the 20th century has been, without a doubt, UNESCO. In recent years, multiple works have appeared that have investigated the impact of this international organization in different countries. These studies have analysed the debates, planning measures and specificities shown by UNESCO regarding the transfer of the Theories of Modernization, Progress and Development (Graham, 2006; Dorn & Choodse, 2012), and the influence on the construction and expansion of educational systems in African or Asian countries (Mikobi Dikay, 2016). Other aspects that have been analyzed in a notable way within the History of Education are UNESCO programs based on the development of educational actions, such as the modernization of school manuals on international understanding (Nygren, 2011; Kulnazarova & Ydesen, 2017; González- Delgado, 2018; Ferraz-Lorenzo, 2020) or the importance of the transmission and configuration of certain ideas about the construction of models of citizenship within the framework of those same textbooks (González-Delgado, Ferraz- Lorenzo & Machado-Trujillo, 2019). In addition, other topics that UNESCO was responsible for promoting in its educational policies have been investigated, such as the use of technology in education (Hallström, Hultén & Lövheim, 2014; González-Delgado & Groves, 2017; Alves & Guimarães Lima, 2018; Machado-Trujillo & González- Delgado, 2019), health education (Terrón, Comelles & Perdiguero-Gil, 2017; Terrón, 2020), environmental education (Ferraz-Lorenzo, 2020), the circulation of books, movies and teaching material (Druik, 2006; Giton, 2016) and educational policies themselves through ideas on Educational Planning and UNESCO’s association with other international organizations such as the OECD or the World Bank (Ossenbach & Martínez Boom, 2011; Delgado Gómez-Escalonilla, 2015; Mariuzzo, 2016; Corrales- Morales, 2020; González-Delgado & Groves, 2020).
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Como una de las consecuencias de lo anterior, la historia de la educación ha vuelto la mirada hacia sí misma quizá debido a la necesidad de reconocerse tras los cambios que ha experimentado. Los historiadores de la educación están intentando «verse» y situar su disciplina en el contexto actual de las ciencias (Bör- ner, 2010; Paulston, 1990). Dentro de los diversos intentos realizados destacan los esfuerzos realizados desde la ISCHE por el Standing Working Group: «Map- ping of the discipline History of Education» que ya realizó dentro del contexto de ISCHE36, en Londres, 2014, un taller previo en el que se diseñó el proyecto de investigación. En ISCHE37, en Estambul, 2015, ese grupo de trabajo ya de- sarrolló dos paneles y cuando se estaba terminando la redacción de este artículo, se ha hecho pública la agenda para futuros trabajos colectivos y redes que se tra- tarán en ISCHE38 (Chicago, 2016; ISCHE39 (Buenos Aires, 2017); ISCHE40 (Berlin, 2018).
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historiography in various countries has undergone a real period of change, which we can place – with some degree of approximation – in the 1980s. In the last three decades, history of education studies have had increasing contact with the field of history, while striving to maintain its own educational identity despite the obvious discrepancies among the programmes of the various national communities. One can currently state that internationalisation processes are still weak and fall within regional study circles rather than in a true context of global research. These are the inevitable effects of the late internationalisation of the history of education which is facing several major challenges: for example, being able to disseminate the country’s wide-ranging scientific literature (such as the case of Brazil, Spain and Italy) within the context of international publications in English. Indeed, only a small portion of studies is made known (and referenced) outside of national contexts. What is more common is for them to be disseminated within similar linguistic areas, such as within Central and South America, or within the Mediterranean.
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With regard to how it has constituted a subject ín the History of Education, its historiographical origins go back further to the Brazilian Historical and Geographic Institute which was established in 1838 under the aegis of the monarchy. Adopting a Positivist view, the Institute valued the task to collect, archive and publish documents in order to preserve the historical and geographical memory of the country. The positivist influence on historiographical works on Brazilian education has been explored by several authors such as Dermeval Saviani. This writer believes that these works can be understood as a means of «constructing» and «deconstructing» the «memory» of Brazilian education which in its first stage was characterized by a compilation of laws and a celebration of the deeds of the Empire. In a similar analysis, Diana Vidal and Luciano Faria Filho state that the first stage of this historiographical production «moved in the same way in the realm of statistics (...) and supported a Positivist stance with regard to the writing of history» (Vidal, Faria, 2003, pp. 40-41). In support of the authors, it is worth noting «the stress that this inclination for a type of history that is close to documentary description but is completely lacking in legal sources, repeatedly lays on the division of items of fieldwork» (Vidal, Faria, 2003, p. 46). As Saviani says, this led to a concern with carrying out surveys, identifying sources and classification «especially from the 1970s onwards, with the introduction of graduate studies courses, and since the 1990s, with the setting up of research groups in the area of the history of education» (Saviani, 2008, p. 155).
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Abstract: The purpose of this article is the analysis and discussion on the teaching of History of Education in Portugal. Anchored to a conceptual dimension of his own scientific field we seek to identify the presence of History of Education Curricular Units (or its variants) in Portuguese public higher education. To this end, we opted for a quantitative and interpretative methodological approach considering as basic sources of information the curriculum of graduations available in the electronic pages of Universities and Portuguese Polytechnic Institutes in the different courses in Education, particularity in the training of teachers. We conclude the teaching of History of Education is developed in a transversal way to public higher education, with greater emphasis on university subsystem. However, this is a con- troversial scientific area that, at present, is passing through difficult times. It seems evident the need to find appropriate solutions to reinforce the teaching of History of Education in Portugal.
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Abstract: History of education research has flourished in Australia since the 1960s. However, fewer university appointments in recent years suggest that a decline will soon occur. Nevertheless, research over the previous fifty years has produced much excellent work, following three significant historiographical trends. The first is the dominant Anglo-Empirical Whig tradition, which has concentrated on conflicts between church and state over schooling, and the founders and establishment of schools and public school systems. The second arose from social history, shifting the focus of research onto families, students and teachers. However, the concentration on the social class relations of schooling was eventually overtaken by substantial studies into gender relations. In more recent times, cultural studies and the influence of Foucault have been responsible for new research questions and research, marking a new historiographical trend.
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Palavras-chaves: História da Educação; pesquisa; ensino; estado do conhecimento; sociedades científicas. Abstract: The article reflects on the History of Education in Brazil as an academic discipline signaling the gradual reduction in the curriculum of the degree in Pedagogy and its expansion in postgraduate courses in Education, due to the significant research expansion in the area, at a national level, from the year 1970. The research field of internal criticism has been operated through balances of production in studies on the history of the discipline, in normal schools, undergraduate and graduate education. It shows that, despite the gap between research and teaching, the fields are inextricably linked. It marks the fruitful dialogue with the historiography of History and History of Education, in national and international terms, as well as the diversity of themes and theoretical and methodological approaches, which stems from the multidisciplinary training of researchers who produce in the area. It lists some challenges facing the field, before the growing process of internationalization of research, for a greater visibility of Brazilian researchers in foreign publications, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
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• From this perspective, the Relph’s concept of Place and Placelessness, and his taxonomy of insideness and outsideness as specific degrees of emotional experiences of places ranging from existential insideness –home– to existential outsideness – a complete estrangement–, offers a model that may
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La posición de Tröhler en el capítulo a su cargo en el citado libro – «Truffel pigs, research questions, and histories of education» – me parece más adecuadamente centrada en los problemas actuales de la historia de la educación como disciplina y campo de investigación. Responde mejor a las cuestiones que planteo en este trabajo. En síntesis, ofrece una salida – entre varias posibles – al hecho, constatado en otro escrito, de que «los historiadores de la educación que trabajan en facultades de educación o formación de profesores, particularmente en USA y Canadá» – una consideración que puede extenderse a la gran mayoría de países en los que, a diferencia de Francia, esta materia se imparte e investiga en dichas instituciones – «están encontrando cada vez más dificultades para insertarse en la agenda de sus facultades» (Bruno-Jofré, Tröhler, 2014a, p. XIII). A su juicio, y en el mío, en el campo de la educación, y en general en la enseñanza, predomina en las últimas décadas un modelo tecnocrático cuyos conceptos y criterios básicos – eficacia, eficiencia, excelencia, estándares, evidencias empíricas,… – dejan a un lado el incontestable hecho de que la educación es una práctica política y moral en la que las palabras eficacia, eficiencia, calidad o excelencia, siempre nos remiten a preguntarnos para qué o en función de qué (Biesta, 2007, 2009). Nada tiene de extraño que, en este contexto académico-investigador, la filosofía de la educación y la historia de la educación hayan perdido terreno en la mayoría de las facultades (Bruno-Jofré, Tröhler, 2014a, p. XIII).
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Abstract: Karl Popper called one of his latest collections of essays All Life is Problem Solving. Little is known about the history of «problem solving» and also Popper did not say much about his references. But his model of four stages of problem solving is clearly anticipated in John Dewey’s psychology of thinking. On the other hand Dewey’s How we Think (1910) cannot be understood without taken into account the contemporary movement in didactics. The article discusses two of them, «nature studies» on the one hand and the «project method» on the other. «Nature studies» is considered to be the counterpoint to problem-solving. William Kilpatrick’s project method is still closely linked with Dewey’s psychology but both concepts have to be studied independently. Dewey’s theory of problem- solving is a general theory of learning that cannot be reduced to didactics. But that reduction might explain why Popper did not pay attention to it.
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David Tyak y Larry Cuban (1994) introducen el concepto de «Gramática de la escuela» (grammar of schooling) partiendo de la hipótesis de la estabilidad a lo largo del tiempo en ciertas características de la forma en que se organizan las escuelas. Para dar cuenta del peso que esta forma organizacional imprime sobre los procesos de escolarización, en términos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, es posible distinguir dos operaciones que realizan los autores y que pueden vincularse con la traducción literal del concepto que proponen. En efecto, grammar of schooling puede leerse como gramática de la escuela (tal como se mencionara al comienzo), pero también puede leerse como gramática de la escolarización. Para el primer caso, gramática de la escuela, cabe tomar la descripción de dos dispositivos que desarrollan los autores: el grado y el Carnegie Unit; estos son los núcleos duros en términos de reglas de organización. Para el segundo caso, gramática de la esco- larización, es posible recurrir al análisis del fracaso de procesos de reforma frente a la consolidación de estos dos dispositivos, eje central del argumento de Tyak y Cuban para sostener su implantación y perdurabilidad. Se trata aquí no ya de las reglas en sí, si no de su efecto en el marco de sistemas educativos que se enmarcan en relaciones políticas, económicas, sociales, culturales y pedagógicas.
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Pourtant, si le regard se détourne de ces manifestations destinées à un large public pour se tourner vers le monde universitaire, le constat diffère. La recherche en histoire de l’éducation est bien présente dans le paysage historiographique français: témoin les 7 519 références recensées de 1998 à 2004 par la seule revue Histoire de l’éducation. On se doit néanmoins de constater un amoindrissement de la production scientifique: pour 1 345 publications recensées en 1998, on n’en compte que 705 en 2004 (Alamarcery, 2008, 117-sq). Cette régression s’ac- compagne d’une forme de dilution institutionnelle. Aucune des (respectivement) 41 et 95 formations doctorales et unités de recherche en Sciences de l’éducation (Ministère de l’éducation nationale, 2015-21) et en Histoire et civilisations (Mi- nistère de l’éducation nationale, 2015-30) ne porte un intitulé exclusivement centré sur l’histoire de l’éduction. La disparition en tant que tel du Service d’His- toire de l’éducation de l’ex-Institut National de la Recherche Pédagogique et sa renaissance au sein du Laboratoire de Recherches Historiques Rhône-Alpes sous la forme de l’axe Education, cultures et constructions sociales révèlent encore l’évo- lution de la recherche en histoire de l’éducation, vers un champ anthropologique élargi et des thématiques plus actuelles.
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Leuven (1979) – afterwards he even became its vice-chairman (1982-1985) (fol- lowing Brian Simon, who received a faculty honorary doctorate in May 1980 in Leuven with De Vroede as his supervisor). Just like Brian Simon, De Vroede was a proponent of the so-called ‘social’ history of education, in which professional historians lashed out against the predominance of the earlier ideas which were mainly oriented towards pedagogics. This allowed me, as a novice in the field, to witness the international developments from the first row, and it fit in perfectly with my doctorate. In 1980, De Vroede took me along to the second ISCHE conference in Poland (where I spoke about my licentiate thesis) and the follow- ing year I was allowed to present an important paper about my first doctorate in Paris. Since then, ISCHE hasn’t lost its grip on me. I attended 31 of a total of 38 conferences. As far as I know, no one has attended more.
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As I have tried to set out in the above paragraphs, over the course of the past four decades, together with our diverse research groups, we have strived to make such a demythologising approach, which aims to expose the underlying patterns of standards, values and structures and thus break through any form of self-interest, ideological and/or programmatic advantage, our trademark. It is obvious that such a self-critical approach is difficult without any disarming self-mockery and post-modern irony. Indeed for an intellectual there is little else to do than respond in that manner, prompted by the way in which educational museums are treated (Depaepe & Simon, 2016). Especially in times when commemoration and remembrance, primarily used to convey politico-ideological messages and/or pursue economic advantages, threaten to suppress scientific research in history, demythologisation is far from unnecessary. Apart from the above-mentioned contextualisation, qualification and relativisation of one’s own claims, demythologisation undeniably leads to a certain modesty and humility, as my other Leuven teacher in the history of education, Canon Nauwelaerts (1953-1954), wrote in the year I was born. In the end, our attempts to understand history, especially in the field of education, constitute little more than foolishly fighting with shadows on the (Shakespearian) stage of the quick passing of time (Depaepe 1983b). Or as I have read so often in the former railway station café in Ghent (which in the meantime has also disappeared), during a stopover between Kortrijk and Leuven (or vice versa): irreparabile fugit tempus…
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Education was always such an important issue for him that he became the principal of Tuskegge High School in 1881, which was called Tuskegge University some time afterwards. Washington worked as a teacher in Hampton and he was recommended for the post of Principal, in spite of the fact that this job had always been performed by white men. The University had as their main goal the training of the black Afro-American community in the professions related to agriculture, stockbreeding, industry and building as well as an academic formation. The institution had been created by a former slave, Lewis Adams, who noticed that Afro-American people would have a hard future because they had not any type of education, and an old master, George W. Campbell, who decided to support the building of schools for black people with his own money. Besides, Adams was successful because thanks to his enthusiasm, the Government granted two thousand dollars in order to create a training school for Afro-Americans’ teachers. When Washington got the post of Principal, he fulfilled the University’s founders’ desires and he built a school to train teachers in a property of the city. In 1883, Washington bought a piece of land and established the campus of Tuskegge University there. As a method of payment, students were employed as workers and they built the buildings. In the year 1899, the congress donated 25,000 acres of land to this university. For this reason, although the institution was born by means of the Land Concessions Law, this University has always been associated with the institutions that were built by this legislation.
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The process described above could be likened to the case of Nigeria on 1 October, 1960 when she got her independence from Britain through the struggle of nationalists. Through education, the racial discrimination in the colonial system stimulated national consciousness as traditional rulers and elites were dissatisfied with these policies. Also, Nigerian students abroad organised themselves into groups; one of such is the popular West African Students Union (WASU) founded in 1925 by Ladipo Solanke (Ubaku, Emeh & Anyikwa, 2014). This turned out to be partial because there was no total decolonization of the mentality of the people and the academic content of the curriculum. Notable also is the fact the educational policies that have emerged since independence have not been properly implemented to fully emancipate the country and its people. Gradually, this has led to what is referred to in this paper as de-emancipation as there is still no «complete relinquishment of the right to the care, custody, and earnings of Nigeria and a repudiation of colonial obligations» (legal-dictionary.com) after independence and the supposed emancipation. Agreeing with Fafunwa (1974), Jayeola-Omoyeni and Omoyeni (2016, p. 8) submitted that:
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Existing studies cannot provide conclusive results about the specific relationship between breast cancer and risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol. However, the evidence shows that maintaining a low-fat diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables protects against both breast cancer and other NCDs. To help reduce the risk of cancer in the population, health providers at all levels of care should encourage their patients to regularly engage in physical activity and to reduce excess weight and obesity. Decreasing the risk of breast cancer through prevention of modifiable risk factors is a task that requires the participation of all of society, especially the health professionals who are responsible for the care of the female population.
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In 1999, representatives of twenty nine European countries signed in Bologna a declaration that committed them to the development, by the year 2010, of a ‘common space’ of higher education (Bollag, 2003). This ‘common space’ will require a thorough reform of higher education in many countries. This is the first reform ever undertaken at the European level, and will be, perhaps, the most profound of those experienced since the middle of the XIX Century. For example, it is proposed that the length of the educational program leading to the academic degree known in Spain as licenciatura be divided in two academic periods of three and two year respectively. The cycle of three years would lead to a degree similar the North American bachelor (what in the past were known in Spain as grados medios and now as Estudios Universitarios de Primer Grado). The second cycle would confer the Spanish licenciatura. A third cycle would be earmarked for doctoral studies. The proposal of reform intends, on the one hand, to trim and articulate vertically the degrees, so that each level might have academic integrity and public utility, and on the other hand, to harmonize academic credits and degrees across European states, facilitating their transfer from one to another.
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The material tools, and «Prepared Environment» of Montessori Education often create the impression of an overemphasis on intellectual education, but that is a one-sided view. Martin (1995) suggests that if one reads «casa» as «house», one’s attention is drawn to the exercises in dressing and washing, to the self- education, but that if one reads «casa» as «home», one perceives a moral and social dimension that transforms one’s understanding of Montessori’s idea of school (Martin, 1995, p. 10). Martin’s suggestion is stimulating in regard to thinking about the history of the reception of Montessori Education in Japan. Many people including Japanese educators (with a few exceptions like Toshio Nogami) learned about Montessori Education by being introduced to it in American education journals, or by reading Montessori’s major work, «Il metodo della pedagogia scientifica applicato all’educazione infantile nelle case di bambini (The method of scientific pedagogy applied to child education at children’s homes)» (1909) with the help of an English translation, such as «The Montessori Method» (1912) (translated from the Italian by Anne E. George, New York: Frederick A. Stokes). In the English version, «case (the plural of “casa”) di bambini» is translated as «children’s houses» (cf. Montessori, Maria 1912). However, most of this focusing on attention to Maria Montessori’s novel «method», especially to the material tools used in Montessori Education emasculated the core of Montessori Education.
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The methodology of research approaches allows seeing the main trends in the develop- ment of such a science as a method of history teaching, to evaluate the diverse practice of theoretical researchers, methodologists and practicing teachers, to understand the struc- ture and level of methodological knowledge of predecessors and contemporaries. The theo- retical and methodological basis of our work was the conceptual provisions of scientific re- searches in the field of studying the problems of history teaching in schools and universi- ties. The use of methodology and technique of existing researches contributes to the de- velopment of methodological scientific thou- ght in the practice of teaching basic historical disciplines, methods and ways of scientific research in this field. The system-structural approach provided an opportunity to consi- der the system of methods and techniques of history teaching in the secondary school, to choose the best methodological methods for teaching these disciplines for the university students, and to combine the theory and me- thodology of historical research within the framework of a unified teaching methodolo- gy. The dialectical method helped to trace the interrelationships between the phenomena inherent in the development of the methods of history teaching at the level of the subject of the russian Federation, the all-russian and global trends. The general historical and lo- gical methods allowed building the created methodology in its continuity and consisten- cy with internal logical connections between certain elements.
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