their comprehension skills.. Considering these gaps, this project Active Teaching Techniques to Foster the Reading Comprehension Skill wants to show that there are active teaching techniques that can help them understand a text and that. 10.

(27) were selected to be the most appropriate to the students' needs, in order to provide with the elements that allow creating meaning when they read.. In order to discover what has been published on the proposed topic, it was found when reviewing the archives that rest in the Library of the Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias de la Educación of the University of Guayaquil, the work of Rodríguez and Moran, in 2013, with the title: Innovating Reading comprehension Basic Techniques to facilitate the learning English, who found in their research that students have great difficulty in understanding reading materials in English. They applied to solve this problem of techniques in the development of vocabulary, such as the teaching of word-learning strategies and therefore use the context to unlock the meaning of unknown words, as well as parts of a word to discover the meanings of these. They also included a didactic booklet of interesting short readings.. The study of Yagual and Cisneros (2017) Teaching Techniques to Develop Vocabulary Acquisition was found, in their research they discovered that students had difficulty in listening when they heard their teacher speak English and other activities that involve listening as audios, for which the authors analyzed and selected the best teaching techniques to develop this skill, through a didactic guide with vocabulary activities and a CD.. The current research Active Teaching Techniques to Foster the Reading Comprehension Skill found that the eighth-grade students of Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte, also have a lot of difficulties to understand reading texts in English, is expected to solve this design problem and application of a booklet with reading exercises entertaining short stories with a simple and clear language, as well as reading techniques, activities and interactive strategies.. 11.

(28) In this chapter, the theoretical bases of this project will be explained, as they are related independently to the dependent one. The foundations on which this research is supported will also be developed, these being: Epistemological, Psychological, Sociological and legal.. 2.2 TEACHING TECHNIQUES. The term technique according to Orlich, Brown, Callahan, Harder, Richard and Trevisan (2010), “signifies a series of steps that one takes to employ any general model being used in the classroom”(p.4). While, “teaching is a profession with its own body of knowledge, models, and techniques” (p.22).. It can be said that teaching techniques are various activities that the teacher makes to do understandable the lesson he has prepared for his students. Thus, the educator applies the activities in precise areas of the teaching process, considering the objectives defined in advance (Báez & Chacón, 2013).. “Effective and efficient teaching techniques enhance reading skill rapidly. Effective teaching techniques depend upon the commitment, personality, attitude, skills and knowledge of the teachers” (Abro, Ansari, & Qaisrani, 2014, p. 224). These should be developed according to the topic that will be taught. In this way, when elaborating their classes, the teachers demonstrate that they know several techniques, and are very able implemented to achieve the proposed goal (Brown et al, 2012). Likewise, those should be chosen taking into account the learning limitations of the students. So, educators have to enhance teaching techniques and be aware of the problems that they face to study English (Hasanah, 2010).. 12.

(29) Finally, as each pupil uses his / her own abilities to learn, the educator should offer several forms of study. Teachers must provide other options to their students than usually do in their classes. The use of several kinds of teaching techniques will help them to obtain. better. learning (Costa & Ferreira, 2012).. In summary, teaching techniques should be used in the classroom because help learners improve their learning. These must be properly chosen and correctly planned, considering the difficulties and interests of the students. Those should be easy to apply in order to gain the expected teaching objective.. 2.3 IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES. Despite the benefit of using teaching techniques, those that are applied in national schools do not involve students in the process of the lesson because they are passive. Use of passive teaching techniques do not allow them to develop their abilities because pupils are receptors of what the teacher instructs them to do in class. Therefore, techniques applied should be active, that is, let the learner participate in being the protagonist of their own understanding learning. “Current research advocates for teaching techniques that encourage students to actively engage in the material because classroom engagement has been found to promote deeper levels of thinking and better facilitate encoding, storage, and retrieval than traditional lecture” (McGlinn, 2005; Ali, Levine, Matchock & Peck, 2006 as cited by Hackathorn, Blankmeyer, Garczynsky, Solomon & Tennial, 2011, p.40.). 2.4 ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES Active, or experiential, teaching is aimed at the student being the center of education. Involves any technique that promotes the students to. 13.

(30) be participatory in the learning process as well as to commit them to learn for themselves (Hackathorn, et al, 2011).. The novelty of the techniques of active teaching is that these transform the classroom environment, and are a dynamic means to develop in the learners the interest and encouragement to get involved in it. Students perceive the benefits and adaptability that are in the class (Hackathorn, et al, 2011).. 2.5 TYPES OF ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES Without realizing the teachers have a lot of active teaching techniques that can creatively develop and apply in the class as elaborate questions, work in small groups, active tasks, films, stories, group dynamics, discussion panels, competitions, departures outside the classroom, hobbies, games, brainstorming and other active actions, and that allow students to become involved dynamically in the acquisition of new knowledge (Hackathorn, et al., 2011).. 2.6 ACTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES READING COMPREHENSION. The literature research shows the existence of many strategies and active techniques that. can be applied to improve the reading. comprehension of a text, more in this work has been made use of the following: Preview, Question, Reading, Summary and Test, due which are considered the most convenient to implement in the Unidad Educativa Vicente Rocafuerte given the level of knowledge of 8th grade students, of basic, which will be stimulated to get involved in the execution of the project because of the singularity of these techniques.. 14.

(31) Through. Preview,. Question,. Reading,. Summary. and. Test. techniques seek to solve the low ability to understand the readings in English by the development of a didactic booklet with texts that are understandable to students and where these techniques will be applied during the reading exercises to be performed, which will result in increasing their understanding of what they read:. Preview The educator motivates the use of what the learners know to determine the meaning of the reading and its theme, through observing the images and the title of the text that will be read (Esteria, 2017).. Questioning While students read, they question what they can understand in the text. This gives them the task of finding answers to what they want to know and helps them to read with the purpose of responding to the questions that were raised (Esteria, 2017).. Read Pupils will read the text with more attention and will look for answers to what they want to know. If they have difficulty finding the answers, they will rework the questions so that they can be found (Esteria, 2017).. Summarizing Students will make their conclusion by pointing out the main points they have understood from the text. They can elaborate list of important points, mental maps, or schemes (Esteria, 2017).. Test It is very relevant for students can give an account of how well they are in reading comprehension when they are able to respond to new. 15.

(32) questions from the teacher who seeks to determine their levels of comprehension and if they have understood the content of the text (Esteria, 2017).. There is an expectation that these Preview, Question, Read, Summarize techniques allow the development of teaching and learning to be carried out optimally and eliminate the difficulties that students face when reading a text. These techniques serve as a helpful pedagogical reading guide. The students will help them to obtain better marks in their exams, according to studies, if they execute one by one the techniques following the sequence. Its application allows students when they read a text to focus on important data (...) these techniques generate a positive study environment because it helps the learners to activate, prior to reading, what they already know in advance, as well as measuring their understanding after reading (Esteria, 2017).. Objectives Vazques, Green and Medina as cited by Esteria, (2017) pointed out that the application of Preview, Question, Reading, Summary and Test techniques have some objectives: (1) stimulate the students to improve their previous knowledge,. (2) motivate the students to actively reflect upon the material before being read in class,. (3) prepare the students to participate in reading with an inquiring attitude towards the material,. (4) motivate the students to deepen their understanding,. (5) encourage the students to ask themselves to do the test to evaluate their comprehension degree of the material, 16.

(33) (6) promote the development of students’ autonomy in learning, and (7) improve students’ final performance result (p.8). Advantages and Disadvantages According to Ismiyanti (2017), the use of preview, question, reading, summary and test techniques are also have some advantage and disadvantage: First is Preview- Look for the “Big Picture”: This step is having some advantages;. 1) Students get a complete view of the presented material. 2) Allows pupils to search and identify the main points 3) The structure of the text is understood by the students. 4) Provides an overview of the material delivered in the class.. Next is Question- Formulate questions they expect to be answered:. 1) Helps students know exactly what to look for when studying. 2) Encourage pupils to watch for details when reading. 3) Increases their concentration by giving them something to hunt for throughout their study. 4) Aids learners in preparing for exams and in getting better grades. 5) Permits students to spot more test questions.. Then, Read- Effective reading calls for reaction:. 1) Prepare their mind to soak up knowledge. 2) Increase amount that can be learned. 3) Decrease study time. Then, State- Say over in their own words what they read. The advantages are:. 17.

(34) 1) Give students a check on what they really learned. 2) Proves that learners have a topic clearly in mind if they can put it into words. 3) Removes doubt about how well pupils have learned that material. 4) Increase their confidence.. Finally, Test the important last step in the Preview, Question, Reading, Summary and Test techniques of study. 1) Prepare students for teachers’ tests. 2) Improve chances for better grades. 3) Checks the extent to which learners have converted what they have studied into long-term learning.. The disadvantage are:. a) Preview, question, reading, summary and test techniques are very difficult to implement if the facilities such as student’s book (text book) are not available at school.. b) Not effectively implemented in a class by too big number in the classroom for the guidance of the teacher was not optimal, especially in formulating questions (Ismiyanti, 2017, pp. 36-37).. 2.7 READING COMPREHENSION The basic definition of reading comprehension is the capacity to read and comprehend a text. In the context of the classroom, it is having the ability to adequately decipher the writings and understand when reading them (Welk, 2017). In addition, the understanding of what is read is the key to reading, as Asteria (2017) affirms: “Reading comprehension is the essence of reading. The success of a reader in reading is assessed. 18.

(35) by the ability and degree of understanding of ideas or information found in reading the text” (p.2).. Reading increases the knowledge of the person who does it. But it is not always possible because this requires stages to capture the idea and its content. Due that these stages the people who read need to know the words and how the language is constituted, and to reach a correct understanding of the text they need a lot of time to exercise it (Esteria, 2017).. Unfortunately, schools with a load of only five hours of English per week cannot achieve a sufficient level of basic skills to learn a new language. Then, in this, students will be limited to improving their understanding of the language they study. To this is added that in Ecuador there are other factors that prevent achieving their learning. Such as the little habit of reading, not giving importance to the study of this universal language, insufficient time devoted to the learn it, poor preparation of teachers and the use of inadequate educational resources.. Centro Regional para al Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe (2012), reports that "every Ecuadorian hardly reads half a book per year". This shows the low interest in reading in the country. It also confirms a reality that comes from the home: parents do not encourage reading in their children since they were small.. Besides, Ecuador has a low level of English proficiency worldwide, "ranking 65th in relation to 88 countries. Education spending in the nation represents 12,8% of GDP, while Argentina, who is ranked 27, allocates 14.1%”(EF English Proficiency Index, 2018). That is, the Argentine state invests more than ours to improve the educational quality of its citizens. What indicates the little importance that is granted.. 19.

(36) Likewise, neither was the preponderance of the study of English in schools and colleges. Before teaching it was optional. Through ministerial agreement 041-14 issued by the Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador. establishes in article 1:. To provide that the teaching of English, as of the 2016-2017 Sierra regime and 2017-2018 Costa regime shall be mandatory from the second General Basic Education degree until the third year of Bachiller for all publics Private and fiscomisional institutions of the country (Larrea, 2014).. In conclusion, these factors, aggregated to the little teaching of reading that they receive in the national educational centers, will impact on the reading comprehension of Spanish. Consequently, this fact will harm students when it comes to learning the English language, where understanding reading plays a fundamental role in their learning. As Guarín (2017) explains: In the case of text comprehension, if a child from the first school years is taught strategies to achieve an understanding of what was read in his first language, in order to increase his motivation owards reading; likewise, he will use these tools when dealing with a text written in another language. This type of transfer is called by some authors as a positive transfer; On the other hand, if the reading processes in the first language are deficient, routine and not very motivating, there is a danger of giving a negative type of transfer, that is, the student will show apathy towards any type of reading (p.35).. 20.

(37) 2.8 IMPORTANCE OF READING AND ITS UNDERSTANDING. According to Gocer is cited by De Rosa (2017) A person also reads outside of a study center. He does it in the environment in which he develops: in his home, work and daily activities throughout his life. He is always learning to read one way or another. This “Lifelong Learning is needed because it encompasses social practices where writing, speaking, and listening are involved” (Frankel & Pearson are cited by De Rosa, 2017, p.10).. 2.9 READING SKILL. Latifa (2018) says: Reading is one of the English skills that should be taught at school as a center of the learning process and it is considered as one of the most important skills. Through reading, students can develop other language skills such as writing and speaking. Also, it can improve the language components, for instance, vocabulary and grammar. Related to that, Nunan (1991) says that there is a correlation between four skills which are speaking, reading, listening, and writing, and through reading the language learners can develop the skills mentioned previously. Therefore, teachers have to teach reading integrated with other language skills in order to encourage and advance the students’ ability in reading (pp. 243244).. In order to students learn reading skill, because is important reading for them, teachers use of traditional reading strategies, such as translating or giving material for the students reading aloud. This is not the only way educators should teach. They must encourage them to read and read the texts through the application of other strategies (Esteria, 2017).. 21.

(38) A well-done task shows the ability that a person has to perform it. Skill is competence, gift, sufficiency, aptitude or practice. The faculty developed by the reader to understand writing is called reading ability. A student of English must have the competence to understand a reading, which is appropriate to their age and academic level, in that language. That is why students must be encouraged to “predictive reading, paraphrasing and deductions to do an inferential reading”, as well as to teach them with mental maps or schemes to sort the information and answer using WH / questions (Guarín, 2017).. It also helps in critical reading skills. Thinking critically occurs when students are dynamically involved in the learning process, and that helps them to know how the ability to understand reading is given as well as to be able to understand a text but to they have to practice a lot. Having critical thinking will improve the mentality of the pupils, and they will be more ingenious to determine the meaning of the text (Ismiyanti, 2017).. 2.10 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING READING SKILLS Developing reading skills is relevant for the students, and the use of school texts is a means to achieve this, as well as a source of new knowledge. Because in the school generally everything that students read in their subjects is printed. This allows them to foster the ability to read and increase the fundamental ability to learn for themselves (Esteria, 2017).. Likewise, reading is the most transcendent skill that can help an English student. Especially when he/she does not have the opportunity to speak with English speakers to exercise it; due to the availability of printed or digital material in that language. Therefore, the pupil must develop reading skills using media such as books, magazines, documents, internet, etc., to improve their learning of that language. Consequently, he. 22.

(39) will feel a more competent reader and willing to continue studying the new language. 2.11 LEVELS OF READING COMPREHENSION According to Guarín (2017), there are literal, inferential and critical reading comprehension levels:. Literal level Refers to the explicit content of the text. At this level, the characters that intervene are differentiated, in what place and date the events take place, and in what way they occur. In addition, from this level, high cognitive processes are initiated, such as reading between lines in order for the reader to elaborate their own interpretation of reading (Guarín, 2017). Inferential level This level is key to learning reading comprehension, here it is required to determine the main ideas of the secondary and differentiate between them, and link the propositions and connect them with each other, to give what is written, a greater meaning than it possesses (Guarín, 2017).. Critical level At this level, according to Gordillo and Flórez as cited by Guarín (2017): ... the reader is able to make judgments about the text read, accept or reject it, but with arguments. Critical reading has an evaluative character in which the formation of the reader, their criterion and knowledge of what is read takes part. These judgments take into account qualities of accuracy, acceptability, and probability (29). 23.

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